How to make a paper Alberto F.

INTRODUCTION Roldán situation frequently occurs in which a teacher a sks his students writing a paper, assuming they already know how to do the job. However, in general, the level of secondary and sometimes tertiary studies, does not provide the basic tools for the job. Theological studies do not escape this reality. That is why, in order to solve the problem, here's the basics for the student knows how to do a monograph. 1. WHAT IS A monograph? Can be defined as t he drafting of a specific topic of a science or field of knowledge. In the field of theological studies can be about: Bible, systematic theology, evangelism, mi ssion, pastoral, etc.. 2. WHAT STEPS HAVE TO GIVE? 2.1. Choose the subject. This is the first step. It is very important because it largely depends on the succe ss and value of work performed. If the paper is not specifically requested by th e teacher, then it is the student who must choose the topic. In this case, how c ome? We suggest several ways forward. 2.1.1 Examine personal experiences. For ex ample, if the paper is on pastoral, we may be interested to know how to counsel troubled marriages. If the mission field, we would find out why some Christian C hurch defines the mission of the Church in a certain way. 2.1.2 Find out what to pics have been investigated recently on the field assigned. For this we resort t o specialized journals on the mission or pastoral work. 2.1.3 Thinking about the needs of the Church. What are the current issues that affect them? What issues there is a marked gap in knowledge? 2.1.4 Talking to professors or specialists i n the field to investigate: Bible, pastoral, mission, etc. To choose the subject must take into account several factors: the general interest and the same, the utility of the research and sources of information that is in our hands. It is a dvisable that we embark on an investigation for which we have no information or sources for which we do not find sufficient literature. 3. HOW TO LIMIT THE ISSU E? As important as the choice of subject is its limitation. If we do not adjust well to the track we will not know where to aim, nor will we know when we will f inish. Highest to lowest is: General theme Sub-theme Monografia 2 Example: General topic: The Holy Spirit Sub-theme: the Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John Case study: the work of the Holy Spirit according to Jesus' discourse i n John 16. Example: General topic: divorce Sub-theme: divorce in the Bible Monog rafia: teaching in divorce in Matthew 19.1-12 Example: General Topic: Family Sub -theme: Monografia family crisis: the family crisis in the suburbs of Greater Bu enos Aires in April. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE Write a paper, develop a research or writing a thesis is like building a house. The first thing to do is to have t he ground and then have a rough idea of the space we want to build: two or three bedrooms, kitchen, living, etc. The tentative draft would be a kind of construc tion plan that gives us the general framework of the research. Then we raised th e walls, which would be the contents of each part. In fact, the final product (t he finished house) do not really know how it will be. In the last part of the co nstruction can occur to us to change the facade of the building and put stone in stead of brick. So with the monograph, the first thing we need, then choose the theme and defined is to sketch or basic skeleton. In this sketch we have to put divisions over the issue and lower divisions. The latter, only in the event that occurred to us because at this stage of work is difficult to have much data to make these smaller divisions. 5. Gather information on this phase of the task we are dedicated to gather information on the subject to be treated. For this we t urn to 5.1. Library Files 5.2. Bibliographies on the subject to study 5.3. Brows e journals that treat the topic 5.4. Note items in dictionaries and encyclopedia s 5.5. Consult with teachers and specialists in the field 5.6. Make a list of pe ople they could interview to gather information in the event that the modality o f the paper permits. For example, if it is a historical study of a name, we thin k of people who had direct relationship with the founders of it. NOTE: Whenever possible, we must resort to primary sources. For example, in Church History,€if we are to quote Eusebius of Caesarea, it is preferable to quote directly from h is work Ecclesiastical History, and not indirect quotes another historian Justo

