MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER CHAPTER SECTION 4.1 4.

2 4 CONTENTS Introduction General in the preparation of cycling capabilities that ca n be trained physical characteristics of power systems demands of energy systems in cycling events Conclusions Self-Teaching Tips 04/03 CYCLE TRAINING 4.4 5.4 4.7 6.4 8.4 SICC Manual for the Level 2 Cycling Coach Cycling 2 125 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER CYCLE TRAINING OBJECTIVE Relate the general aspects of the preparation of the rider, the physical and ene rgy systems in the official test track and road. INSTRUCTIONS: Upon completion of this chapter, the coach should be able to: Describe the diffe rent aspects √ General to take into account in the preparation of the cyclist. √ Identify the physical capabilities that can be trained (flexibility, strength a nd power). √ distinguish the energy production systems of the body and their rel ative importance in different cycling events. √ √ Recognize control tests to det ermine aerobic and anaerobic power. Define the anaerobic threshold as a way to e xplain the production and metabolism of lactic acid. √ Recognize the demands of energy systems in each event or cycling test. 4.1 INTRODUCTION The training concept is central in any sport. To compete, the athlete must be pr epared to devote much of their daily lives to improve their skills and their phy sical and mental abilities, thus, to achieve excellence, the athlete requires an efficient training program, well planned and properly executed, focusing on the particular demands of the test or tests in which expected results. Level two, w ants the coach to prepare and implement this training program, one of the Cycling 2 126 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER bases to have a broad knowledge of the basics of training and its relation to ma tters specific to cycling.

4.2 GENERAL IN THE PREPARATION OF CYCLE In order to improve their skills, the athlete must submit to constant stimuli of physical work in training sessions, which is why in planning and developing the rider's preparation work is necessary to consider general issues such as: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Workload. Intensity. Wavy gradual increase of the load. Frequ ency of training. Specificity of training. Individuality. Reversibility. Effects on fitness. a) WORKLOAD volume refers to the total amount of work done, this is usually expressed in numbers of hours, repetitions or kilometers. The volume pe r session can be increased by increasing the duration of exercise (eg, running 1 50 minutes instead of 120 minutes). The volume per week can be increased by incr eases in the frequency or duration (eg, running three sessions of 120 minutes in stead of two, run 90 minutes four times instead of 3 times 60 minutes), the volu me usually increases at the beginning of the season. B) Training Intensity The absolute level of tax effort to the body is referred to as training intensit y, is easily understood if we recognize that the same distance can be covered at different times. The total amount of work will be completely different dependin g on the time made in the same task. While the concept of volume is easy to unde rstand, the concept of intensity is much harder to understand. For example, two riders complete a training of 100 km in 3 hours for one session may have been to o heavy and the other was only a maintenance session. You have to make a distinc tion between absolute and relative intensity. The absolute intensity means that each rider performs the same task (running at 40 km / h), whereas Cycling 2 127 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER relative intensity refers to the level of difficulty that this challenge is for each individual and depends on the conditions under which the meeting takes plac e. Running at 35 km / h against a strong wind can be very difficult, while going at 45 km / h with a tailwind can be very easy. The main challenge for a coach i s to establish a scale and a method for measuring the intensity of effort in tra ining. In Chapter 4, revised methods of measuring the intensity of training. c) progressive increase in the BURDEN As mentioned above,€the athlete should be sub jected to constant stimuli of work in training sessions to improve their physica l abilities. The rider's body adapts to physical exertion of training with which is improving your fitness. However, if the next session is scheduled by allowin g a long period of time, the effects of previous training adaptation are lost. I f, however, the next training session is held close to the previous (ie, before the athlete to recover from exertion), fatigue increases in such a way that does not allow recovery of the cyclist and not have no benefit in fitness. Similarly if the training is too hard or too easy, the broker does not get any benefit of that meeting. The training stimulus should be sufficient to produce an adaptati on in the body of the cyclist. The overload principle can be described as a func tion of the intensity and volume of training undertaken by an individual. To mai ntain a given level of physical abilities such as stamina, strength, power, etc. , the effort of training in a particular session must be equivalent to that of t he previous sessions, to improve the level achieved, the effort to schedule the session following should be higher. Gradually increase the degree of difficulty from session to session is the essence of training, the principle of progressive increase of the load, so it can be reached as follows: • Increasing the amount of work done in the session. • Scheduling the work of th e athlete with high intensity (eg, keeping • Managing the volume and intensity a t the same time.

