STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach CLASSES OF WORDS AS WORDS DERIVED STRUCTURE bypass

involves the creation of a wo rd by adding a prefix and / or suffix. Prefixes and suffixes are grammatical ele ments that can not appear free (they are locked morphemes). The prefix, precedin g the lexeme, is unstressed and does not change the grammatical category of the word, only the meaning: eg to undoing the suffix that follows the stem, is tonic and can change the grammatical category and, even change the gender of the stem that is attached: eg animate / animation, home / cas-ERON. 1.1 .- 1.1.1 .- refe rral fixing negative prefixes ('denial, deprivation') a-, ananticontrades-, dis, deexextrain-im. inegación against, opposing opposite opposite meaning negation or reversal of deprivation / further out of denial, deprivation / within apolit ical, anti-air counter disunity illiterate, dissatisfied, degenerate exculpate, minister / extend special unbeatable, illegal / immanent 1.1.2-Prefixes "Locate" ('location, location') approach forward position before antealrededor circum-, circum intermediate situation, reciprocity between-, inte r indebajo inside of, at the bottom of intraalrededor infradentro periposteriori dad in space pos-posten instead of, rather than probajo, secondary action, sub-i nferiority, sosuper-on-, supra-up, superior to the other side, at the opposite t rans-ultrastructural Trasmiera place there, immediately below to viceaterrizar, ditch lobby, mezzanine circumnavigate prefix, inter-breed, inhuman intramuscular breathe underwater perimeter pronoun pellet undermine premium, supra backroom, vice overseas transport -1 VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach 1.1.3 .- Prefixes "temporary" anteperpos-postpreanterioridad in time through tim e after spending the night before yesterday to postpone Preclassic 1.1.4-prefixes of "intensification" ('superlative character') archiextrahiperhip ore-requetesuperultra ~ well, the first prominence out of place, good exageradam ante above, higher repetition below, greatly enhances the sense, too high Archdi ocese degree extradivertido hyperacidity hypotension redo, ultralight overproduc tion BENONE 1.1.5 .- Prefixes indicate quantity, size (usually educated and are used mainly in technological and commercial fields) bi-, bis-, bizminimono-monmultiplurisemi unidos, one small double, a single abundance, variety, variety, variety average almost one bicolor, multicolor monocle miniskirt grandfather moonlighting semici rcle, semi-unilateral 1.1.6 .- The "prefijoides" Some prefixes just becoming independent and constitut e a quasi-autonomous lexical unit. So it is with TELE-AUTO-, FOTO-, EURO-ECO-CIB ER-etc. They are constitutive elements of words of Greek or Latin origin, which are used as prefixes. However, in some cases outside the paradigm of the prefixe s, it seems to have autonomy semantic and syntactic. They just released its etym ological model, and, once released, they behave as elements of a series organize