Gonzalez or make of the original work. The same happens with authors such as Aug ustine of Hippo (eg City of God, etc.). 6. PREPARING FILES OR NOTES This step is to read the sources available, so with discretion, ie, following some basic gui delines: 6.1. Extract the content you want to use. 3 6.2. Summarizing the content in our own words. 6.3. Writing short reviews do not want to forget when writing the monograph. NOTE: When you extract the contents quotes are direct quotes should be copied and accurately, without adding or omit ting anything. If we omit one sentence of the quote that we extract the followin g sign be placed in square brackets: [...] and then continue the appointment. 7. ORGANIZE THE DATA COLLECTED Now for organizing the contents extracted. To do th is, we must revise and extend the tentative outline and place key events that we do in each of the subdivisions of the draft. Eg The Holy Spirit in John 16. 1.1 convinces of sin. Cit. Hendriksen, Commentary on John, pp. 76-78, New Bible Com mentary, p. 679, ff. to "convince" or "rebuking" Dictionary of the NT, p. 459. G uide 1.2 to the truth. See Jose Martinez, The work of the Spirit in the Church, p. 213. 8. STRUCTURE OF THE MONOGRAPHS Every paper has a structure consisting of : 8.1. Home: where does the title, author, who is presented, the matters to whic h it corresponds, faculty or seminar, the city and date (see examples in appendi ces). 8.2. Introduction: where indicated the topic, purpose, circumstances that led to choose, what you want to show and other elements that have to do with int roductory aspects of the topic. 8.3. Table: titles and subtitles with the pages where they begin. 8.4. Body: where the theme is developed. 8.5. Conclusion: The page or pages where the work is finished and which summarizes the research witho ut adding new data. 8.6. Notes: If the notes with quotations from the works, com ments, etc. are not located at the foot of the page, are written after the concl usion under the heading NOTES. Each note has a serial number. IMPORTANT: All con tent or thought that is not ours, should be recorded as a direct quote from the author whom we have consulted. Otherwise we're plagiarizing content which we pas s as their own. When the quote that slogan is short (up to three lines) are in t he same text of the monograph quoted. If the event is more than three lines, wil l separate, indented 4 spaces and a line, while the text of the monograph is wri tten in letter-size pages and double space. 8.7. Appendices: For the case when c ertain aspects of the monograph we have not located within the text because we f elt it was not for there. Example: "Divorce as the fathers of the Church" could be an appendix to the topic: "Divorce in the teachings of Jesus in Matthew 19." 8.8. Bibliography: The bibliography should include all works consulted actually cited or not cited directly in the work. The literature should be done with full name of author, title underlined or in italics, the city where the work was pub lished (if a second edition, third, fourth, etc. Must appear), publisher, year o f publication. For those using PC, in Word: <Fromato> <Párrafo> <SangrÍa espec ial> <SangrÍa francesa>. This allows better visualization of the surnames that appear without indentation. 4 Eg BRIGHT, John. The history of Israel, 5th. ed., trans. M. Villanueva, Bilbao: Des cleé de Brouwer, 1970. NEILL, Stephen. Anglicanism, trans. José Luis Wool, Mad rid: Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church, 1986. Somoza, Ana Learning to teach the Bible, 3rd ed. ed., Buenos Aires, Alliance Publications, 1999. Note: in the final bibliography pages are not entered full-length books (only th e pages of journal articles or sections of a book by multiple authors or a compi ler). In the case of quotations, introduced into the body of the paper, do the f ollowing: If the appointment is less than three lines should be in quotes, and m ake the call to footnote (or end) at the end of the quotes. If the appointment i s greater than three lines should be as follows: leave a space after the last wo

rd of the author of the monograph. Write the quote, leaving a space indentation from the left margin. After the appointment, make the call to footnote (or end) and leave a free space (a blank line) to continue the author's own wording of th e report (you). In both cases, the note, record,€in this order: Name of author, title of the book in italics or underlined, city, year of release that is citin g page you quote is extracted. Note: Note that in the case of the final bibliogr aphy, the author writes in order "Last Name, First Name." Not so in the case of footnotes, where you type in "Name." The bibliographic data should be cited in t he order given. For example: For its part Secondin Bruno said: For many the word "spiritual" still evokes som ething immaterial, vitalistic or, at most, experiential - made of imagination, s ymbols, metaphors and silences, and especially of "oddities" and hysteria, " tha t escapes the demands of a modern rationality. 1 In the case of a work written by several authors can use the abbreviation AA.VV. (= Multiple authors). In the case of works compiled by an author, but include a rticles or chapters from other authors, it is stated, for example (in footnote): John Yoder (ed.), Selected Readings of radical reform, Buenos Aires, La Aurora, 1976. If cited articles published in a book compiled by another author, should be cite d (in footnote): Thomas Müntzer, "Sermon to the princes," in John Yoder (ed.), Selected Readings of radical reform, Buenos Aires, La Aurora, 1976. p. 97 1 Bruno Secondin, Spirituality in Dialogue, trans. Juan Padilla Moreno, Madrid: Sa n Pablo, 1999, p. 24. 