PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING Learn what has changed in spelling Brazilian Douglas Tufano Spelling Reform

would CP.indd 1 10/07/2008 14:27:21 © 2008 Douglas Tufano Professor and author of textbooks in English © 2008 Editor a Ltda Improvements. Layout: WAP Studio ISBN: 978-85-06-05464-2 1. Edition, Augu st 2008 Customer Service: PO Box 11 541 - CEP 05049-970 São Paulo - SP - Brazil Printed in Brazil Spelling Reform would CP.indd 2 10/07/2008 14:27:21 Orthographic Agreement The purpose of this guide is to expose the reader, in an objective manner, chang es in spelling of Portuguese by the Portuguese Spelling Agreement, signed in Lis bon on December 16, 1990, Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Sao Tome and Principe , Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and later for East Timor. In Brazil, the Agre ement was approved by Legislative Decree No 54 of April 18, 1995. This Agreement is merely spelling, so it is restricted to written language, not affecting any aspect of spoken language. It does not eliminate all the spelling differences ob served Spelling Reform would CP.indd 3 10/07/2008 14:27:22 4 DOUGLAS TUFANO countries that have Portuguese as official language, but it is a step toward the desired unification spelling of these countries. As the official document of th e agreement is unclear in several respects, we developed a roadmap to what has b een possible to establish objectively about the new rules. Hopefully this guide will serve as a basic guideline for those wishing to quickly resolve questions a bout the changes made to the Brazilian spelling, without concern for theoretical issues. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 4 10/07/2008 14:27:22 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 5 Changes in the alphabet The alphabet is replaced by 26 letters. Were reintroduced the letters k, w and y . The full alphabet becomes: AB C DE F GHI K L M N O P QR S T U V WX Y Z J The letters k, wey, who actually had not disappeared from most of our language d

ictionaries are used in various situations. For example: a) the written symbols of units of measurement: km (kilometer), kg (kilogram), W (watt); Spelling Reform would CP.indd 5 10/07/2008 14:27:23 6 DOUGLAS TUFANO b) the writing of foreign words and names (and their derivatives) show, playboy, playground, windsurfing, kung fu, yin, yang, William Kaiser, Kafka, Kafka. Trema Do not use more than the umlaut (¨), a sign placed over the letter u to indicate that it should be pronounced in the groups gue, gui, which, qui. As might argue bilingual stand stand How is raising bilingual Spelling Reform would CP.indd 6 10/07/2008 14:27:24 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 7 eloquent delinquent fifty bloody equestrian frequent tongue sausage quinquennium marmoset sequence sequestration calm eloquent delinquent fifty bloody equestrian frequent tongue sausage quinquennium marmoset sequence sequestration quiet Warning: the umlaut remains only in foreign words and its derivatives. Examples: Müller, müllerian. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 7 10/07/2008 14:27:25 8 DOUGLAS TUFANO Changes in the rules of an accent. Do not use the accent of most diphthongs open and hi Hey paroxitone of words (words that have stress accent on the penultimat e syllable). How was alkali pack android supports (support verb) lean (verb supp ort) asteroid buoy celluloid How is honeycomb skylight alkaloid pack android sup ports support asteroid floats celluloid skylight hive Spelling Reform would CP.indd 8 10/07/2008 14:27:25 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 9 Korea stoic epic moron Premiering debut (verb debut) jelly heroic odyssey idea b oa jewelry paranoia paranoid audience trick

Korea stoic epic moron premiere first run jelly jewel odyssey heroic boa constri ctor idea paranoia paranoid audience trick Note: this rule applies only to paroxitone words. Thus, it remains sharp words Spelling Reform would CP.indd 9 10/07/2008 14:27:26 10 DOUGLAS TUFANO oxítonas terminated behold, I, Ts, hi, ols. Examples: paper, hero, heroes, troph y, trophies. In the words paroxitone, no longer uses the accent on the u ie tonic when they c ome after a diphthong. How was dumpster bocaiúva cauíla How ugliness is ugliness Baiiica Bocaiuva cauila 2. Warning: if the word is oxítona EOI or or are in final position (or followed by s), the accent remains. Examples: Jabiru Stork, storks, Piauí. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 10 10/07/2008 14:27:27 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING January 1 3. Do not use the accent of most words ending in EEM and ôthe (s).€How was I ble ss believe (verb believe) give (verb give) ache (verb donate) nausea read (verb read) magician (verb hurt) forgive (forgive verb) people (verb people) see (see verb) flights zoo How is bless creem doo deem sick leem Magoo forgive people see flying zoo 4. Do not use the accent that most differentiated the peer stops to /, by (S) / Spelling Reform would CP.indd 11 10/07/2008 14:27:28 February 1 DOUGLAS TUFANO by (s), fur (s) / at (s), pole (s) / pole (s) and pear / pear. How was He stops the car. He went to the North Pole. He likes to play polo. This cat has white ha irs. I ate a pear. As he gets to the car. He went to the North Pole. He likes to play polo. This cat has for whites. I ate a pear. Warning: • Remain accent differential could / can. Might is the past tense form of power (past perfect tense) in the third person singular. It may be the form p resent indicative, in third person singular. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 12

