The Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula Daniel Gómez Valle 1. The Paleolithic Prehistory 1.1.1.La 1.1.El Hominization 1.1.2.The 1.3.

The Mes olithic Neolithic Palaeolithic 1.2.El 1.4.La introduction of two metals. The pro tohistoric settlements 2.1.The Phoenicians and Greeks 2.2.La Iron Age in the Pen insula: Tartessos, Iberians and Celts Index The Palaeolithic Study Analysis Hominization process of cultural evolution CHANGES Hominization SPECIES Changes in the process Hominization March bipedal opposable thumb articulated Brain Development Language species in the process Hominization Australopithecus Homo habilis bipedalism Homo ergaster useful manufacturing / homo erectus out of Africa Homo antecessor first European hominid Homo nea nderthalensis homo sapiens religious art in caves outdoors hominization extended family clans habitat nomadic hunter-gatherer economy specialized size reduction paleolithic socioeconomic evolcuión material: stone weak population growth material culture Technical pressure or percussion class migration paleolithic LOWER 800 000 YEARS TO 250.OOO TERRACES GREAT RIVERS OF PEBBLES WORKSHOP Biface MIDDLE 250 000 35 000 YEARS TO IMPROVEMENT AND EXPERTISE Lithic SUPERIOR 35 000 YEARS 8000 TO SEE MORE ART COMPLEX MATERIAL Gran Dolina Homo neanderthalensis

HOMO SAPIENS Palaeolithic Cave Art Where? on the Cantabrian coast and in france so how (technique? fingers or brush . Binder color, animal fat, more pigments for coloration. Other: use of projecti ons, tonal degradation. When? in the Upper Paleolithic (35000-8000) What? animal figures. some human and hands Palaeolithic Cave Art style: naturalistic meaning: MAGIC (magic attraction or procreation) SEXUAL (ani mal-sex relationship: horse man and woman bison) composition: isolated figures w ithout compromising scenes juxtaposed color: polychrome Palaeolithic Cave Art painting sculpture The Mesolithic between 8000 and 5500 transition phase changes in material culture: power spectr um microliths: concheros The Neolithic shift from predation to production storage and cooking ceramic polishing stone s edentary The Neolithic (in the Iberian peninsula) Chronology: 5500-3000 reached by land or by sea from the original lands of the M iddle East from the coast to southern Portuguese Catalan Neolithic transformations Demographic: Increased population and increased life expectancy Social: emergenc e of the family, social division of labor economic: private ownership, wealth di fferentiation by policy: emergence of an authority Neolithic rock art Where? Spanish Levante (Lérida, Teruel, Castellón, Valencia, Albacete ...) how ( technical? Same technique as in the Palaeolithic, although the paintings are les s well preserved today. When? 6000-1500 (6000-4000 as a period of fundamental) What? Animalistic, but increased human presence in social scenes (hunting, war, dance, work ...) Neolithic rock art Style: schematic meaning: Historic color: Monochrome composition: Scenes and dynamism Neolithic rock art painting sculpture Rock art comparison

