AGENT OF DISEASE IN BANANA 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 DISEASES OF BANANA 1.

INTRODUCTION It is believed that the plantain and banana (Musa spp.) Originat ed in South Asia, being known to the editerráneo since 650. The wild banana is vir tually inedible, as it is full of seeds. Presumably, a couple of thousand years, was found by chance in southeast Asia, a mutant plant which produced seedless f ruit, edible, and it would be the ancestor of all current banana plants. Through this source, the banana was introduced to Africa, Zanzibar and Madagascar, some 3000 years ago, and later the rest of the world. The mutant plants are sterile. Being produced from cuttings rather than seeds, almost all plants are virtually clones of another, representing a minimum of genetic variation. Plantain and ba nana are cultivated in over 120 countries (FAO, 1992) and are a valuable source of carbohydrates to more than 400 million people in tropical countries. Tropical America and the Caribbean, the fruits of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) Have a higher socioeconomic and nutritional value, generating considerable exploitatio n income and employment. The diseases are limiting factors in these areas, and p roducing countries are investing large sums of money in research studies, transf er and control of them. Despite its importance as a source of food and income fo r developing countries, "have done surprisingly little investment in the past." According to the nature of pathogens that occur in viral, bacterial, fungal, pro duced by algae as well as damage by nematodes and excess salts in the soil. 2. U NITED FEATURES taxonomic classification SUBCLASS B CLASS II DIVISION ORDER FAMIL Y GENUS SPECIES:::::::: Plantae Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae) Liliopsida (Monocot yledons) Liliidae Zingiberales Musaceae Musa acuminata Musa (Banana Silk) Musa b albisiana (SE Asia) Musa nana (apple banana), Musa paradisiaca (banana fry) 3 Plant Description giant herbaceous plant with short rhizome and stem apparent, resulting from the union of the leaf sheaths, tapered and 3.5-7.5 m in height, ending in a crown of leaves. Leaves: very large and arranged in a spiral of 2-4 m. long and up to ha lf a meter wide, with a petiole to 1 m or more in length and elongated blade ell iptic, slightly decurrent into the petiole, slightly wavy, glabrous. When you ar e old so easily broken by the scourge of cross wind. Leaf crown leaves, flowerin g, a scape pubescent, 5-6 cm. in diameter, terminated by a hanging cluster of 12 m long. This is a score of bracts elongated oval, pointed, red-purple, covered with a floury white powder; in the axils of these bracts are born to turn the fl owers. Stem: the true stem is a rhizome large, starchy, underground, which is cr owned with buds, they are developed once the plant has flowered and borne fruit. As each nipple on the rhizome matures, the terminal bud becomes a blossom to be pushed upward from inside the ground by stem elongation until they emerge above the pseudostem. Flowers: flowers yellow, irregular, and six stamens, of which o ne is sterile, reduced to petaloideo staminode. The gynoecium has three pistils with inferior ovaries. The whole inflorescence is the "regime" of the banana. Ea ch group of flowers together in each bract is a gathering of fruits called "hand ", which contains 3 to 20 fruits. A regime can not take more than four hands, ex cept in very fruitful varieties, which may have 12-14. 4 Fruit: oblong, during fruit development geotropically they bend as the weight of

this, causes the stem to bend. This reaction determines the shape of the bunch. Bananas are polymorphic and may contain from 5 to 20 hands, each with 2-20 frui ts, being yellow-green, yellow, or red amarillorojizo. Edible bananas are vegeta tive parthenocarpy, or who develop a mass of edible pulp without pollination. Th e eggs soon atrophy, but can be recognized in the edible pulp. Parthenocarpy and sterility are different mechanisms due to genetic changes that are at least par tially independent. Most of the fruits of edible Musaceae family are sterile due to a complex of causes, among others, specific genes female sterility, triploid y and chromosome structural changes in different degrees. Varieties of Bananas (Bananas) The Musa paradisiaca, which is to produce 30% of the genre, delivering the fruit s are edible only when roasted or boiled (technically are the real bananas). The Musa cavendishii accounts for 70% of the production of gender. The fruits, afte r natural or induced maturation, are eaten directly (technically are called bana nas). 5 The main cultivated varieties of bananas are: - Dwarf Cavendish, with two sub-va rieties, large and small dwarf. It is the fruit canary. Chinese origin. Yellow g old. Compact soft flesh. - Gros Michel. Yellow-green. It resists transport. - Ma lacatan (Musa acuminata). Similar to the Gros Michel but is resistant to Panama disease (a scab). The fruit appears to be crushed by the end that is attached to the "hand." - Poyo. Type dwarf variety. - Dominico. - Currarré. Two sub-varieties : pink and dwarf. - Other varieties and hybrids: Zelig, Brier, Thick, Balangón. 