same feed but pedaling faster, increase the advance, pedaling with the same freq uency, run flat or in rolls and then upload) Cycling 2 128 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Actually the volume and intensity can not be differentiated in a training progra m, because both determine the importance of tax incentives in the training corri dor. d) FREQUENCY OF TRAINING The training often refers to the number of session s carried out over a period of time. The most common time unit used in training programs is the week, however, a "microcycle" may be larger (10 days). How often training should be scheduled in a microcycle?. As a general rule should be two workouts per week to maintain the level reached and three or four times to incre ase it. The sessions to develop a certain physical ability must be properly spac ed, alternate days rather than several consecutive days periods separated by lon g periods of time. For example, in the competitive stage, a road cyclist can do work of weights to maintain strength in the upper body on Mondays and Thursdays; to route on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays to improve the resistance to use ra ce on Sunday for training sprints, Tuesday and Thursday to maintain power. The r eason for carrying out the above alternating pattern of loud and soft sessions, is that training at the same time intense and prolonged (90 minutes or more) ten ds to significantly reduce muscle glycogen stores. When glycogen stores are depl eted, fatigue occurs normally, and it takes more than 24 hours to replenish thes e reserves. e) training specific Specificity refers to the nature of the activit y and the characteristics of the training. It implies that the corridor should f ocus as much as possible, the following indications: • Work the major muscles for activity. • properly characterize the duration and intensity, in order to develop adequate energy systems and the correct motor patterns in order to implement eff iciently in the conditions found in the competition. For example, runners who have taken their training with a 42X15 progress, can no t get results if used in competition 53X14 progress. Road Runners who train long distances are not prepared to run criteriums or proof of individual persecution , nor are prepared Cycling 2 129 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER for a test of 1,000 meters or for a sprint, because they have not worked these e nergy systems. However, the above should not be misinterpreted. The coach does n ot need to program for runners kilometer or persecutors, specific training on th e speed at the start of the season€only to respect this principle. In fact, alth ough some forms of training are not specific to a particular test should be an i ntegral part of the training regimen of cycling throughout the season. Such form s of training contribute to the maintenance of certain capacities that are impor tant to a good runner, for example, a persecutor will have to continue doing tra ining or skills route along the season even if these activities are not "highly specific" for test, which is why the coach should analyze test requirements befo re developing the training program, consider variables such as time period that includes the season and the level of athlete, among others, for the purpose of s etting rates training and the intensities considered in the above program. f) IN

DIVIDUALITY The principle of individuality means that each person is different a nd needs different intensities, volume and / or frequency of training in all per iods including the season, according to your level of sport. From a strictly phy siological point of view, the ability of an individual to adequately perform a t ask depends on several factors including heredity, age, level of training, the t echnique developed, etc., the coach must take into account these factors to be s ure of optimum development of the sport form, and this is why the load in traini ng should not be the same for all athletes. g) REVERSIBILITY adaptations reaches our bodies through training are reversible. If the training is adjourned for a period of time, you lose the fitness gained. Normally the physical form is lost when training is suspended for a period of approximately two weeks. h) EFFECT ON THE PHYSICAL FORM Cycling 2 130 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Finally, the coach and athlete should be aware that training adaptations are not uniform. A rapid increase in the physical form is usually evident in the first weeks or months of training program, particularly if the initial level of fitnes s is