Maintenance Management Introduction to the theory of the maintenance December 2008 Author: Jorge Rodríguez Araújo Version 1.

0 © 2008 Jorge Rodriguez CC Permission is granted to copy, distribute and / or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Spa in Jorge Rodríguez Araújo grrodri@gmail.com Index 1. Rationale and objectives ............................................... .... ......... 1 2. Maintenance Management .......................................... ..... ........ 2 2.1 Introduction ................................................ .............. .................... 2 2.2 Types of maintenance ........... .................... .............................. .... 2 2.2.1 Corrective maintenance ............................................. 2.2.2 Preventive maintenance .................. .......................... 2 2.2.3 Pr edictive Maintenance .................................... 3 ........ ........... ....................................... 3 ..... 2.3 Losses associated with maintenance ......................................... .... .. 3 2.3.1 Troubleshooting .............................................. ........... ............................... 4 2.3.2 Preparation and adjustment. ............ ...................................... Stops minor ................... ......... ................ 4 2.3.3 ................................................. 5 2.3 .4 Reduced Speed ............................................. ................. .......... 5 ................ 2.3.5 Quality defects ............................ ...................... ..... 5 2.3.6 Implementation ............................ .......... ................................... 5 2.4 shows the maintenance .............................................. ....... ... 5 2.4.1 Availability .............................................. ............ . ................................ 6 2.4.2 Reliability ........................... ....................... ...................... ....................... 6 2.4.3 M aintainability .................................................. ...... 7 2.4.4 Total efficiency of the equipment ................................... ......... ............. 7 3. Total Productive Maintenance ............................................... .. 8 3.1 The 5 esses .............................................. Self Maintenance ...................................... 8 3.2 ........ .......................... ........................ ..... 9 3.3 Preventive Maintenance Planning ........... ............................ 9 3.4 Reliability Centered Maintenance ............ ......................... 10 i 3.5 Improving the effectiveness of the equipment ............................... ... 11 3.6 Quality Assurance .. ................................................

.. ...... 11 7.3 Training and motivation of employees .......................... .......... ... 12 4. Associated with maintenance tools ................................. 13 4.1 PDCA Cycle ............................................... ................. .................. 13 4.2 .......... Pareto Principle .......................... ........................ ........... 13 4.3 Improvement teams .................. ................ SMED Method ..................................... 14 4.4 ...... ... .................................................. ................... 14 .. ........................ 5.4 Scatterplot ...................................... 16 ....... 4.6 Study methods .................................................. Analysis ............. 16 7.4 Failure Mode and Effects ......................... .... 17 ...................... 8.4 ...................... Statistical Process Co ntrol 9.4 ................................ 18 ............ simple queuing model .................................................. ..... 20 5. Conclusions ................................................. ............... ......... 22 ii Rationale and objectives 1. Rationale and objectives Since maintenance is a major activity in which an engineer is involved, it is es sential knowledge and understanding of what it entails. Therefore, this document will be an overview of the current state of the theory of maintenance and its i mportance in industrial production as well as an introduction to key concepts an d tools associated with it. 1 Maintenance Management 2. Maintenance Management 2.1 Introduction Maintenance emerged as a necessary cost to prevent or reduce failures and their impact when they occur, since a production shutdown due to failure of the system represents an opportunity cost that must be eliminated. Thus, the maintenance c onsists of all those actions that minimize failures and restore the functioning of the system when a fault state.€Like any activity that adds no value, should b e a cost for removal. But since any real system will fail at a particular time, is a business imperative and key to current production. The latter is because th e production capacity is directly dependent on the availability of the machines, and if it decreases damage or malfunction will cause the failure of delivery no t having been covered by production. Thus, maintenance management arises as all design activities, planning and control to minimize all costs associated with eq uipment malfunction. These activities include, in addition to the functions typi cally associated with maintenance, studies of the possibility of renewal of equi pment, make modifications to help fiabilizadas and flexible operation, training of production personnel to perform functions "small maintenance" ... 2.2 Types of maintenance Within the maintenance are three basic types. 2.2.1 Corrective maintenance It is called corrective maintenance any activity that is done to restore a compu ter or installation when it entered a state of failure. Proper maintenance is lo w impact machines in