5 Journal articles should include author's name and surname, article title in quot ation marks, Journal title in italics, no. volume (year in parentheses), page of quote. For example (in footnote): José Miguez Bonino, "and evangelical Protestant churches in Latin America and t he Caribbean: an interpretative essay", in Journal of Theology XIV (1995), p. 29 . Note: Notice that the title of the journal, volume number and year are not separ ated by commas. Op cit. To avoid an overabundance of data, when you go to work w ith a single work of an author on the first date to do the full citation (as in the example in footnote 1). But then, in subsequent citations of that one piece that will work in the monograph can be written (following the example): Secondin Bruno, op. cit., p. 45. Internet Dating material. The quoted material from the Internet can cite two way s: Alberto Roldan, art. "Making a monograph", taken from http://www.fiet.com.ar/art iculo/monografia_roldan.doc (retrieved on March 4, 2008, 1635 hrs.) Or Alberto Roldan, http://www.fiet.com.ar/articulo/monografia_roldan.doc (retrieved on March 4, 2008, 1635 hrs.) Op cit. means "work cited" in abbreviated Latin. In case you are working two (or more) by the same author, after the first appointment (which are recorded all b ibliographic data) may be cited in abbreviated form: Bruno Secondin, Spiritualit y in Dialogue, p. 9 Note: op should never be used. cit. for a designer who we ci te more than one work in the monograph, because the reader will not know which o

f the works in question. Ibid. Another way to avoid the abundance of data is the use of the term ibid (usually abbreviated or Ibid Ibid.). You use this expressi on when you're going to quote another paragraph of the same work in a note immed iately following. Then, it means you are working the same work of the last appoi ntment, but on a different page (if on the same page as the quote above, can onl y be Ibid., And in that case is understood to be another paragraph of the same p age cited previously). Note: The use of Ibid. Be careful not to insert between t wo appointments previously made a third new appointment of another work, since i t cuts the chain of reference Ibid. 6 Bold or italics original. If the quote is a quote made bold, underline, or itali cs, should be disclosed after the display page, "original bold" "italics origina l" or "original emphasis." There is also the possibility that one (as the author of the monograph) want to emphasize certain words of the citation. In this case , you entered "emphasis added", "emphasis added" or similar words. Note: to avoi d the term "author's bold" or "emphasis mine", as it creates doubts what author, book or the paper? 9. WRITING THE MONOGRAPH With the data collected and the out line more or less complete with its divisions and subdivisions, now have to writ e the job. Some practical aspects that make the writing are the following: 9.1.1 use the exact terms. If in doubt, consult the dictionary. 9.1.2 Write in third person is advisable, especially when writing a thesis. Eg.: Instead of saying "a s a result of the research I've done ..." should say: "as a result of the invest igation which the author has done ..." 9.1.3 Grammar and punctuation. Ensure tha t sentences are complete with subject and predicate and not isolated sentences. Ensure short sentences. Avoid unnecessary repetition. Well coordinated verb tens es. For example if you are using the past, no change to present tense in the sam e paragraph and vice versa. As for punctuation, puts them points that divide the sentences. If you change the paragraph is placed paragraph. The comma (,) are u sed to separate a number of things: eg. "The problem lay in those churches: conf licts, leadership and administration." The combination is placed before the last term in the list. 9.1.4 Avoiding as far as possible the adjectives. In papers o r thesis, the author must strive to be objective and unbiased. Therefore, you sh ould avoid the indiscriminate use of adjectives. 8.1.5 Avoid bombastic language and affected. This refers to that tendency of some writers who abuse language an d very elaborate tautology that renders it unintelligible. "It is characteristic of a scientific or literary prose gaudy, baroque or pompous, but that is intend ed to conceal the lack of ideas or claims submitted with genius. Scientific writ ing has to keep in style some literary asceticism: it must be plain, straightfor ward and accurate. A monograph written in good style to meet the characteristics of unity, precision, fluidity and conciseness. "(How to write a monograph, Buen os Aires: Ed Didacta, 1977, p. 47). To achieve this requires only one thing: pra ctice. Prof. Dr. Alberto F. Roland Ramos MejÍa, April 1994 (revised and expanded by Da vid A. Roland in 2003 and 2008)