3. VIRAL DISEASES Among the viral diseases include: chlorosis infecciosacucumoviru s (CMV) and necrotic streak-Badnavirus (BSV). Of viral diseases affecting Musa ( abaca mosaic, bract mosaic bananas, cauliflower bud, banana mosaic and banana st reak) in Colombia have reported the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Cucumber mosaic C ucumovirus ), the banana streak virus (BSV, Banana streak Badnavirus) and mosaic virus Banana bract (Banana bract mosaic potyvirus - BBrMV) a) Pepino Mosaic Virus (CMV Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus) plants attacked by the CMV chlorosis, leaf mosaic, leaf deformation, yellowing, rotting pseudostem and cigar leaf necrosis. It is easier to observe the symptoms in the daughter plants , and that develop quickly, something that occurs in plants older than 9 months old. Disease Cycle: The virus is mainly transmitted insect family Aphididae (aphids). The most important are: Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum maydis. These insects do not eat the banana but usual ly found in the weeds present in the embers. It is for this reason that the tran smission of banana plants is minimal and so in farms established with good cultu ral practices of mosaic incidence is very low. The disease can be spread by seed , as the infection affects all organs of the plant. It is not transmitted mechan ically (by machete) since it is inactivated by substances released plant banana or banana when cut. Integrated: When planting new seed must be used from healthy plants and kept a proper combat 6 of weeds, mainly broadleaf, as cohitre, both in the cultivation area in the vici nity. This should be equal on farms already established. Diseased plants showing severe symptoms can be eliminated with herbicide. b) Banana Streak Virus (BSV, Banana streak Badnavirus) The BSV produce chlorotic

streaking in the leaves, which later becomes necrotic. Initially it forms small , isolated lines that acquire different shades from pale yellow to orange, final ly necrosis occurs (Lockhart, 1991). This virus is not transmitted mechanically but by vegetative propagation and by the citrus mealybug. 7 Symptoms. The affected plants are characterized by reduced growth and vigor with chlorotic stripes in the leaf tissue which is then taken into necrotic stripes. Swelling and cracking of the pseudostem. c) Mosaic Virus banana bract (Banana b ract mosaic potyvirus - BBrMV) The BBrMV is associated with the presence of dark brown tiles on the bracts of the inflorescence, which is the symptom differenti al to other viral diseases banana. Symptoms include streaks of green or reddish brown (depending on the cultivar) or spindle-shaped lesions on the petioles of l eaves and a tendency to clogging leaf (Thomas et al., 1998). d) disease of Banana Bunchy O "Banana Bunchy Top Disease" (BBTD) The Banana Bunc hy (BBTD) is the most important viral disease that attacks the banana and planta in worldwide. At the end of last century, devastating epidemics occurred in Fiji and in Australia in the decade of the 20s and Pakistan at the beginning of the decade of the 90s. This disease is the main problem affecting the productivity o f the genus Musa in many areas of Southeast Asia and the Pacific. This pathogen was first detected in Fiji€in 1889 and subsequently in the region (North American Samoa, Australia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Ogosowara-tions, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Wa llis Island Western Samoa), Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan , Philippine s, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Vietnam) and Africa (Burundi, Congo, Central African Re public, Egypt, Gabon, Rwanda and Zaire). The BBTD not been reported in the Ameri cas, although the aphid vector if present. The Bunchy of hemp, which is a diseas e almost identical to BBTD has been found in Musa textilis (abaca, Manila hemp), in the Philippines. The BBTD has been associated with a virus consists of small isometric particles (20 nm) and a multicomponent genome ssDNA (Bunchy virus ban ana BBTV), but transmission experiments, carried out to date, with particles pur ified have not been able to prove without doubt that this is the causal agent. D sRNAs have also been found in infected plants, but its function is unknown. Dise ase transmission: The BBTD is transmitted locally, persistently and circulation by the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa). Their distribution over long dist ances is presented by the movement of infected plant material, such as suckers a nd corm tissue culture plantlets. The BBTD not present in the soil and it is unl ikely that the tools used in crop management transmit the disease. 8 Symptoms: Plants BBTD are affected by a variety of symptoms. Those with advanced symptoms of rosette in appearance, with narrow leaves, vertical and progressive ly shorter, which gives rise to the name "Bunchy (bunchy top). The edges of the leaves usually curl up and show a marginal yellowing. They are usually dark gree n stripes on the midrib and petiole, which extend down to the pseudostem. These rays are best seen after you remove the wax. The most recognizable symptoms for diagnosis of the disease are small dots of dark green stripes along the smaller veins of the leaf, which are like hooks as they reach the edge of the midrib. Th is symptom is best when seen against the light sheet on the underside. Symptoms appear only in the leaves formed after infection and this first page show sympto ms only in the basal part of the leaf or petiole. Infected plants in the early s tages of development, rarely produce a cluster, although late infections could f orm a cluster distorted. In very late infections, the only presenting symptom is dark green stripes on the tips of the floral bracts of the acorn. 9 4. DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA Among bacterial diseases include: hereque or moko