2 Maintenance Management system since, in this way, resources are used only when the problem occurs. 2.2.2 Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is intended to prevent faults by use of interventions tha t decrease the probability of failure, and thus increase the reliability of the installation. Interventions can be performed regularly and systematically, and i n the condition of the component or conditional, the latter being the recommende d, to avoid unnecessary replacements, and therefore waste. As preventive mainten ance does not prevent development of failures, implementation and often responds to a balancing of costs, which apply this system when the expenses incurred in each intervention are lower than avoiding them. 2.2.3 Predictive Maintenance Predictive maintenance used to monitor the functioning of machines to determine when and where failure can occur and thus anticipate and prevent their occurrenc e. Although eliminating unnecessary procedures, the large number of resources re quired in carrying out monitoring of different parameters, and therefore, its hi gh cost, only ideal in facilities with high maintenance costs that are critical in the production system. 2.3 Losses associated with maintenance The maintenance seeks to eliminate or reduce the costs associated with the six b ig losses related to the operation of equipment. These losses are due to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Preparation and adjustment Damage Reduced speed Stops minor quality defects 3 Maintenance Management 6. Implementation 2.3.1 Failures A breakdown or failure is an anomaly in the system, so that does not have to blo ck the functioning of the system but, just alter it so that no longer work as ex pected. To fix a failure is to identify the cause or origin, and for that use ca use-effect diagrams, where by means of a graphical representation in the form of herringbone performing a systematic and comprehensive analysis of failures and their causes. You can usually talk about three sources of error according to his need of intervention: • The ruling is one child due to a design error and therefore requires modification of the machine or process. To avoid such failures FMEA is used, which allows the systematic analysis of all possible causes of failure dur ing the design stage. • The failure due to wear of the actual operation of team addressed through preventive or predictive maintenance, which can be reduce d to its virtual elimination.

• The accidental breakages are due to random factors and therefore inevitable, which to them can only improve the response of the maintenance team. At this point we usually look at the sizing of the equipment through the develo pment of computer simulations and the use of queuing theory. 2.3.2 Preparation and adjustment With the introduction of flexible manufacturing processes, in which a machine ca n produce different products are the losses associated with the time required to change and adjust the span of the machine and start producing a new product. In response to this charge was developed in Japan SMED method,€that minimizes chan geover time by giving the process more flexible. 4 Maintenance Management 2.3.3 Stops minor Are all those temporary stoppages or related to unplanned breakdowns. For exampl e, a stop to unclog a press. 2.3.4 Reduced Speed Yield losses in the machines are one of the causes of waste that was often ignor ed until the establishment of the OEE measure. This index allows you to monitor the effectiveness of the improvements made on the equipment. 2.3.5 Quality defects There are faults that cause the operation of the machine deviates from the expec ted and produce the production of invalid. Such failures are often due to degrad ation of components by the existence of physical exhaustion caused by the operat ion of the machine. The causes of such problems are difficult to isolate and ide ntify and require a high technical effort both for the solution as simply for th eir control. At this point, in response to the need for monitoring the proper fu nctioning of the process shows the statistical process control (SPC), that detec ts a deviation of the production process in response to the establishment of a s eries of statistical parameters of control. 2.3.6 Implementation When the continuous production processes are in place there is a stabilization p eriod during which the process is not valid. As is characteristic of the process how to reduce it is through self-improvement or modification. 2.4 shows the maintenance When undertaking any activity is necessary to define a set of indicators to quan tify the eficacia1 and eficiencia2 of such activities. In this way you can objec tively assess whether the objectives are achieved is a capacity to achieve the o bjectives. 2 Using the fewest possible resources. 5 Maintenance Management intended to carry out such activity. 2.4.1 Availability The availability is the main parameter associated with the maintenance, which li mits production capacity. Is defined as the probability that a machine or system is ready for production in a period of time, or that do not stand for trouble a nd settings.