rs. Consider an example. TELE-Greek prefix meaning 'away' (eg television). With time beginning to be used only with the full meaning of 'TV'. This self-employme nt in which words appear the formant TELE-loses its etymological meaning and acq uires full meaning ('TV'). Eg soap opera, news reader, couch potato. -2 VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach 1.2 .- 1.2.1 .- referral suffixation SUFFIXES significant (indicating a positive or negative connotation, a subjective assessment) 1.2.1.1 .- Increase augmentat ive azo coup-weighting (valuation) value augmentative derogatory diminutive (nam es) derogatory action replay pejorative augmentative surge, which is shaped over derogatory ponderous blow big dog Miquelon inquisitive artists leave mop wimp p ush chair cabin hooked tough hairy bespectacled conscientious - Dress, - one - Ote, - ota - udo 1.2.1.2 .- DIMINUTOS - ito, - ita house. Marked bow nun dialectal character Arag on, Casica Murcia, eastern Andalusia). The female usually has value mozica conte mptuous whiner. lexicalized articulillo puppy affection shin disaffected moderat e decrease Tontin pejorative value gentleman decrease alley burlesque palace wre n jocular derogatory, emotional attachment value decreased thief has lexicalized - Ico - illo - N, - ina, - ino - ino - ete,€- Eta - uelo - uela -3 VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach 1.2.1.3 .- Pejorative 0 Derogatory addition to the augmentative and diminutive c ontaining these values, there is pejorative or derogatory specific suffixes. - A co - acho - garlic - ales - arro,-orro, "urro - astro - 1.2.2 .- ato suffixes fr om different lexical bases (nouns, adjectives, verbs) with the addition of a suf fix can lead to the formation of nominal derivatives, the formation of adjective s, verbs and adverbs. 1.2.2.1 .- Training of substantive action, act, blow effec t by group, where you will play as - aje abstract work, office - ance (-ence) (dence) abstract quality agent - ante (-ente ) collective - ar, - the name of the tree that bears the fruit of these trees populated place action - collective tr aining abstract quality - dad (-ly) place used to - agent dero - ing, machine ac tion, effect - hard (ura) set point of sale - pipelining abstraction derogatory nuance profession - ber tree - ado,-a -4 -

Temperate smallish tome cunt medicastro hombracho brat washing, hazing peasants thrust leadership journey mileage principality toleranc e, designer coffee boom signaling ugliness pear grove collection, loyalty trough abductor machine twist lemon fried dairy milk talk VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach - Ez, - eza - IA - gone - ism - Ist - Regulation (ing) - mint Utensil quality set of abstract noise act proper grade quality abstract animal m ovement cultural activity agent, a follower of joint action proverbs wallet strength, beauty, virtuosity felipe rude bark collecting mediocr e writer, Marxist knowledge oath skeleton 1.2.2.2 .- Formation of adjectives - to - year - before (being) (ETSI) - ble (AB LE) (ible) - Aryan - dor - enco,-ent - teaching - Eno - ero - és - ESCO - ent il - ivo - izo (dizo) - oid - bear (uoso) - USCO on natural (adjective) that is "---" agent, an active element comprising quality possible on agent shoots belon ging to, quality natural natural natural qualities belonging to pejorative quali ty quality quality agent like abundance propensity affinity, near Zamora shoots brilliant musical, convertible degrading kind, piecemeal tax treatable Springer, bonceador yellowish, bluish mountain circus burlesque Avila Caceres hungry cott on amorous male abuse humanoid hateful, friendly gray-haired, sweaty brown 1.2.2.3 .- Training of verbs - ar - ear plug flashing, yellow -5VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach - Ecer - lifting - IFIC hinder wetting, waterproof purify 1.2.2.4 Formation of adverbs .- Mind 1.2.3 .- The interfix adverbs of manner naturally Some linguists have described a marginal unit: the interfix. They are elements o f speech or unstressed without significant value only morphophonemics have a rol e by acting as a liaison between the lexical base, and fundamentally, some suffi xes. Some consider them as part of the suffixes. Sometimes they act only as anti hiáticos elements, or serve as support for easier pronunciation of derivatives. Eg cafe-c-ito, roll, butcher, bread-ad-ero, back-ar-azo, hum-ar-eda COMPOUND WORDS Composition is a word formation process by which from two or more