(Ralstonia solanacearum) aqueous pseudostem rot (Erwinia carotovora and E. chry santhemi) corm and bud rot (Pseudomonas sp. And Erwinia sp.) And others. a) Hereque or Moko The causative organism is a bacterium called Ralstonia solana cearum E. F. Smith Sin. Pseudomonas solanacearum. In the banana and plantain cro ps bacteria develops and multiplies in large scale within the conducting vessels of the sap, by which blocking the plant shows signs of yellowing and wilting si milar to those expressed when they suffer drought. All varieties of bananas and plantains are susceptible to hereque, albeit to different degrees. Among the mos t affected by the disease are the banana 'apple' and 'Topocho'. Symptoms: Infect ed plants show yellowing by hereque normal in the lower leaves, which "is increa sed while the higher spreads. The affected foliage wilts and turns, leaving the leaves hung and attached to the plant. In later stages of the disease, yellowing leaves also invades FAW, which eventually folded and hung. The "children" of th e infected strains also have yellowing, wilting with drying and wrinkling later in the foliage. If the acquisition of plant disease, the cluster is young, the f ruits are slow to grow, its development is abnormal and may blacken and twisting . When hereque cluster appears to be developed, it causes a rot of the pulp in a few fingers of some hands. This decay can be easily observed by cutting the fin gers of a sick kills, though sometimes affected fingers are detected by their pr emature yellowing. Moreover, the plant presents internal help recognize symptoms of disease.€In an infected stem notice a number of points that can be yellow or d ark brown to almost black, and very often dark soft spots. These points are not simply the court conducting the deep veins of sap, which have been colored by th e toxic action of pathogens. In a short time, appears in some of these points a thick liquid, like a drop, which is the exudate hereque causing bacteria. Spread of the disease: The most important way to spread the hereque is through the too ls used at work. In fact, by any court of a plant is infected, whether harvested , "desbarajando", "topping" or other activity, the implement used was soaked bac terial ooze. Consequently, successive cuts performed in healthy plants introduce d the pathogen in 10 same, the symptoms appearing on the ground two or three weeks later, although it may take longer. In addition, certain types of insects, such as the black beetl e, pegones and wasps, are capable of transmitting the disease from a diseased pl ant to healthy plants. Eradication: Isolate the site immediately and notify the ICA who will guide the way to eradication. Inject with glyphosate (Roundup) 20% at the pseudostem of di seased plants and all that are around within a radius of 6 meters. Applying betw een 5 and 50 d.c. depending on the size of the plant. Whitewash the ringing site and the ground if the focus is small, solarice the area (plastic) for two month s to incorporate organic matter and / or green manures. Sow crops not susceptibl e to the moko as coffee, cassava or corn. b) Watery rot (soft) Banana pseudostem disease is caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. We have also found the b acterium Erwinia chrysantemi, producing in the banana-like symptoms of watery ro t of the pseudostem. For the first time points to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atro septica as the causal agent of banana pseudostem rot Horn '(Musa AAB) in the reg ion south of Lake Maracaibo. The bacterium is Gram negative, facultative anaerob ic, spore does not develop, reduce sucrose, produces acid from alpha - methyl gl ucoside and its cells are cylindrical with rounded ends, flogging and dimensions peritricous averages of 1.75 μm long and 0 , 70 mm in diameter. Inoculations made in plants and healthy pseudostem segments of the same material, reproducing sym ptoms similar to those in the field. Sliced potato tubers, the pathogen 11 led to the development of soft rot characteristically produce bacterial species

belonging to the group "carotovora" of the genus Erwinia. Symptoms: Initial symp toms of the disease include patches of yellow, water-soaked, translucent, locate d anywhere in the pseudostem of the plant, then these spots take on a reddish br own color and extend in every way to cover the sheath leaves partially or comple tely. Eventually, the affected areas and take a dark coloration of the surroundi ng tissues get a foul smelling liquid when you press the affected area with fing ers. The rot progresses gradually toward the base of the pseudostem and also pen etrates the tissues of healthy pods internal and external contact with affected. As the internal sheaths are being invaded there is a weakening of the pseudoste m, causing the bending of the plant by the most affected. If plants are infected in the adult, the weight of the clusters contributes to an easy rollover of the m, before they complete their normal fruit development, producing clusters of li ttle commercial value. It is frequently observed in the field plants infected ps eudostem keeping the rhizome and apparently healthy tissues inside the stems and fruits without rot or vascular discoloration. c) corm rot and Cogollo (Cogollo black) produced by bacteria of the genus Erwini a carotovora. Similarly, bud rot, caused by groups of bacteria of the genera Peu domonas sp. and Erwinia sp. In the rot by Erwinia vascular discoloration occurs rarely and most often the stem on the affected areas has a soft consistency, spo ngy off a strong odor (like rotten fish) caused by butyric fermentation. 