D = To T or T p

[Availability] ≡ T or total operation time T p ≡ total stopping time The periods of time never stops include planned, either by labor agreements for planned maintenance or downtime, since these are not due to machine failure. Whi le the former is the natural definition of availability, is usually defined in a more practical through the mean time between failure and repair, as are the dat a that will be available for each system. Thus, we have: D = MTBF MTBF TMDR [Availability] MTBF mean time between failures ≡ ≡ TMDR MTTR 2.4.2 Reliability Reliability is the probability that a given equipment or facility to develop its role under specific conditions and for a time. Therefore, the mean time between failure (MTBF) characterizes the reliability of the machine. 6 Maintenance Management 2.4.3 Maintainability Maintainability is the probability that a fault state computer is restored to a specified condition within a given time period, and using resources determined. Therefore, the average repair times (TMDR) characterizes the maintainability of the equipment. 2.4.4 Total efficiency of equipment The OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) is an indicator that is used to define the overall efficiency of the equipment, under a single rate include the three key parameters related to the operation of production equipment. OEE = Availability ⋅ ⋅ Quality Performance Performance The performance includes the loss of efficiency of a particular team as a decrease in production capacity compared to the nominal or expected. Yield = Quality Total number of units operating time ⋅ Rated The quality is the indicator of manufacturing losses defective products either d irectly by manufacturing units should be dismissed as to those that need to be r eprocessed. Quality = No. of valid units Total number of units manufactured 7 Total Productive Maintenance

3. Total Productive Maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance management system associated with the philosophy just in time (JIT), which seeks the continuous improvement of processes by increasing the total availability of equipment to involve the en tire organization.€Seeks to eliminate waste and ensure quality through the elimi nation of breakdowns and accidents, increasing the reliability of the machines t o properly plan the preventive maintenance. For this used to develop a series of activities and basic methodologies that enable increased productivity. • • • • • • • Implementation of the 5 S's Establishment of autonomous maintenance Preventive M aintenance Planning Application of reliability-centered maintenance Improving th e effectiveness of quality assurance teams training and employee motivation 3.1 The 5 esses The methodology of housekeeping who advocate the five S's was introduced by the Japanese management model as a means to eliminate waste resulting from the exist ence of disorder and dirt. It is in five stages: 1. Seiri (classified). Is the e limination of everything unnecessary. This will identify the elements needed in the workplace and eliminating all those unnecessary. 2. Seiton (organizing). Is to sort and identify properly the elements present in the workplace so that they are ready when needed. In other words, apply a place for everything and everyth ing in August Total Productive Maintenance place. 3. Seiso (clean). Is to maintain clean and orderly workplace, machines an d people. 4. Seiketsu (standardize). It consists in maintaining and improving st andards of organization and cleanliness. In other words, develop continuously th e three previous esses. 5. Shitsuke (self). Is to enable all employees to mainta in the implementation of the above actions. That is, it tries to instill self-di scipline, so as to maintain order and cleanliness through the implementation of correct procedures. The five S's have become a whole philosophy to instill in al l members of the organization, given its undisputed benefits for the work perfor mance of individuals. 3.2 Self-Maintenance With the TPM introduces the concept of autonomous maintenance, which transferred certain preventive maintenance production personnel. This will reduce the workl oad of the maintenance department, and involves the operator of the machine, mak ing it responsible for the state of it. By involving the production operator in the maintenance of their machines reduces the number of failures as a direct res ult of better use of them. As an important part of autonomous maintenance includ es checking the status of the machines, the chips are made of self-mode checklist3 that grouping actions with the same frequency and systematized simplifies the ta sk of manufacturing operators to avoid errors and omissions. 3.3 Planning of preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance aims to increase the availability and reliability 3 Check list. 9 Total Productive Maintenance equipment through a series of planned actions. It is that if the failure rate in creases with age 4 the team, means that a component requires the implementation of preventive actions, and should establish a maintenance plan, either systemati c or conditional. If this remained constant, then only require self-maintenance