low, then stabilizes and from this point only be obtained even with relativ ely small increases suitable training. Despite having reached a certain level in the physical form, it may tend to present fluctuations, ie the level of fitness increase, decrease, and have periods of stability. The coach and the runner mus t be prepared to work at these times without losing confidence in their program. PHYSICAL CAPACITY 4.3 SUSEPTIBLES be trained The physical capacities that can be trained in cycling are: a) b) c) d) Flexibil ity and mobility. Strength and strength-endurance. Power. Resistance. With the exception of flexibility, the foundations for the development of streng th, power and resistance is given by the energy production systems of the human body, which will be described in greater detail in the following sections of thi s chapter. a) Mobility is the flexibility or range of motion with the joints of our body. The physical capacity can be increased through stretching of the tendo ns that attach muscles to bones in joints, however, that the rider does not make any movement that involves push the boundaries of the joint mobility, stretchin g should be part of the heating and relaxation sessions after the training. The flexibility allows to reach the maximum extension of the muscles and helps incre ase their ability to adapt to the effort. b) POWER AND FORCE-RESISTANCE Force, i s the maximum stress that an athlete can perform during a muscle contraction. Cycling 2 131 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Force-resistance, is the ability to repeat a muscle strain against a relatively high resistance. The physical capacity is important for the rider because it not only exerts force on the pedals, but the handle to stabilize the upper body on the climbs and sprints. Strength training, especially in the upper body, are usu ally neglected by road corridors. The force is increased by working against a hi gh level of resistance, the result is an increase in muscle fiber size and its a bility to produce energy. The strength-endurance can be increased with low-resis tance work and a greater number of repetitions.€c) POWER Power is the ability to put into action quickly muscle strength. Can be expressed as a combination of s

peed, strength, sometimes also called "explosive strength." This capability is e xtremely important in the corridors, especially when done accelerations, as in t he sprints. d) RESISTANCE Resistance is the ability to perform (or repeat) work for a long period of time at a certain intensity. The term resistance is usually associated with prolonged aerobic effort, but can also apply to high-intensity efforts. It is therefore appropriate to distinguish between aerobic and anaerobi c endurance. Aerobic endurance Aerobic endurance is perhaps the most obvious phy sical abilities that require cyclists (except for very short event specialists o f the track, sprinters), and is often better trained capacity. However, even the sprinters need to develop this capacity they require to make repetitions of thi s effort (eg, series of sprints). Aerobic endurance is the ability to do work in the corridor over a long period of time, usually hours at low intensity. In the se cases, the broker uses fat as the main fuel, because the intensity of effort is low enough so that muscle fibers produce energy without resorting to glycogen , which is the "super fuel" exercised muscle. The word endurance efforts can als o apply to shorter and more intense, where the energy is supplied by the aerobic system. For example, the ability of the rider to roll at high speed for several minutes, as Cycling 2132 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER is the test case 20 or 40 kilometers against the clock, is also a demonstration of aerobic endurance. The resistance training has two major physiological effect s on the body: 1. Increased muscle glycogen, 2. The muscle fibers increase their ability to utilize the fat and make oxygen. The word endurance Anaerobic endura nce can also be applied to situations where the energy is mainly provided by the anaerobic system, a typical example of this situation occurs in the test of tim e trial kilometers. Muscular endurance refers to the ability of the muscle or mu scle groups to do work for a long period of time at a given intensity. 4.