10/07/2008 14:27:29 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING March 1 Example: Yesterday, he could not leave earlier, but today he can. • Remains of p utting the accent differential / per. Put the verb. For the preposition. Example : I put the book on the shelf that was made for me. • Remain accents that distin guish the singular plural of the verbs have and come, as well as their derivativ es (hold, hold, hold, hold, agree, act, etc. arise.). Examples: He has two cars. / They have two cars. He comes from Sorocaba. / They come from Sorocaba. He mai ntains the word. / They keep the word. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 13 10/07/2008 14:27:30 April 1 DOUGLAS TUFANO He should be the students. / They are suitable for students. He holds the power. / They have the power. He intervenes in all classes. / They intervene in all cl asses. • It is optional to use the caret to distinguish the words form / mold. I n some cases, the use of accent leaves the sentence clearer. Consider this examp le: What is the shape of the cake pan? 5. Do not use the acute accent over the u tonic forms (tu) argued, (he) argued, (they) argue, the present tense of verbs and raising retort. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 14 10/07/2008 14:27:31 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING May 1 6. There is variation in the pronunciation of verbs ending in guar, and quir quar such as watering, detect, defuse, emptying, rinsing, oblique, crime, etc.. These verbs admit two pronunciations in some form s of the present indicative, present subjunctive and imperative as well. See: a) if they are pronounced with the i or tonics, these forms must be marked. Exampl es: • verb rinse: rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse. • verb delinq uency: delinquency, delinquency, delinquency, delinquency, delinquency, delinque ncy, delinquency. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 15 10/07/2008 14:27:32 16 DOUGLAS TUFANO b) if u are pronounced with tonic, these forms are no longer marked. Examples (a stressed vowel is stressed, ie it must be pronounced more strongly than others)

: • verb rinse: rinse, wash, rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse. • verb delinquen cy: delinquency, delinquency, delinquency, delinquency, delinquency, delinquency , delinquency. Warning: in Brazil, the most common pronunciation is the first on e with aei tonics. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 16 10/07/2008 14:27:32 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING July 1 Usage of hyphen Some rules were changed use of the hyphen in the new Agreement. But as it is sti ll controversial matter in many ways to facilitate the understanding of readers, we present a summary of the rules that guide the use of the hyphen with the pre fixes more common, as the new guidelines established by the Agreement. The follo wing remarks relate to the use of the hyphen in words formed by prefixes or by e lements that can act as prefixes such as: aero, agro as well, ante, anti, short, architect, auto, circum, co, counter, electric between, eg, extra, geo, hydro, hyper, infra, inter, intra, macro, micro, mini, Spelling Reform would CP.indd 17 10/07/2008 14:27:33 18 DOUGLAS TUFANO multi, neo, pan, multi, proto, post, pre, pro, pseudo, retro, semi, over, under, super above, tele, ultra, vice etc.. 1. With prefixes, use the hyphen is always before the word initiated by h. Examp les: unhygienic anti-historical co-heir macro-story hotel mini-proto-history sup erhuman superman ultra-human Exception: subhuman (in this case, the word loses o h man). Spelling Reform would CP.indd 18 10/07/2008 14:27:34 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 19 2. Do not use the hyphen when the prefix ends in a vowel with different vowel th at begins the second element.€Examples: aerospace agroindustrial yesterday antie ducativo antiaircraft self-learning co-author coedição autoinstrução freeway dri ving school extracurricular infrastructure multiannual Spelling Reform would CP.indd 19 10/07/2008 14:27:35 20 DOUGLAS TUFANO

semi-open semi-spherical semiilliterates semiopaco Exception: the prefix co clum ping in general with the second element, even when it is initiated by the: co-ob ligors, co-obligation, coordinate, cooperate, cooperation, co-opt coocupante etc . 3. Do not use the hyphen when the prefix ends in a vowel and the second element begins with consonant other than r or s. Examples: draft antipedagogic Spelling Reform would CP.indd 20 10/07/2008 14:27:36 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 21 self-protection auto parts coproduction geopolitical microcomputer pseudoprofess or semicircle demigod "semi ultramodern Warning: prefix to vice, it uses always the hyphen. Examples: viceroy, vice-admiral etc. 4. Do not use the hyphen when the prefix ends in a vowel and the second element begins with r or s. In this case, is doubling those letters. Examples: Spelling Reform would CP.indd 21 10/07/2008 14:27:37 22 DOUGLAS TUFANO antirrábico antirracismo antirreligioso antirrugas antisocial biorhythm contrarr egra contrassenso cosine infrassom micro miniskirt centuries neorrealismo neossi mbolista semirreta XDR. ultrasound Spelling Reform would CP.indd 22 10/07/2008 14:27:38 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 23 5. When the prefix ends in a vowel, you use the hyphen if the second element beg inning with the same vowel. Examples: Iberian anti-anti-imperialist anti-inflati on anti-inflammatory self-observation Rear Admiral counterattack counterattack m icrowave minibus semi-boarding semi-internal Spelling Reform would CP.indd 23 10/07/2008 14:27:39 24 DOUGLAS TUFANO 6. When the prefix ends in a consonant, we use the hyphen if the second element beginning with the same consonant. Examples: hyper-refined interracial interregi onal sub-librarian super-super-reactionary racist super-resistant super-romantic