routines. But if the behavior is random failure rate, it will be impossible to i mplement preventive maintenance. The problem in dealing with preventive maintena nce lies in the determination of the period of review or change, and fault condi tions. For this analysis draws on historical operating data of the machines, and the modeling of failure through statistical distributions that enable the reali zation of objective estimates, which in turn can decide what actions or measures are most appropriate and the frequency from the economic point of view. Since m aintenance decisions are made based on historical data, we understand the import ance of using information systems to log the operation of the machines, their de cisions and actions and solutions taken. This phase will develop maintenance ran ges, which are descriptions and step by step in chronological order of preventiv e actions, which also specify tools, benchmarks, safety notices, etc. 3.4 Reliability Centered Maintenance The reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is used as a means to optimize the ma intenance, focusing the action on the operation of the system and not on the mac hines.€This article evaluates the importance and confiabilidad5 machines that ma ke up the system, and acts on these by relevance, getting significant improvemen ts without wasting resources, thereby reducing cost and increasing the benefit o f maintenance. Thus, the logic of RCM methodology can be summarized in six steps : 1. Identify key plant systems and define their 4 Reverse the mean time between failures. 5 The probability that a given compute r to play their role during a given period. 10 Total Productive Maintenance functions. 2. Identify failure modes that can produce any failure functional. 3. Prioritize the functional requirements of equipment through criticality analysis. 4. 5. 6. Determine the criticality of the effects of functional failures. Establish maint enance strategy. Select preventive activities or other actions that preserve system function. The RCM represents a systemic approach to design maint enance programs that increase reliability with minimal cost and irrigation. 3.5 Improving the effectiveness of teams The troubleshooting answers a real need for action, and as such, does not provid e an increase in equipment performance. To increase the productivity of these fa ilures must be eliminated or minimize their effects through improvements in mach inery and processes to eliminate its causes. This is where teams come into play to improve, that through cause-effect diagrams detect and develop solutions, and FMEA as a design tool, which seeks to avoid the causes of failure in the design stage of the machinery or processes. But this last step can only be accomplishe d through the feedback of operational data, continues. You should also note the importance of transforming experience into knowledge, so that it can be incorpor ated into new equipment and systems, and to continue the process of continuous i

mprovement. In addition, this will contribute to an increase in value of the org anization to become part of intellectual capital. needed to close the cycle of i mprovement 03.06 Quality assurance As part of the JIT system searches for quality assurance, hence the importance o f eliminating completely the fault when a problem occurs, preventing the product ion of defective parts, and stopping the lines if necessary. 11 Total Productive Maintenance In order to expedite the response of the maintenance team appeared warning syste ms as the "Andon" that illuminated panels using a status report on the workplace . Currently being displaced by computer systems that integrate monitoring and co ntrol equipment and maintenance measures and historical faults. This is achieved by the integration of information both proactive and reactive in the system its elf allowing its integrated management and development of various cause-effect a nalysis so that they can be transformed into maintenance actions. 3.7 Training and motivation of employees The success or failure in an organization is directly linked to its members, sin ce these are solely responsible for its improvement and therefore the importance of training and training of all employees. Through training reducing errors, im proving quality and reducing costs, and reduces the learning curve and increases worker motivation, resulting in greater productivity of it. 12 Associated with maintenance tools 4. Associated with maintenance tools 4.1 PDCA Cycle The PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) or Deming cycle provides the basic methodology t o achieve continuous improvement in pursuit of increased effectiveness, efficien cy and flexibility of processes. It consists of four stages that must be perform ed on a cyclical basis: 1. Planning: determine what to do and how. Plan Act 2. D o: carry out the planned actions. 3. Verify: To evaluate and analyze the causes of the observed deviations. 4. Act: implement the improvements, new standards an d labor standards. tasks and Check Do 4.2 Principles of Pareto The Pareto principle applies to prioritize the problems objectively according to their importance. This principle states that there are many minor problems comp ared to only a few serious, so that by solving a few serious cases will be solve d most problems. Thus, through the orderly development of a cumulative frequency diagram can be identified 20% of serious cases, which cause about 80% of failur es, compared with 80% remaining€that only be the cause of another 20% of breakdo wns, and so is also known as the beginning of 1980 to 1920. 13 Associated with maintenance tools Pareto Diagram