12 d) Illness "Bugtok" In Bananas The bugtok is a bacterial disease endemic and wid ely distributed in cultivars of bananas for cooking in the Philippines. "Bugtok" is a local term used in the southern Philippines,€to describe the infected fruit, which is bleached and hardened yet ripe. More than 40 years bugtok was consider ed a minor illness, but in 1965, Wardrobes reported it as a serious problem deve loping. Recently, this disease has caused the virtual abandonment of plantations and Cardaba Saba (ABB / BBB), two cultivars of banana for cooking popular in th is country. Studies on the etiology of bugtok began in 1990. This disease is cau sed by the bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum EF Smith, which can be isolated fr om the milky substance oozing bracts shed from infected male inflorescences. It is also possible to isolate droplets exuded from cut stems and kept under humid conditions, varying in color from white to yellow to reddish brown. The bacteriu m is a Gram negative rod, aerobic, catalase positive, which produces hydrogen su lfide from cysteine and causes a hypersensitive response on snuff "White Burley. " The colonies which develop at 28 ° C after 72 hours incubation in an agar medium with tetrazolium chloride, are representative of P. solanacearum, have a diamet er of 0.5 to 4.5 mm, irregular, convex and smooth with presence or absence of a center pink formazan. It is not possible to differentiate on the basis of morpho logical and biochemical characteristics of crops, the bacteria that cause bugtok and Moko (banana bacterial wilt), or even by using RFLP-PCR techniques for gene tic analysis. Some bugtok isolates causing wilt on tomato, and although some do not produce, these isolates cause, in the form 13 consistent wilt in banana plantlets inoculated artificially. Symptoms: The most characteristic symptom of this disease is the discoloration of the fruit pulp, w hich is most intense in the center. In fruits that have a mild infection, the pa rties bleached pulp are mixed with soft parts of the same. All the fruits of a c luster can fade in cases of severe infections, but in plants with less severe in fection, the distribution in a cluster of discolored fruit is random. For those unfamiliar with this disease, contrary to what is observed with Moko, bugtok inf ected plants have a normal external appearance. The leaves remain green and the fruits seem to develop normally. However, the male inflorescence bracts, if left in the bunch, are not dehiscent. This gives the male inflorescence a loose, dry appearance. This feature is the only external symptom that differentiates the h

ealthy from infected plants. Internally you can see brown vascular streaks in bo th the stalk of the fruit as in the stem and pseudostem. The dark brown color is less intense at the base of pseudostem but the discoloration extending sometime s to the corm of the plant. Spread of the disease: There is reliable evidence th at infection occurs through the bugtok inflorescence and is transmitted by insec ts, probably thrips. One indication that insect vectors spread the disease is pr esent when bags are used to protect the young inflorescences, as they emerge fro m the crown, and as a result have been obtained bugtok free fruit. The transmiss ion through suckers (shoots) is unlikely, since they have been harvested from he althy fruit planting material collected from highly infected areas and planted i n bugtok free surfaces. 14 e) red spot Banana pseudostem or "Blood Disease" The red spot disease of banana pseudostem was reported for the first time, nearly 80 years in the southern regi on formerly Celebes Sulawesi) in Indonesia, which caused the abandonment of bana na plantations, which had developed in the islands adjacent to Salaya. At the be ginning of the decade of the 20s, this disease was the subject of multiple inves tigations by Ernst Gäumann, who noted that it was caused by a Gram negative bacter ium which he named Pseudomonas celebensis. Gaumen discovered that the disease ha d spread widely in South Sulawesi, and also some of the symptoms detected in wil d or Musa Heliconia spp., Which was apparently endemic. This disease was not obs erved on the island of Java or other islands. An order of plant quarantine autho rities, whose purpose was to restrict the movement of bananas from Sulawesi, in the form of fruit in any vegetative state€probably helped to stop the progression of the disease until 1987 when an outbreak was confirmed in the west of the isla nd of Java. It was recently reported outbreaks in Kalimantan and North Maluku is lands, which have not been confirmed. Symptoms: The red spot disease of banana p seudostem commonly observed in the cultivar Pisang Kepok (ABB / BBB. 