Warning: • In the remaining cases do not use the hyphen. Examples: hypermarket, municipal, superinteressante, overprotection. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 24 10/07/2008 14:27:39 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 25 • With the prefix sub, you use the hyphen before the word also initiated by r: s ub-region, sub-race, etc.. • With the prefixes circumnavigation and pan, you use the hyphen before the word initiated by m, n and a vowel: circumnavigation, pan -American etc.. 7. When the prefix ends in a consonant, do not use the hyphen if the second elem ent beginning with a vowel. Examples: hyperacidity hyperactive interscholastic i nterstate Spelling Reform would CP.indd 25 10/07/2008 14:27:40 26 DOUGLAS TUFANO interstellar interestudantil superfriend overheating supereconômico superexigent e superinteressante overoptimism With the prefixes ex, without, beyond, below, recently, post, pre, pro, you use the hyphen always. Examples: beyond the sea beyond the grave short-sea ex-studen t ex-director 8. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 26 10/07/2008 14:27:41 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 27 former host former mayor former president postgraduate prehistory pre-university pro-European newlywed newborn landless 9. You should use the hyphen with the suffixes a Tupi-Guarani: açu, guaçu and Mi te. Examples: amore-fronted Macaw, Anajás-Mite, grass açu. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 27 10/07/2008 14:27:42 28 DOUGLAS TUFANO

You should use the hyphen to connect two or more words that occasionally combine to form not exactly words, but vocabulary chains. Examples: Rio-Niteroi Bridge, Rio and Sao Paulo. 1 0. 1 Do not use the hyphen in cer1. tas words have lost their sense of composition. Examples: Sunflower honeysuckle bigwig parachute parachutist kick Spelling Reform would CP.indd 28 10/07/2008 14:27:43 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 29 1 2. For graphic clarity, if at the end of the partition line of a word or combinatio n of words coincide with the hyphen, it must be repeated on the next line. Examp les: In the city, it is said that he was traveling. The director received the alumni. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 29 10/07/2008 14:27:44 30 DOUGLAS TUFANO Summary of Employment hyphen with prefixes Basic rule is always use the hyphen in front of h: unsanitary, superman. Other c ases 1. Prefix ending in a vowel: • No hyphen before vowel different: driving school, antiaircraft. • No hyphen be fore a consonant other than res: bill, semicircle. • No hyphen in front of r and s. Fold these lyrics: antirracismo, antisocial, ultrasound. • With hyphen befor e the same vowel: counterattack, microwave. 2. Prefix ended in a consonant: • With hyphen before it as: inter-regional€sub-librarian. • No hyphen in front o f as different: inter, supersonic. • No hyphen in front of vowel: interstate, su perinteressante. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 30 10/07/2008 14:27:45 PRACTICAL GUIDE OF THE NEW SPELLING 31 Remarks 1. With the prefix sub, you use the hyphen also

before the word initiated by r sub-region, sub-race, etc.. Words beginning with h lose this letter and join without a hyphen: subhuman subhuman. 2. Prefixes circumnavigation and pan, you ed by m, n and a vowel: circumnavigation, umping in general with the second element, even when it is initiated cooperate, cooperation, co-opt coocupante use the hyphen before the word initiat pan-American etc.. 3. The prefix co cl by the: joint obligation, coordinate, etc.

4. Vice with the prefix, you use the hyphen when: viceroy, vice-admiral etc. 5. Do not use the hyphen in certain words who lost their sense of composition, such as sunflower, honeysuckle, bigwig, kic k, parachute, parachutist etc. 6. With the prefixes ex, without, beyond, behind, recently, post, pre, pro, you use the hyphen when: former student, the landless, overseas, short-sea, recently married, graduate, pre-university course, pro-Eur opean. Spelling Reform would CP.indd 31 10/07/2008 14:27:46 Publisher improvements, always trying to help Brazilian students in their learni ng and personal growth, Launches New Practical Guide to Spelling, which shows, c learly and objectively, changes in the spelling of Portuguese Spelling Agreement of the Portuguese Language (1990 ). The implementation of the rules of the agre ement, expected to take place in Brazil from January 2009, is an important step toward creating a unified spelling for the Portuguese to be used by all countrie s that have Portuguese as official language: Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and East Timor. This guide i s not intended to elucidate controversial and subjective points of agreement, bu t we believe it will be a valuable tool for understanding the rapid changes in t he Brazilian variant spelling. Any doubts that may exist after reading the Pract ical Guide to the New Spelling certainly be solved with the publication of a Por tuguese Language Vocabulary Spelling (VoIP), as provided in the Agreement. Publisher Enhancements August 2008 Spelling Reform would CP.indd 32 10/07/2008 14:27:46