160 140 120 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 EBCFDHAG Number of failures 100 80 60 40 20 0 Fault Types Figure 1: Example of Pareto diagram 4.3 Facilities Improvement An improvement team is a small group of members of various departments and set u p to improve the functioning of the entire company through the resolution of a p roblem. So a team was created to develop a plan for improvement in any of the de partments or sections of the company and undone when the objectives have been ac hieved in this area. The team will be coordinated and led by a member of the dep artment or section of the company which directly affects the plan. The advantage of team work, not in groups, is that it creates synergy, so that the results ac hieved are greater than those obtained with individual work of its members. It a lso fosters creativity, enhanced training, increases motivation and integrates i ts members as part of the organization. 4.4 Method SMED The method SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) is used to reduce the setup time or preparation time required in the tool change and adjustment in a multipurpos e machine when output changes. This is to eliminate the costs associated with th e preparation of the machines to produce one product or another, and thereby to reduce the lot size, 14 Associated with maintenance tools and ensure greater flexibilidad6 the production process. The total time required to manufacture a particular batch of product, a fixed part will be used to prep are the machine for the process, entailing a fixed cost that will be balanced by the increased batch size, which corresponds to processing time variable and the refore a variable cost. If the reduced preparation time, you can opt for the man ufacture of smaller lots, which give greater flexibility in processes, and there fore enable JIT production. Method: 1. 2. Identify the operations of the current method and measure their time. Sort trans actions between "internal setup" and "external setup, as the machine is stopped or running at the time of the transaction. 3. Transform all possible operations in operations machine running, "external setup." 4. Reduce the time spent on foreign exchange transactions with machine stopped. 5. Remove the preparation time by amending product design, components, tools, machines and processes, or the multiplication of machines, so as to eliminate the need for changes useful. Some actions to be carried out to reduce changeover times can be:

• Schedule changes and prepare the material prior to eliminate delays. • Conduct parallel operations to reduce the time that the machine stands. • Use quick fastening devices, to standardize the size and type clamping tool, and remove the adjustment process. • Improving storage and transportation of materials and tools for 6 Ease of system to adopt a broad range of states. 15 Associated with maintenance tools half of adequacy of the means of manutención7, and use visual controls. • Introduce the concept implemented poka-yoke systems antierror in all possible devices. 4.5 Scatterplot It allows the study of cause-effect relationship, representing the same graph in two opposing variables. By measuring the correlation is evaluated dependence be tween two or more random variables. Thus, by plotting the regression lines and e valuation of the slopes will be the degree of correlation between variables. Thi s relationship of dependence between variables is measured using the coefficient of correlation. 4.6 Study methods When to increase the efficiency of a task is essential to use the study of worki ng methods. This study aims to optimize the way of accomplishing a task to make it as efficient as possible, which will be needed, as always a first stage of da ta collection. The current procedure is recorded, measured, analyzed and develop ed an improved. Finally, the documentation prepared by a procedure statement of work, workforce training and the new solution is implemented. To record data exi st special techniques such as Flowchart overview of the process, Flowchart analy tical€multiple activity chart, diagram or circuit path, the plot threads, chart path ... To measure the work, that is, determining the time it takes a skilled w orker to execute a given task using a specific procedure, there are two main tec hniques. The time study and predetermined time standards. The time study is a re cord of the times of each July 1st set of operations of handling, transport and storage, as well as useful materials or products. 16 Associated with maintenance tools tasks that make up a procedure (t obs), as well as working patterns observed (r obs) during the implementation period and under certain conditions. The pace is measured by using scales such as the (100-133), (60-80), (75-100), (0-100), wher e the upper value corresponds to the rate type (type r). Thus we have:

time base = ⋅ t r obs r obs type Furthermore, based on the time necessary to apply the extras (fatigue, breaks, p ersonal needs, contingency ...) to get the type of execution time of each task. At predetermined time standards decomposes the task into basic moves, assigning to each time defined by the method. These methods are not based on interpretatio ns of patterns of work and therefore are targets, but implementation is reduced to estimating the time required for procedures that have not yet been implemente d. 4.7 Failure Mode Analysis and effects Analysis Failure Mode and Effects (FMEA) is a tool used in the case of loss aris ing from design, and therefore focused on reliability. With it systematically an alyze products and processes to identify potential causes after a failure, accor ding to their importance to concentrate efforts on its solution. With early iden tification of possible causes of failure are developing measures to prevent thei r occurrence or minimize their impact through preventive measures as defined in the design stage. Method: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Overview of the functions of the product or process list of potential failure mo des Defining the effects of failure causes Description Calculation of the risk p riority 17 Associated with maintenance tools The Risk Priority Index (MPI) is a composite indicator depends on the gravity (G ) of the probability of occurrence (F) and the probability of fault detection (D ). IPR = D ⋅ G ⋅ F [Risk Priority Index] Hence G has to be greater the higher the gravity, and F, the greater the frequen cy with which the fault occurs, whereas D will decrease with the ease with which the fault can be detected. Process FMEA Ele me nt Ope ration M odo Efe ct Caus failure as Emptying the queue of machine misalignment of the plate in the panel glue off the obstruction of the grooves o f the cylinder applicator applicators Paro cylinder misalignment of the sheet or panel Failure in sheet metal assembly panel adjustment for quality Disposable F ailure Failure grip panel missing component in turning the press Stuck with Paro panel panel off the cylinder D 1 G 5 F IPR Action nim m ie nt to Paro of the gl uing and filling the tank in February 1910 Stop the gluing and 5100 placed the f oil Stopping the March 1990 Review unjamming glue and drive system 5100 Review o f 5200 elements and change the alignment of the four damaged Review restraint sy stem 80 4 1 3 80 Review turner machine 10 Bonding Failure in the application of the tail 4 5