lexemes new one is created. Typically, the resulting compound word acquires a m eaning that exceeds that of the simple addition of the meanings of component wor ds: ex.: Railroad Generally, these lexemes appear together graphically (compound s morphological spelling = union). But consider all those phrases that compounds , though not graphically together constitute a semantic unit. We distinguish the following types of composition: 2.1 .- Sinapsi: bill of exchange, wheelchair co nsists of the union of two or more lexical items from a syntactic point of view, not morphological. The syntactic relationship is usually made with a prepositio n ("de"). Sometimes it is difficult to know if it is lexicalized. For this to ha ppen, the order of the elements (given + determinant) and the meaning must be th e same, ie, the only constant. It also must meet the following conditions: both elements retain their full lexical form, the second part has no article and the two formants are able to expand (bring own additions): eg: A wheelchair a wheelc hair swivel Over time, may disappear and cause the link graph union: -6VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach Eg tin (tin) is curious to observe how, in some cases, the English equivalent is a morphological unit: eg porthole = "porthole" 2.2 .- Disjunction: The disjunct ion trundle bed the elements the composite unit soldier are not graphically (nor are linked by a relational element): eg public, Civil War, plasterboard 2.3 .VERSUS: Hispano-French In this case the union occurs by a hyphen: ex- German phy sical chemist 2.4 .- juxtaposition: umbrella, however, most of the compound word s presented graphic fusion. We can find various compositional schemes: N + N N + A N + i + A A + N A + A + VV V + ADV. V + N ADV. + N ADV. + A ADV. + V = = = = = = = = = = = honeysuckle, agriculture etching, mint gaping tide, noon bitterswe et, Greco-Roman dozing, ropes, swinging boss Parking, scarecrow blessed felicity , wounded belittle (NOTE: COMPOSITE accentuation. A) Só1o tilde is the last word if you take it as is for general rules: eg basketball, centipedes, seventeenth b) If the words are separated with a hyphen, tilde is conserved in if the two are separate: eg phys ical-chemical) COMPOUNDS FROM FALSE GREEK AND / OR LATINO These techniques, most ly consisting of Greek or Latin, which in their languages work as lexemes (or pr efixes and / or suffixes). By joining with other terms in Castilian or combined among them give rise to a peculiar type of compounds. -7VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach Ejs.: democracy, the Greek demos, "people", and racy, "power" amphitheater, from the L atin amphi, "double", and Spanish theater (To learn the table on page 100) PARASINTÉT ICAS Actually, not a special mechani sm for the creation of words, but uses some of the procedures we have studied. I n a broad sense, the most widespread, is the combination parasíntesis prefixatio n and suffixation, provided there are no forms in the language as attested combi nations or lexeme lexeme + prefix + suffix: eg land (* Embankment -, * earthen) eg soulless rule, sponsor In a narrower sense, some understand the combination p

arasíntesis + suffixation composition: eg stonemason, quinceañera, SHORTENING mi sacantano shortening of words involves the removal of any element . It is a proc ess of language itself commercial, administrative and some specialized languages . 4.1 .- abbreviation or truncation consists in reducing phonic body of a word: Movies (phic), photo, professional, zoo, bus, etc. A special case of what consti tutes the ACRONIMIA truncation: it is the union of opposite ends of two or more words (beginning of the first and the end of the second, or the end of the first and the beginning of the second): eg : singer, morphosyntax, bus (vehicle bus) terylene (polyester Gallo), computer (automated information) transistor (transfe r resistor), Banesto 4.2.1 .- 4.2 .- ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS SIMPLE is the r epresentation of a word in writing with a or more of their letters (sounds are n ot deleted). The only point that must be maintained is the first: ie: d. (Don), S. (San), Admin. (Administration) 4.2.2 .- COMPOUND ABBREVIATIONS -8VCF STRUCTURE OF THE WORDS Sheet 6 Castilian Language and Literature 1 º Bach What are two or more short words, and retains only the first letter of each one of them. Nor phonetic implications: eg SDM (His Divine Majesty), b.s.p. (Kiss yo ur feet) or COMPLEX 4.2.3 .- ABBREVIATIONS ACRONYMS These abbreviations refer to names, which causes sometimes be darker motivation for the speaker. In this cas e it is a visual and aural reduction of several words: eg, NASA (National Aerona utics and Space Administration) UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) U.S., CCOO, NATO (NATO), AVE Many times, the lost the meaning of the acronym, this then becomes lexicalized so much that can be written as one w ord (eg, UFO, radar, Talgo, laser). Indeed, in some cases, will form new creatio ns derived (eg ETA, pepere). -9 VCF