Franco-Cantabrian cave art South of France and Spanish Cantabrian Upper Paleolit hic (35000-10000) FRANCE: Lascaux, Trois Frères Niaux and SPAIN: Altamira, El Ca stillo and La Pasiega (Cantabria), Tilo and CADAM Bustillo (Asturias) animalisti c (bison horses), some human figures, hands, fingers or brush. Binder color, ani mal fat, more pigments for coloration. Other: use of projections, tonal degradat ion. Polychrome figures juxtaposed NATURALISM isolated without compromising scen es Inside the caves MAGIC (magic attraction or procreation) SEXUAL (animal-sex r elationship: horse man and woman bison) CHRONOLOGY SPACE CRITERIA COMPARISON EXA MPLES TECHNICAL ARTS MAJOR THEME Levantine cave Spanish Levante (Lérida, Teruel, Castellón, Valencia, Albacete ...) 6000-1500 (6000-4000 as fundamental period) Cowl (Lérida), Valltorta (Castellón), coat of the Spider (Valencia), coat of Sar sa (Alicante) ... animalistic, but increased human presence in social scenes (hu nting, war, dance, work ...) Same techniques, although the paintings are less we ll preserved today. SCHEMATIC monochrome scenes and dynamic composition in rock shelters HISTORIC LOCATION MEANING COLOR COMPOSITION the introduction of metals from the third millennium technical advance in the social structure impact disse mination of first nuclei pre-urban farming and agricultural activities sociopolitical transformation social stratification notable differences between peoples (as metal possession o r not) the war and defensive planning activity Metal Age copper 2500-1800 1800-800 megalithic Beaker bronze Training and specialization of metalworking iron culture from 1,000 ballot boxes from the fields of Indo-European waves through t he Pyrenees thousands culture Argar culture Indo-European penetration and colonization Metal Age copper 2500-1800 1800-800 megalithic Beaker bronze Training and specialization of metalworking iron culture from 1,000 ballot boxes from the fields of Indo-European waves through t he Pyrenees thousands culture Argar culture Indo-European penetration and colonization

AGE OF METALS MEGALITHIC Type Menhir Cromlech Dolmen What is it? buildings with large stone blocks (megaliths) interpretation of megalithic central point of definition of the territory in a society formed by scattered gr oups collective burials geography of megalithic is peninsular culture thousands Talayotic culture of the Balearic Islands so Pen insular Portuguese megalithic culture with expansion and extremadura huelva Dolmen Lácara colonization: causes great cultural and economic development of the eastern Mediterranean economic in terest of the peninsula (metals) MEDITERRANEAN colonization by the Phoenicians BETWEEN THE AGES X Y VIII A.C. GET A RAW MATERIAL CHANGE OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED GADIR FENICIA MEDITERRANEAN colonization by the Phoenicians Are established on islands off the coast in present-day Andalusia. At least four colonies: Gadir, Malaka, and Sexi Abdera Settlers THE MEDITERRANEAN: THE GREEKS BETWEEN THE AGES VIII and VII A.C. GET A RAW MATERIAL CHANGE OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED EMPORION GREEK Settlers THE MEDITERRANEAN: THE Greeks In today's Catalan coast. major settlements: Emporion and Rhode His influence sp read throughout the East Coast and Southeast importance of colonization business contacts with more developed cultures deep acculturation tartessos visi ble and the Iberian countries TARTESSOS DEEP INFLUENCE WITH INDIGENOUS CULTURE ECONOMY MINING FENICIA, BASE OF YOUR BUSI NESS CONTACTS Located in the Lower Guadalquivir pre-Roman peoples: Celts and Iberians CEL TAS ER IB OS BETWEEN THE AGES VI AND III A.C. MORE MIX Indigenous Peoples and colonize Indo I NFLUENCES a s t u re s

I ga the ic is ton t see i lus MIX AND INFLUENCE Indo Indigenous Peoples t an you pe n t a c ar you cel t s ic or re a n t o o s will ce ro l e s tib pre-Roman peoples: Celts sc v c c e I on ta canticles States is pre-Roman peoples: Celts Geography Influences Currency Economy Writing Art Towns Organization sociopoliti cal central, western and northern Indo-European nomadic livestock, agriculture, pott ery, woolen fabrics, iron and rudimentary Low NO Castros family clans tribe pre-Roman peoples: Iberians THE Aboriginals MIXING AND INFLUENCE OF MEDITERRANEAN Settlers ed et l to sedetanos Ilergets Lacetani I n t e

to I n t a n o s c o n t a n s I or s or re us to t b a t s I n or s t ur pre-Roman peoples: Iberians THE Geography Influences Currency Economy Writing Art Towns Organization sociopoliti cal eastern and southern Mediterranean colonizers rainfed agriculture, livestock, te xtiles, ceramics, metallurgy and trade YES YES brilliant ladies of Elche and B aza high walled Towns in monarchies Small