6 5 February 1910 Ich Sandw Panel April 1910 February 1910 2 10 1 10 3 10 Pressing Failure in the press February 1910 Paro and 90 unclogged Review press drive system 5100 Table 1: Example of FMEA of a manufacturing process There is also a variant of analysis adds a new factor, criticality (C) which wou ld be the emergence of a particular fault, or how harmful it would be for the op eration of the system. 4.8 Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control (SPC) to detect when a process 18 Associated with maintenance tools deviates from its expected performance, identifying the existence of a problem b ut not its cause. As in any process it is impossible to control all sources of v ariation involved in either their ignorance or cost for, it assumes the existenc e of a series of uncontrollable variations. These changes follow a random and th erefore can be modeled by a normal distribution€allowing the establishment of ma rgins under which the process is considered controlled. Thus, a process will rem ain under control while the values of quality characteristics are represented wi thin the preset range in the chart control and without presenting any trend or p attern, or a random behavior. To determine the control limits are calculated the mean and standard deviation of a sample set ((X i) i = 1) taken during a period under which the process remains under control. Known these values must be the u sual range (99.7% confidence) are given by: N L = ± 3 =

[Limits of control] [Media] Σ Xi N =

Σ N

- 2 X i

[ tandard deviation] 19 Associated with maintenance tools Control chart 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 X Lower Limit Upper Limit Figure 2: Example of control chart with control conditions 4.9 imple Queue Model It is a model belonging to the queuing theory of mathematical statistics, which allows a simple way to obtain acceptable results in the sizing of the equipment maintenance. This is because the repair operations for a single maintenance team can be viewed as a queue formed by the faults that the maintenance team can not attend while you're busy solving another. In the simple queuing model is consid ered a single queue of infinite length, formed by the breakdown of standby time. And they shape the appearance of faults in time, by a Poisson distribution and the distribution of repairs over time, through a negative exponential. Under the se assumptions, the theory states that the utilization factor ( ), or occupation of the maintenance team, is given by: =

[ ervices / time] ≡ arrival rate, or half of faults in a given period ≡ pattern of service or repa ir half over the same period 20 Associated with maintenance tools And the average number of equipment not available (ns), or damage to repair or w aiting to be repaired, is: n s = [Average number of failures] This will be able to get the costs caused by the unavailability of equipment bei ng repaired or awaiting repair. Also, the time between failures is given by 1 and the average length of a breakdown is given by t s = 1. -

 

   

21 Conclusions 5. Conclusions There has been a maintenance that fixes problems that prevent work through a pla nned and provided from the earliest stages of design, seeking to eliminate any f ault and therefore any impact on production. For this highlights the fact that: • We must introduce a system for data acquisition and storage effective in making history. • We need to integrate information systems of all areas of company, thereby enabling transparent communication. • We must assess the importance and impact of each machine in order to allocate pr oductive resources appropriate to your system importance. • We must implement teamwork as a way to get substantial improvements by integrating groups of individuals from different are as and knowledge. • We must educate and motivate members of the organization to increase their productivity. 22 Bibliography J. C. Prado Prado, A. García Lorenzo, J. García Arca Directorate of Logistics an d Production ervice Publications, University of Vigo. 2000 Rey Francisco acristán Total Production Maintenance FC Editorial. 2002 Joseph F. Barrio Vilar, Teresa Delgado Tejada torial. 2005 Internet References NTP 679: Failure Mode Analysis and effects. FMEA

 

 

 

tatistical Process Control FC Edi