MESOPOTAMIA: THE EMPIRE OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE GENERAL ACADIA is a word Mesopotam ia means "between rivers.

" It is a very fertile land due to the presence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that empty into the Persian Gulf. However, it is a t erritory that is surrounded by deserts. These lands were occupied about 5000 yea rs a. C. by Sumer, who built the first cities like Ur and Lagash over hills and fortified against other nations seeking a better place to live par. Each city wa s ruled itself, were independent states with their own laws and governed by a Ki ng-Priest who was called patesi. The Sumerian became the first works of irrigati on (irrigate land) to control the waters of rivers and promote agriculture. Arou nd 3000 BC C. the region was invaded by the Akkadians from the northwest and man aged to conquer. They joined with Sumer and to dominate all the land to the Medi terranean Sea. By the 2100 a. C. Amorites arrived from the Arabian desert and es tablished the capital in the city of Babylon. The most famous King Hammurabi was called and managed to grow the business and culture also produced a group of la ws known as the Code of Hammurabi. " It was a legislated code of justice that al l activities of society and is the first of which is known historically, and is well-known one of its features: "An eye for eye, tooth for tooth." Indo-European s who came from central Europe began to conquer the territory since 2000 a. C. d ominate until 1185 a. C.. It highlighted the Hittites, very powerful in the war and who used the iron horse and defeat the people who inhabited the place. They engaged in battle with all peoples in their path and eventually weakened. The As syrians came from the north and managed to prevail by establishing their capital in Nineveh, around 1100 a. C.. They were more vicious that the Hittites. They m anaged to expand to all neighboring areas, but increasing its empire, weakened t heir power and were defeated in 625 a. C. by the Chaldeans. The Babylonians raze d Jerusalem and took away the most important people of the Jewish people as pris oners to the city of Babylon. They were defeated by the Persian King Cyrus in 53 8 a. C.. The Babylonian empire became a province of Persia, a country east of th e Tigris River. Usually, these people were ruled by an absolute monarch, theocratic, because the emperor had absolute power and represented God on earth. The most important god was Marduk, but each city had their other gods. They worshiped the elements of nature, developed the magic, sorcery and divination. In the last worth mentionin g that astrology was to predict the future by observing the stars (the beginning of the current 12 horoscope signs.) Large buildings with bricks made today, mos tly, we can not admire and which remains very little of them because they are al most all destroyed. Religion, gods and education in Mesopotamia in those distant times were worshiped hundreds of gods that became important in terms of the str ength of each ethnic group, region or city. In general there was great religious tolerance. Marduk and Ashur were two deities were imposing on the rest, due to the growing influence achieved by Babylon and Assyria. The gods often took human form and behaved as such. This divine power is extended to the Greco-Roman worl d and the climax was reached with the arrival of the Messiah into the world of C hristians, our Jesus of Nazareth. Beside the numerous gods had supernatural gods , good and evil spirits and ghosts, etc.., Who used to combine human and animal characteristics, and the animals were removed from the divine realm of modern re ligions do not know why. Education and the Role of Women In the early historic p eriod in Mesopotamia, there were no class barriers to access formal schooling. W ho was interested could learn to read and write and receive an elementary educat ion and thus access to social superiority. And although it was limited learning ability of a small number of subjects and was a patriarchal society and not disc riminated against women in acquiring education and evidence of highly educated w omen who agreed. The oldest school that is known is that of Mari (one of the mos t famous cities in the year 3000 BC, where he was worshiped as the Goddess Ishta r Temple, in whose service he had queens / Priestesses Ishtaritus) 2000 a. C., t oday Tell-Hariri. In addition,€Miscellaneous other testimonials are great independe nce and freedom that women enjoyed even during the first hundred years of patria rchy. There were women governors of provinces, other scribes who worked for and acted as judges and magistrates in the courts and many were Priestesses, activit