'Saba'), bu t other groups are susceptible to infection. The symptoms of this disease are si milar to those produced by the disease known as "Moko" in Latin America, and var y with the stage of plant growth and the route of infection. Fully extended leav es of plants, of any age, show a conspicuous yellowish transition, followed by l oss of turgor, desiccation and necrosis. In mature plants, the petiole base coll apses, and withered leaves hanging around the pseudostem. The youngest leaves em erge not end but develop a whitish stain on the sheet, which then become necroti c. The shoots (or suckers), may show a general wilting, but the infection is not always systematic and sometimes produce healthy young. The vascular bundles are inside, a red-brown discoloration, which, depending on the type of infection ca n be extended to the whole plant or localized in the spine. If the vascular tiss ue sections were kept moist, there are drops of bacterial exudate, varying in co lor from white to reddish-brown or black. Spread of the disease: There is convin cing evidence that infection occurs through the inflorescences and that this dis ease is transmitted by insects, like disease "Moko" in Latin America. The browni ng and wilting of the male flowers, is often observed in mature plants, and vasc ular discoloration can be detected within the stem and through the spine. This b lackening sometimes extending to the fruit located in the bottom of the clusters , which on the outside look healthy. Internally, the fruits of all clusters acqu ire a reddish-brown and then rot. The 15 transmitted by insects, is the main cause of the rapid spread of the disease (mo re than 25 km per year in some areas), since it was first observed on the island of Java. The disease also can be spread through infected planting material, bec ause the pathogen can remain in the soil or plant debris. The fruits of infected plants can also become a source of infection, since infected are healthy-lookin g bunch, are marketed and later discarded by the consumer in the vicinity of ban ana orchard.

5. Fungal diseases Fungal diseases most important are: yellow Sigatoka (Mycospha erella musicola) black Sigatoka or black stripe (M. fjiensis) foliage spots (Cor dana musae), stain or scratch on the underside (Veronaea musae) of irregular dar k spots leaf (Deightoniella torulosa); dotted leaf (Periconiella musae), Panama disease (Fusarium oxysporum Fr. cubense), stem dry rot (Marasmiellus troyanus) f ruit diseases (Verticillium theobromae) and other pathogens such as Colletotrich um musae, Pyricularia grisea, Deightoniella torulosa, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium roseum. 16 Yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach) and black (M.fijiensis Morelet) and Moko bananas [Raltsonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. diseases are mo re limiting for the production of bananas. a) Sore starry This disease is caused by an imbalance of soil microorganisms cau sed by the removal of the dark, burning or application of agrochemicals. The dis ease is caused by a fungus known as rosellina pepo also attacking coffee, cocoa. Citrus, avocado and generally shady trees, the disease is transmitted by contac t radicals. Symptoms. Plants initially present a yellowish, are stunted and poor development. In the older leaves were observed at the edges like necrosis phosp horus deficiency. The root system and corm rot completely, predisposing the plan t to lodging. When you cut the stem, there is a reddish color and the presence o f fungus, forming thick white laces in fan shapes or star. b) The dotted leaf disease known as the splash of the leaf is caused by the fung us M. musae Periconíella B. Ellis, Ramíchioridíum synonymous musae (Sarnett and Hunter , 1992). This pathogen is manifested in the leaves of Musa, producing red blotch es,€bordered by yellow areas giving the appearance of a dotted or "specki." By joi ning spots occur 17 reddish yellow placements more intense contrasts, become necráticas areas in which they develop as secondary fungal Zygophíala sp. In severe infections, the leaves die prematurely. c) crown rot (Crown Rot). This disease is caused by one or more of the following pathogens: Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum mus ae, Fusarium roseum and Deightonialla torulosa, which can infect the cut surface of fruit (fruit group). Pathogens grow from infected tissue area of the hand, s pread to the neck of the finger and eventually, to the fruit. Disease cycle: The frequency of this disease increases in periods of high humidity and rain. Conidia are disseminated by wind and infect senescent floral parts. It can affect the fruit after harvest. Integrated management: Control of this disease begins at the field with the removal of dead flowers. The use of polythene bags to cover the a id in the control clusters. Sanitation practiced to control spots on the fruit r educes the amount of fungus present in the planting. The use of fungicide sprays may be necessary in times of heavy rain or high humidity. This disease is also called "Dark spot and irregular leaf or black spots" caused by Deightoniella tor ulosa Formerly known under the name Helminthosporium torulosum, causing the dark , bumpy road. In recent years there have been attacks of this fungus in the frui t, which causes the development of patches of a dark green oily appearance, abou t 4mm in diameter at the center have a rating similar to an insect bite but it i