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER SYSTEMS The human body gets energy through chemical reactions of cleavage of organic fue ls: food. There are three main effects of proper training of energy systems: • An increase in the range of efficiency of chemical reactions made in muscle cells. • An improvement in the ability of several systems for tra nsport to the muscle cell that promote the necessary chemical reactions. • An in crease in the ability to remove secondary products resulting from chemical react ions to produce energy. The training develops the energy reserves of the corrido r and administered on the basis of the various tests. It's like a car running wh ile you have fuel in your tank. The cyclist can make efforts as we have energy r eserves contained in three different deposits: A, B and C. The "A" has the small er capacity and will of unit volume, we attribute value: one. Cycling 2 133 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER The "B", three times as large is the value of: three units. The "C" is the large st capacity represents 25 times the deposit A and more than eight times the depo sit B, ie a value of 25 units. 3 1 Reserve

C A B 2500-50000 Cal / kg fat + Sugars + supply possible ATP 100 38-39 Cal / kg 300 Ca l / kg ATP + PC = Fostágeno muscle glycogen ATP 2-3 Speed Power 800 watts 600 watts 250 watts Cycling 2 134 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Each of these three deposits contain different fuels that allow the rider to rea ch speeds varied. • Maximum speed to high speed with A • B • C sustained speed In each of these speeds, it is a different usable power: • Maximum power • Max with A to B to C • Max 800 Watts 600 Watts 250 Watts There are three systems of energy production in the body which are the anaerobic -alactic (ATP-CP), anaerobic-lactic acid system and the aerobic system. The anae robic system produces energy quickly without oxygen;€the aerobic system requires oxygen to produce energy and is slower than the anaerobic system, but can suppl y power for a longer time period. These systems have specific characteristics wi th respect to: • Its capacity .- The amount of energy they can produce; • Maximum power .- The maximum amount of energy that can be produced by unit time. • The inertia .- The delay is necessary before the system reaches max imum power. • The critical duration .- The time during which its power can be ma intained. When the exercise starts, the energy systems or work are presented in the following order: anaerobic-alactic, anaerobic-lactic acid and aerobic. The a naerobic system-alactic (ATP-CP System) System-alactic anaerobic energy released rapidly from phosphate compounds stored in muscle cells. These compounds are al so known as phosphagen (adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP)). The amount of these compounds that can be stored is quite limited, however this system is capable of providing energy for the first 10 or 12 seconds at high int ensity of work. After this period, the anaerobic-lactic acid is responsible for providing energy if physical activity is maintained. Cycling 2 135 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER The development of anaerobic energy system-alactic is particularly important for runners who participate in short-duration, high intensity, characterized by out put stopped. It is essential for competing against the clock kilometer and 500 m eters. For practical purposes the contribution of ATP-CP system is negligible fo r tests with a duration of several minutes. The anaerobic-lactic-lactic anaerobi c system produces energy quickly, but only for a short period of time. The chemi cal reactions of this system have a by-product lactic acid. If lactic acid accum ulates during muscle work, can cause it to work at a slower pace or even force t

o stop the exercise being performed. Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle after intense work and go to the circulation for metabolism, lactic acid has traditio nally been associated with pain and fatigue on the part of coaches and athletes. Hard work done at the expense of the anaerobic-lactic acid can be maintained fo r 45 seconds, this provides the bulk of energy in all situations requiring a hig h level of intensity when the effort is sustained for more than 10 seconds. In t rack events, especially the mile and speed the development of this system is cri tical for optimum performance, this system plays an important role in most track events, particularly in the team pursuit and points race . During a road race, the ability to quickly obtain energy from anaerobic-lactic acid is crucial in se veral situations that have to do with the outcome of the event, some of these si tuations can be sprints, short steep climbs, making a relay high speed and launc h an attack. An athlete less than 14 years will not be overly exposed to this sy stem, because it does not yet