ies conditioned by the knowledge of writing and calculation. And there is also evidence that women acceded to the throne and exercised sovere ignty in their own city-state. Four thousand years BC, in the region of Mesopotamia, a fertile crescent between the rivers Euphrates and Tigres, settled the first tribes that probably came fr om Central Asia and who worshiped the goddess Ishtar. These social groups called Sumer, which had reached a significant level of development, established city-s tates like Ur and Lagash, each with its own management, and built terraced tower s known as the ziggurats. The Sumerians, advanced farmers, they built dams and i rrigation canals and also created the wheel and writing, two great inventions of mankind. The Sumerian cuneiform, made by nails or wedges that represent syllabl es and words, was adopted by other peoples and later allowed to spread education throughout the Fertile Crescent. Around 2500 BC, the Sumerians were conquered b y the Akkadians, a Semitic origin groups who had risen from the Arabian peninsul a in search of better lands. One of its kings, the warrior Sargon founded the Ak kadian Empire, the first known in antiquity, and established his capital in the thriving city of Akkar. The Akkadians imposed their language among the vanquishe d, introduced the sexagesimal system and gave the decisive impetus Mesopotamian civilization. Subsequently, another Semitic people, the Amorites, conquered it i n 2200 to the two previous JC (Sumerian and Akkadian) achieving their merger, an d created a flourishing empire under the rule of King Hammurabi (the sixth king of the dynasty Amurrite). This ruler established the capital of the empire in Ba bylon, the city would become more prominent in the Mesopotamian culture. The max imum of the Babylonian god was Marduk. Hammurabi was the author of a code of civ il, criminal and administrative testimony to the degree of civilization that had reached the old tribal groups settled in the Fertile Crescent, along the Euphra tes and Tigres. Along with the ancient Babylonian empire developed another realm belonging to the Assyrians, a Semitic people settled clearly warrior in the ter ritory of modern Iraq, in the first millennium BC the Babylonians conquered. Thi s empire reached its peak with the monarch Shalmaneser. The Assyrians were bette r equipped army of Mesopotamia, with assault vehicles and infantry equipped with shields, bows and spears. They built their temples and cities burnt brick, basrelief figures carved magnificent and used the cuneiform script. The most import ant cities of the Assyrian empire were Assur and Nineveh. Around the same time t hat the Assyrians subdued the Babylonians Hittite civilization flourished in the central highlands of Turkey, with the thriving town of Hatussa. Libraries Hitti tes came to possess more than 20,000 cuneiform tablets. In 1200 JC Babylon was subjected by the Assyrians, then fell to the Chaldeans, S emitic people who ended the bloody Assyrian rule and defeated the Egyptians. Pac ification of the region, the Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar re-established the old Babylonian empire and turned it into a new world power. It soon became captive to the Hebrews (one of many Semitic groups) and destroyed Jerusalem. Around 539 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire was conquered by the Persians, a people of Indo-Eu ropean or Aryan beginning to expand from the highlands of Iran. The Babylonians were polytheists and had a magical conception of the world, driven in part by as trological knowledge. So were worshiped the gods of heaven, earth, water. The As syrians, which had long settled in Babylon, carried out human sacrifices in hono r of the god Assur. All Mesopotamians had kings and social classes were composed of the nobility (military officers, priests), the free people (farmers, artisan s, merchants) and slaves. The practical need of agriculture led the Babylonians developed astronomy, geometry and calculus, for which they used the sexagesimal system inherited from their predecessors Sumerians. Also known square and cubic numbers. Babylonian literature was monumental, chronicled in stone or clay table ts with cuneiform writing. In the first centuries of history,€Mesopotamian culture prevailed in the domestic education. When the Assyrians conquered Babylon was ne cessary to establish a public education system to teach foreign language and civ ilization. However, with time, eventually dominated impose their own culture. Th

us, public education was organized in temples, in which skills were taught readi ng, writing, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, religion, divination, music, art. The medicine is also of great interest to the Babylonians. Higher education was the heritage of the priests and upper caste and answered a traditional setting m agical, as more than passing on knowledge from older generations taught religiou s and magical concepts to interpret the will of the gods. In the cities, within the walls of temples were founded libraries whose books were tablets or cylinder s engraved with cuneiform characters. In these centers of learning stood out, ap art from the magicians, many specialists in religious literature, in astrology a nd history. It also highlighted the scribes and traders who came to develop a ru dimentary accounting, because education in some respects had a practical purpose . Trade in Babylon was very active. They were sold and bought several products o n the streets of cities and exported oil and wheat in bulk. In floodplains were sown cereals and fruits and also raised pigs, cows, oxen, donkeys. Of Egypt was brought gold, copper from Cyprus arrived in Babylon, now a city of intellectual activity during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, the University worked palate, a hig h school that prepared the noble class for their high office and that was borne by the monarch. It remained three years and was in charge of the Magi, who posse ssed great knowledge and were founders of all the sciences in the Mesopotamian culture. With the arrival of th e Persians, Babylon will begin its decline. b. THE PERSIANS This town derives fr om the same racial stock that the Indo-European or Aryan. The first groups Aryan s who settled in the region of present day Iran were the Medes, northeast of the