s not. 18 This attack, therefore, not be confused with the attack of thrips or spider mite s, which happens frequently. The young fruits, from ten to thirty days, are more susceptible to the fungus when they are grown from seventy to one hundred days. It seems that favors the development of the disease by poor drainage, a very na rrow framework and inadequate planting weed control. d) Type rot Ash cigars (Cigar-End Rot) is caused by Verticillium theobromae and / or Trachysphaera fructigena. The decayed portion of the fruit is dried and ten ds to stick to fruit (it looks like a cigarette ash.) Caused by the fungus Verti cillium theobromae or Stachyllidium, producing necrosis at the tip of the banana s that resembles a cigar-ash. e) Black Sigatoka Able to attack all the important varieties of bananas and plantains, the black Sigatoka turns the leaves of plan ts and gives them a yellow, brown and black, thus preventing photosynthesis. Ber eft of its energy reserves, the plant cuts back production of fruit, sometimes h alfway. For exporters, the black Sigatoka leads to ruin: the disease also causes premature ripening of the fruit. Although they appear normal, bananas affected plants ripen and spoil before reaching the markets. " 19 Black Sigatoka is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis Morelet var. Diff ormis. The first symptoms are visible to the naked eye on the bottom surface of the leaf, as reddish brown spots. The points are longer and are reddish brown st reaks. The streak is extended slightly and there is a color change from reddish brown to dark brown or almost black. Stretch marks are larger, they become wider and acquire an elliptical shape, surrounding himself with a brown edge around t he spot. This is the state of stains. At the top of the leaf spots are dark brow n with yellow border. The blade ends up become black and die. The economic damag e of the fungus lies precisely in that it reduces the photosynthetic capacity of the plant yield reductions as a result. A banana plant should have at least 7-8 functional leaves at flowering to prevent losses in fruit quality (González, 1987 ). The fungus is spread by water and wind. Sprinkler irrigation helps spread the disease in the plantation. Black Sigatoka is not perceived by all as a problem chaguite producers. This is because the disease does not directly affect product ion. All the commercial varieties, ie horn plantain and banana exports are, howe ver, susceptible to black Sigatoka. Sigatoka control is traditionally fungicide application. There are several products for this market. But there have been sev eral reports of resistance to these.€Chemical control of the disease in commercial plantations rises also strongly production costs and is not as accessible to sm all producers. There is actually a biological control of the disease. The manage ment of the disease is rather in trying to minimize its spread in the planting e liminating outbreaks of inoculum through defoliation of leaves affected by Sigat oka and better still burning. But the fungus is spread by wind management is dif ficult when neighbors do the same. Another recommendation is to plant resistant varieties so interspersed with the susceptible varieties and planting windbreaks in general. However, no one really knows the impact of these measures on the in cidence of the disease. Planting resistant varieties seems to be the moment the only option for biological control. 20 Infection cycle of M. fijiensis and M. musicola. f) Anthracnose (anthracnose) is caused by Colletotrichum musae, becomes evident

when the bananas ripen, especially in wounds and openings in the skin. g) Mal De Panama or "Yellow Vein" (by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cuben se) 21 Panama disease is the most devastating disease that affected the commercial prod uction of bananas in Central America and the Caribbean. It is caused by the fung us Fusarium oxysporum f. cubense. The external symptoms are characterized by a y ellow older leaves or agobamiento still green at the junction of the petiole wit h the pseudostem. It may or may not show a crack at the base of the pseudostem. All leaves eventually become overwhelmed and die, but the pseudostem remains ere ct for one or two months until it rots and dries. The pseudostem takes on a hard and dry (González, 1987). Symptoms consist of internal vascular discoloration onl y in external pods or very advanced state, it can reach internal pods, stems and even real stem of the fruit, which has no symptoms of the disease. The main dif ference between Moko and the Panama disease is that in the latter the yellow and leaf wilt and vascular discoloration, occur primarily in the outer leaves and p ods, which is opposite in the case of Moko. Panama disease can only be controlle d by quarantine and exclusion. There is no economical method to reduce the patho gen population (González, 1987). In consequence the variety Gros Michel was replac ed by the Cavendish variety in commercial plantations. In the 50s, a fungal dise ase known as "false Disease Panama disease" ended with the then dominant