have specific enzymes needed to break down large q uantities of lactic acid. For runners in this category should be given emphasis in training the aerobic system. Anaerobic threshold Anaerobic threshold theory i s commonly used by coaches and athletes. The anaerobic threshold is the theoreti cal point at which lactic acid production by the effects of exercise exceeds the body's ability to metabolize it. This theoretical point of anaerobic threshold can be determined by field tests or laboratory. In both cases, a heart rate moni tor is used, the athlete performs a Cycling 2136 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER working with increasing intensity or progressively, until the working capacity d ecreases and the pulse is maintained or increased. At the end of each level of i ntensity determines the concentration of lactic acid in the blood. By plotting t he results in a coordinate system can locate the threshold of 4 mmol / l and det ermine the appropriate intensity. In laboratory tests, the measure is also used for ventilation and maximum oxygen consumption to determine this point. The coac h will look for the point at which the ratio is greater than 1.0 VCO2/VO2. The a naerobic threshold is like a red, long working on this natural limit becomes ver y difficult.€Increase the current beyond this level will cause the accumulation of lactic acid that lead to muscle fatigue and force the athlete to reduce their work, the breathing becomes agitated and the workload can not be increased for a given period, if is continuous heart rate will increase rapidly. Finally, the anaerobic threshold or red zone may appear at different intensities or workloads depending on the athlete and their level of fitness and fatigue. Once the inten sity corresponding to the threshold is determined, can guide us to dispense the training intensity in order to achieve a particular goal. One reason for the dev elopment of the cardiovascular system by increasing the intensity (heart rate) a t which an athlete can sustain a given workload, is to avoid the presence of chr onic muscle fatigue. The aerobic system system gets energy from aerobic metaboli sm of carbohydrates (glucose and glycogen) and fats through the complex energy p roduction reactions that take place in the presence of oxygen. Specific elements within the muscle cell must also be trained to enable an increase in the propor tion of chemical reactions, to improve energy production in aerobic conditions. The heart, lungs and vascular system (arteries and veins) should also be trained to provide more oxygen to the muscles and transport the products of these react ions more efficiently (carbon dioxide, lactic acid, etc.). The aerobic system is able to work with moderate levels of intensity for long periods of time. It is therefore of great importance for the corridor of persecution, the race for poin ts, the map, the team time trial and those of criteriums. The aerobic system pro duces most of the energy required in the sustained efforts that have a duration longer than three minutes. Development of aerobic qualities Cycling 2 137

MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Different intensities (% MAP) and duration of ongoing efforts and their effects on the development of aerobic qualities. Intensity% Effort MAP duration (min.) Description Subjective Difficulty Level me eting on Effects on the Development of Resistance aerobic power Qualities Negligible Medium No Good No Good No Good No 70 Medium Negligible Negligible Neg ligible Very Good Excellent Medium 80 Negligible Very Good Good Average Average Average Average Excellent 90 Good * Good Good / Very Good Good * * can be consid ered very good for specialists in the events short-term and final phase of prepa ration (persecution). 60 a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b) 30-45 60-90 90-120 150 + 45-75 75-90 90-120 150 + 30-45 45-60 75-90 90 + 20-24 2 5 + More Soft Medium Soft Medium / Soft Medium Strong Very Strong Strong Soft / Medi um Medium Strong Very Strong Strong Very Strong Cycling 2 138 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Different intensities and duration of intermittent efforts and their effects on the development of anaerobic qualities. * Check-out launched Quality Work Period (min: sec) Number of Number of Average Number type repetitio ns repetitions Working groups / recovered per session per session per group Half tion Power: alactic Anaerobic Capacity: anaerobic alactic Power: anaerobic lactic 0:15 0:10 0:20 0:15 0:20 0:30 0:20 0:10 - 0:12 * (200 m) 0:30 - 0:40 * (500 m) 40-50 40 32-40 40-50 40 32-40 30-35 December 16 to 20 - 15 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 3 8 to 10 August 8 - 10 8 - 10 8 8 - October 6-7 4-5 4-5 1:6 - 1:7 8 - 8 1:8 1:4 - 1:4 5 - 1:5 5 - 6 1:6 - 1:6 8 - 8 1:8 Liabilities Liabilities Liabilities Liabilities Liabilities Assets Liabilities A ssets Liabilities Capacity: 0:40 - 0:50 * Lactic anaerobic 1:00 to 1:20 * 1:30 to 2:00 * December 20 to August 6 4 February 4 5 3 to 4 April 1:5 1:4 - 1:4 5