plateau, with the capital city of Ecbatana. Then did the Persians in the south, which merged with them and they founded a powerful empire. In it, education pla yed an important role. Cyrus the Great, the first Persian king, who begins the A chaemenid dynasty, was a just and tolerant monarch did not impose their religion or their language in the conquered peoples. When Babylon took the Hebrews there allowed captives back to their land and rebuild Jerusalem. Later, the famous Da rius (521-485) extended the conquests. Under his reign the Persian empire knew t he splendor and came to dominate much of Egypt and the Middle East, from Asia Mi nor to India, thanks to a formidable military expansion but also to a moderate p olicy towards the vanquished, and previously unknown to the ancient world. The P ersian people inherited from the Mesopotamians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, and many t raditions, including the military organization (pride of the Achaemenid Empire), the concept of highly centralized state and art, which was enriched with the us e of glazes. As in all ancient civilizations Persian society was divided into so cial classes, with a king who had absolute power, followed by priests, and milit ary officials. Below were located traders, artisans and peasants, and finally th e slaves. Although Persian society was class, there was no unbridgeable divide b etween castes, which differentiates it from other cultures. The Persians practic ed agriculture and livestock in the valleys and hillsides surrounding the Irania n plateau. The main cities of the empire were Persepolis, Susa and Pasargadae, w hich flourished thanks to the brisk trade that existed in the region, to which w as attached as a new caravan of camels to transport goods for real roads. Under the reign of Darius the empire was divided into satrapies or provinces where the y collected taxes and the currency was created. The Persians had a great religio us reformer named Zarathustra (also known as Zarathustra.) Principles of religio n are found in the Zen-Avesta, the sacred book that speaks of Hormuz or Ahura Ma zda, the Persian god created the universe and representative of Good . Hormuz or Mazda, conqueror of evil, has no bodily form but is present in the fire, divine purity that will burn on the altars of all Persians (fire worship). The Mazdais m was adopted as a religion by the kings of the Achaemenid dynasty and later bec ame the state religion.€The sacred language in which it was written the Zend-Avesta is the zéndico, the cultural language of the Persians. In the empire they spoke Ar amaic, the language asiriobabilónica. Already from Dario, a great organizer of Persian culture, public power is gradua lly separated from religion, which meant an enormous change for the ancient peop

les. Education thus became public domain, without necessarily a break with relig ion. On the contrary, was the god Hormuz in the state who delegated the noble ta sk of educating the people. The Persians cultivated mathematics, astronomy, medi cine, pharmacopoeia. Along with it was preparing the citizen to serve faithfully to the State in war and peace, and extolled virtues such as justice, honor, civ ility, the sense of belonging to the nation. In Persia the state shared with the religious traditions right to prosecute and train younger generations. Educatio n and responded to nationalist traditionalism. This type of education will influ ence later in the culture of Rome and Greece Public education began at age seven , an age at which children already belonged to the state and were admitted to th e boarding school in nature. Before they were educated at home, where they worsh iped Hormuz and mother instilled in their offspring the idea of justice, the vir tue of truth and love and obedience to parents. In the public school children re ceived physical and intellectual education. They learned horse riding and handli ng the bow and the javelin and are also instructed in reading, writing, morality and religion. Teachers were chosen among the most honest citizens and should ha ve more than fifty years. Between fifteen and twenty years of military education was taking place. When you start this school youth swore fidelity to the law of Zoroaster and the Persian. They are trained in handling weapons and the art of riding, to make them skillful riders, ready for the greatest military feats. The se practices are alternated with intellectual exercises, for he attached importa nce to the civic and religious training, on par with that cultivated the ideals of honor and justice. At twenty years much of the population had joined the rank s of the powerful Persian army. The children of farmers who chose not military c areer were assisted with basic education. Higher education took place in the pal ace and was in charge of the Magi, who taught the interpretation of the Zend-Ave sta and the auxiliary sciences. The future king was educated by the four country 's most distinguished citizens, who were selected among the most wise, fair, cir cumspect and brave. In the year 330 BC the Persian empire, which began its decli ne, was conquered by Alexander the Great. To calculate: The ancient Babylonians frequently solved problems like the one presented here. Can you do do the same? Knowing the length of the side of a square whose side is the area least equal to 870. Source: Red, Chemello, Segal, Iaies, Weissman, "Special Teaching", page 56. REFE RENCES http://ww 3A / / ofesorenli istoria-antiguauniversal/MESOPOTAMIA/PROTOHISTORIA_1.htm