variety of banana, Gros Michel. " 22 h) yellow Sigatoka disease is the more strongly attacking the banana and plantai n crops, is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella musicota. Disease cycle: Varies according to weather conditions, the disease progresses faster and therefore is more severe in group cavendish varieties with AAA genome, is slower with the B g enome, such as Dominican Harton (AAB) and Pelipita (ABB). Also, the cycle is sho rter in leaves formed during the rainy season because the water supports the pro cesses of infection and inoculum production. Management: The work of the crop sh ould be aimed at reducing excess moisture on the plantation, especially the leaf wetness. To decrease the intensity of attack build drains, avoid sprinkler irri gation, make a good weed control, adjust the number of plants per unit area, mak e a right and descoline destronque, fertilize time. The elimination of the disea se reduces spotted leaves and facilitates the spraying of chemicals and make the m more effective. This disease appears on the upper leaf and as its name says is characterized by brown spots with yellow tones. i) Cordana leaf spot (Cordana musae) This disease is most common in crops in the mountainous area where there is more moisture, affecting the lower leaves. Can be seen 23 oval spots of light brown color on the leaf blade, especially towards the edges, which are surrounded by a bright yellow margin. The spots show concentric rings and zoning or cover much of the leaf spots caused by joining other Sigatoka lea f diseases. Disease cycle: The fungus produces spores in abundance in the bottom of the leaves in periods of high humidity and rain. Mostly affects plants weake ned by other diseases or other factors. Integrated: The chemical used to control Sigatoka aid in the management of this disease. j) False Disease Panama Disease in Banana The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cu bense (Foc) causes Fusarium wilt, which in the banana industry is commonly refer red to as the Panama disease. Generally, this disease is considered one of the m

ost destructive diseases in certain regions of the world banana. False disease P anama disease, which can easily be confused with Fusarium wilt, was first descri bed by Deacon et al. in 1985. Although the name of False Panama disease was give n by Deacon in 1985, Prescott, Dunlap, Perm, Barnes and Da Costa had several pre vious reports, describing possibly the same disease. Prescott (1917) called the disease "Colorado" because of its presence in the district of Colorado in Hondur as. Dunlap (1923) and Perm (1925) also reported the presence of the disease in t he area of Changuinola in Panama. Barnes (1962) described similar symptoms subgr oup cultivar 'Cavendish' in Grenada. It was given the name "yellow Mata" due to a pronounced yellowing of the foliage. The most recent entries are from Da Costa (1982) in Surinam. Since the end of the decade 24 80 has detected an increasing incidence of False Panama disease in Tenerife, Can ary Islands. External symptoms: Symptoms of the disease outside of False Panama disease can be easily confused with Fusarium wilt. In most cases, the yellowing begins on lower leaves or old. The margin of each leaf turns pale green to yello w, necrotic streaks appear surrounded by a yellow margin and the leaf eventually dies. The lower leaves die and hang like a skirt pseudostem. Sometimes the base of the leaf remains green and healthy, while its distal part dies. Often, the 1 -4 upper leaves remain green, but they are small and its development stagnates. Growth may occur in young leaves but in this case the clusters are usually small and thin with short fingers. They often have characteristics similar to those o f the Strelitzia and stunned growth, stress-related. In the case of Fusarium wil t, the leaves are the uniform and pronounced yellowing on the margins of the lea ves along the entire sheet. Subsequently, the yellowing comes in until the midri b and margins become brown and then gray. Internal symptoms: When the pseudostem of a plant shows symptoms of the disease of False Panama disease is cut transve rsely, approximately 50 cm above ground level, are often discolored vascular str ands of red wine. On the ground affected by Fusarium wilt stained areas are alwa ys presented with color changes from brown to purple, called pockets gum (gum po ckets). The pseudostem up to 50 100 cm above ground level contains many vascular strands faded red wine, both in plants affected by the False Panama disease, as in plants affected by Fusarium wilt. The plants affected by Fusarium wilt, disc oloration is more or less continuous and can be traced back to the bottom of the pseudostem. In the case of False Panama disease usually discolored vascular str ands are not continuous, occurring in short regions of about 10 cm long separate d by a wide gap. When part of the rhizome in a false floor with Panama disease a re brown spots and white filaments, whereas plants infected with Fusarium wilt s how stains and yellow filaments. 25 Vascular strands faded red wine in a cross section of a enfermedaddel seudatollo False affected by Panama disease. There are pockets gum. 6. DISEASES CAUSED BY NEMATODES Diseases caused by nematodes are mainly caused b y the genera Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Meloidogyne. 26 They are in a wide variety of soil types, but the warm, shallow and well drained , provide more favorable conditions for their development. The area of the Canar y Islands banana because of its climate and good drainage of the land, is the be st way for the development of this parasite. Features Females have a pouch, atta ch to the plant, and left to die inside the eggs. Parasitic nematodes have a sty let, which pierce the plant tissue to suck the sap from which it feeds. The eggs hatch and give rise to a larva to undergo four molts before adulthood.€The cycle in temperate zones is one or two generations per year, while in hot climates can