Active Active Active Activity recovery: Continuous Effort = 50-60% MAP. Cycling 2 139 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Different intensities and duration of interval training efforts and their effect s on the development of aerobic qualities (strength and power. Intensity Duration of effort (min: sec) Duration of activity recovery (min: sec) 1. between two repetitions. between set s (1) (2) 10 6-8 6-8 8 - October 5 to 8 5 - 2-3 2-3 5-6 3-4 2-3 2-3 1:30 - 2 1 1 - 1:30 0:45 - 1 0:10 Total number of reps and sets (s) Description Length Effects on the development of qualities subjective level of a erobic session (min) of the difficulties in meeting (R) 5-7 December 8 to 10 - 15 June to 10 December - 15 16 - 20 6-8 12-16 50 + (R) 1-2 1-2 2 2 2 to 3 February February 1 1-2 90-135 90-120 90-150 45-90 60-80 60-90 20-35 25-40 + 25 + Very difficult Difficult Medium Difficult Difficult Dif ficult Difficult Difficult Very difficult Resistance Power 80 90 100 + a) b) c) a) b) c) a) b) August 10 to 11 4 to 5 May 3 1:30 - 2 2 to 3 January Medium Medium Excellent Excellent Very Good Good Fair / Medium MB Excellent Very Good Fair Very good Excellent Negligible Negligible Negligible Excellent Excell ent c) 0:15 Cycling 2 140 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Maximal aerobic power A key concept in the study of the factors that may limit t

he optimum performance of the runners in tests with a duration of several minute s or more is aerobic power. For most road cyclists, aerobic power is the most im portant area of fitness. The ability of brokers to maintain a high percentage of their aerobic power is closely linked to success in the competitions (like a sh ort individual time trial). Aerobic power is a function of two parameters: maxim um oxygen consumption and technical efficiency. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max.) Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max.) Is the amount of oxygen that can be used by muscle cells to break down food and produce energy aerobically for an in tense effort by the work of great muscle mass (like legs) and which lasts severa l minutes, with the largest amount of oxygen that may be available in a period o f time, the more fuel can be "burned" and will have the greatest amount of energ y can be produced by the aerobic system. In the expression VO2 Max. , "V" refers to the volume and oxygen O2 and "Hi." To the maximum. VO2 Max. can be expressed in liters of O2 consumed per minute (l / min) or milliliters of O2 per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml / kg / min). It is ultimately the factor that mea sures the contribution of the energy needed to move the weight of the body and m akes it possible to determine the aerobic work capacity in persons of different size. VO2 Max. is determined by several factors, among which include: • The ability of the pulmonary system to transfer oxygen from inspired air to blood. • Maximum cardiac output is determined by the maximum heart rate and bloo d volume ejected, is the amount of blood pumped with each contraction. • The amo unt of oxygen that can be transported by blood. • The ability of the muscle cell to extract and use oxygen is transported in the circulatory system to produce e nergy through various aerobic reactions. The VO2 Max. determined in laboratory t ests which measure the amount of air exhaled by the athlete in an exhaustive eff ort. Table 1 shows the VO2 Cycling 2 141 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Max. outstanding cyclists. It is important to mention that women have a lower le vel of VO2 Max. with an average of 60-70 ml / kg / min. TABLE 1 MEASURES OF VO2 MAX. CYCLISTS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE REPORTED BY OTHER AUTHORS National team cyclists Eddy Merckx, USA, Hans E. Road Oersted National team, Gre at Britain, National Road team, Canada, and provincial road Level Track Club Nat ional team riders, Australia, pursuit 1/min VO2 max --- 5.60 4.97 6.50 4.66 + 0.57 5.77 + 0.19 Ml / kg / min 77.0 74.0 + 8.3 85.0 77.4 + 1.7 75.2 + 2.3 64.5 + 5.8 81.1 + 5.2 Evaluator (year) Stromme (1997) Burke (1980) Orheim (1980) White (1982) Banniste r (1987) Marion (1988) Australian Institute Sport (1989) TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY The other component of maximum aerobic power is the technic al efficiency of the athletes, which can be expressed as the range of mechanical work done and the energy used by the individual to perform such work. Technical efficiency = work done / energy required to perform the work The amount of oxyg en consumed will be different for each individual to perform a specified task. T echnical efficiency can therefore influence the physical form in a meaningful wa y allowing athletes to be more "efficient" to do more work with the same level o f oxygen consumption and / or spend less energy at a given workload. Some studie s even suggest that technical efficiency may be one of the most important factor

s, which make the difference between athletes of "excellence" and "good" athlete s. Cycling 2 142 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER In cycling the technical efficiency is affected by various factors such as posit ion on the bike and pedaling technique (frequency and pattern of application of force on the pedals Issues related to the position on the bike and pedaling tech nique treated broadly in the Level One manual SICC. cadence cadence associated w ith the lowest oxygen consumption for a given working power, it is estimated aro und 90 to 100 revolutions per minute (rpm) for trained cyclists on the road, in exchange for novice riders is approximately 60 rpm. The specificity in the train ing appears to influence the optimal cadence in trained cyclists. In situations of high intensity (eg when a cyclist is hunting group during a competition fligh t route), appears to be more efficient high cadence pedaling to try to advance a "breakthrough" heavy at low speeds, but when the group moves at low speed and r elatively the rider needs to recover, you can use a slightly larger gear for a m oment and move forward with pedal at low revolutions per minute, and finally, in training for the skills of individual and team pursuit is necessary a high-spee d pedaling, where the rider can exceed the usual rate of pedaling (90-100 rpm), recommended route for competitors. Table 2 shows an estimate of the relative con tribution of different energy systems for various cycling tests. TABLE 2 CONTRIB UTION APPROXIMATE 3 THE ENERGY SYSTEMS IN SOME TESTS OF CYCLING% OF ENERGY REQUI REMENTS PROVIDED BY: EVENT 200 m. 200 m. Output stopped Launched Output stopped * 1000 m. 3000 m. 4000 m. 4000 m. Individual Equipment 15 km. ITT Anaerobic ATPCP AEROBIC SYSTEM LACTIC Sec 55-60 15-18 35-40 <5 25-30 60-65 = 10.5 to 12 Sec 1 0 Sec 65-75 <15 60-65 <20 3:45 4:00 min. <5 30-35 <60-65 4:40 to 5:00 min. <3 = 25 <70 4:15 to 4:30 min. <4 = 30 <65 20 to 23 min. <1 = 10 = 90 DURATION Cycling 2 143 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER 40 km. ITT 53-60 min. = 0 <5 <95 100 km. TTT 120-130 min. 0 = 5-10 <90 150 km In dividual Road. 3 h 45-4 h 00 0 = 5 <95 • A RIDE TO TRACK M. 333.33 =: ABOUT,>: M AYOR A, <: CHILD, ITT: individual time, TTT: AGAINST team time. 4.5 APPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS IN THE EVENT OF CYCLING Most of the energy required in efforts lasting longer than five hours, as is the case of road races, from the aerobic system, but a good route runner usually de velops a high level of anaerobic power as well as good resistance. Although the contribution of total energy produced by the anaerobic system during the race, i t is usually very limited compared to the contribution of the aerobic system, ro ad specialists will not succeed if only develop the latter, because the powers o f the route critical moments of the race is so intense that the energy can only be supplied anaerobically. When runners run away, climb a short slope, rise high er speeds or when they make a final sprint, the energy normally required exceeds what can be produced through the aerobic system. In addition to the development of the physical qualities of strength and endurance, must be improved skills on the bike, which were discussed in detail in the manual at a SICC. Individual ti me trial time trial individual competencies can be very short (5 km or less). bu t also can be performed with much larger distances (40 km or more). The individu al time trial skills with a duration of five minutes or more demanding of the ri der the maximum aerobic power. When the effort exceeds 20 minutes or more, the r