have one generation per month. Symptoms of damage Damage caused by nematodes ar e produced in the roots, leading to reduced production. The damage is manifested in the plantations for leaf yellowing, the death of the lower branches, galls o n the roots and rootlets overproduction. The nematodes eat the plant roots, prod ucing wounds where pathogens enter the plantain and banana crops, causing Panama disease (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense) and Moko (Ralstonia solanacearum). Disease is suspected when there is general yellowing (chlorosis) of the plant, r educed growth, poor quality of the bunch and uprooting. These manifestations are similar to those caused by nutritional deficiencies, pathogenic microorganisms and other insect pests that attack the roots and corm of the plant and the weevi l Black. Losses banana plants infested with nematodes and banana, with severe da mage, are flushed from the root when they reach production, losing its cluster a nd choline-replacement or return. 27 7. PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS CAUSED BY DISEASES a) Damage excess salt damage by ex cess salts commonly are caused by calcium carbonate, chloride and sodium sulphat e. b) Chilling injury symptoms include darkening of the skin, skin discoloration or dull gray, subepidermal tissue with dark brown veins, abnormal maturation (poss ibly accelerated maturity), and in severe cases, problems to mature. Chilling in jury is caused by leaving bananas exposed to temperatures below or equal to 7.2 ° C (45 ° F) for 7 days or more, depending on cultivar, maturity and temperature. Th e fruits to chilling injury are more susceptible to mechanical damage and post-h arvest rots. 8. NUTRITIONAL DISEASES CAUSED IN BANANA BY DEFICIENCIES Nitrogen (N). Its deficiency is characterized by a generalized chlorosis yellowi ng leaves reduces the plant height and pseudostem circumference, there are hills or low output 28 sprouts, size reduction of waste and decreased length of internodes false. Phosp horus (P). Plants with abnormal development, root formation and little weak, def ormed fruits do not ripen evenly. Necrosis occurs at the edges of the leaves, es pecially older ones. Potassium (K). It occurs in older leaves, 50 to 60 days, begins at the apex of t he leaf yellowing taking, turning to dark brown, extending to the whole leaf bla de and there is a premature death. The fruit becomes hard and tasteless. 29 Calcium (Ca). We present a chlorotic band on the edge of the leaf becomes necrot ic with time, there are also some brown freckles on the leaf blade. Magnesium (m g). It is characterized by a chlorotic yellow stripe in the middle of the leaf b lade, you can advance to the midrib. Finally the leaf withers and dies. Boron (B). This is characterized by difficulties in the flag leaf to function du e to a leaf function at the apex, there is a curl in the leaves, this deficiency by the flag leaf curl its tail is called a fox or snuff. Affected leaves are re duced in size, have also curl edge to the midrib.

9. OTHER Elephantiasis. The causative agent of this disease still remains uniden tified. 30 Symptoms. The disease is recognized for making a hypertrophy or overgrowth of th e base of the pseudostem. Usually the mother plant dies as the hills. This disea se usually occurs where cultural practices are deficient. 31 10. REFERENCES Afro News. The production of bananas may disappear within 10 year s. Africa News Agency. January 14, 2006. Alfonso F. Ordosgoitti (2002). Diseases of Banana and Plantain In Venezuela, control measures. Caracas. Alfonso F. FONA IAP Ordosgoltti (2002). Bacterial Diseases of the Musaceae in Venezuela. CENIAP Maracay. Jose Gavilan. (2002). Main pests and diseases of bananas. Santa Fe de B ogota. Keri L. Morrelli and Adel A. Kader (2005). Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95 616. Arias Consuelo Castrillón M. Sc., (200 0) Nematodes of Banana and Plantain Integrated Management. Regional Corpoica Nin e. Bogotá. M. Sc, Monica Betancourt V., Alarcón J. J., et al. Recognition of viral d iseases in plantain and banana Montelindo Farm, Municipality of Palestine (Calda s). Universidad de Caldas. Ordosgoitti, A., Hernandez, J. and Mary Z. González. (2 002).€The dotted leaf in edible Musa. FONAIAP Agricultural Research Center Yaracuy State. Wanda Almodóvar, Manuel Diaz and Ada Alvarado. (2002). Plantain and Banana Diseases. University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez. College of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Extension Service. www.inibap.org/index.php?page=18-% 3Epublicatio ns & lang = en & lang = en www.uprm.edu/agricultura/sea/clinica/PLAT&GUINEO2002. pdf 32