esistance is becoming increasingly important. In this case, the "specific resist ance" of the runners (the ability to sustain high speeds over long distances rat her than travel long distances for several hours at low intensity) becomes criti cal. TRACK EVENTS Kilometer time trial Cycling 2144 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER The time required to cover this distance (1 minute and 10 seconds to 1 minute an d 25 seconds to 1 minute and 07 seconds or less for high-performance cycling) in dicates that most of the energy demand for this event is produced by the anaerob ic system. However, when analyzing the evidence observed during the first 10-12 seconds the essential energy is produced by the ATP-CP;€in 35-45 seconds after i t reaches the peak of lactic acid and at the end of the test has a contribution of the aerobic system, so it is important to work the aerobic capacity to preven t the fall speed in the last 100-200 meters of the race to test the women's equi valent is the 500-meter time, where the effort has a duration ranging from 39 to 45 seconds to 35 seconds in high-performance racers. The energy input is mostly provided by ATP-CP system, the effort is classified as anaerobic. PHOTO 30. Arnaud Tournant. Recordman PRUIEBA OF MILEAGE FOR THE C / R 1:00.148 M EXICO 2000 WORLD CUP Team Pursuit (4000 m) While the distance traveled in this test is the same as in the individual pursuit for the elite, the demands of the team pursuit are diffe rent. The effect of the corridor that goes to the front "cutting the wind" reduc es the effort they make the runners followed by a span of 30 seconds or more, de pending on track size and frequency of changes in the corridor that goes tip. Th us, the effort in front of the computer requires more anaerobic power that the i ndividual pursuit. The term "a wheel", has a partial recovery before the next tu rn, but the broker must maintain the same level of concentration. Cycling 2 145 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Typically, this event attracts riders who have good aerobic and anaerobic power. PHOTO 31. FRENCH TEAM PHOTO 32. Points race As points race in the team pursuit, points race attracts runners aerobic and ana erobic power. The distance of a points race, varies from 10-50 miles, depending on the category and branch, for youth and women ranging from 10 to 24 km, while for elite male distance is 50 kilometers maximum. Due to the relatively short du ration of the test (between 15-70 minutes), the average speed is usually very hi gh, which requires a maximal aerobic power. On the other hand, sprints held ever y two miles or so (the number of turns, depending on the size of the track) dema nd a high level of anaerobic power and capacity. ENERGY DEMAND OF EACH TEST Physical requirements Anaerobic Power Test Speed Resistance Force Resistance ana erobic anaerobic Anaerobic Power Requirements Requirements Technical Requirement s strategic tactical handling of the bike Very high Very high pulse Coordination Standing Start Acceleration Very Low Very Low Pass Speed Km time trial (1000 Cycling 2

146 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Physical Power Requirements Speed Force Resistance Persecution aerobic anaerobic aerobic power individual anaerobic power aerobic stamina Speed Power Strength S peed Chase Anaerobic Endurance Team Final Aerobic Power Endurance Race anaerobic power points anaerobic Resistance Speed Test meters) Power Aerobic Endurance An aerobic Power Resistance Anaerobic Endurance Strength Power anaerobic aerobic an aerobic Power Strength Power Endurance Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Power Power P ower Endurance aerobic anaerobic anaerobic Speed Resistance Requirements Requirements Technical Requirements strategic tactical Step Start Pedaling uniform Simple Simple Step Relay uniform Start Pedaling Moderate Moderate Uniform pedaling bicycle Menejador Spring Very high Very high Single Path Uniform pedaling bicycle Management Added Added Individual time Step Relay uniform uniform pedaling pedaling bicycle uniform Spring Step Managem ent uniform pedaling around the corner Baja Baja Team time trial Baja Baja Criterium Added

Added Cycling 2 147 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER CONCLUSION 06/04 In order to achieve high results in the development of cycling sports, coaches h ave to not only master the technique, it is also important to know from planning and implementing the training, principles and general aspects for the preparati on, as well as elements applied sciences that will enable the scientific trainin g that achieves benefits for the health of athletes and obtaining good results w ith greater economy of effort. This is why coaches need to master the content be ing discussed in this chapter, with the aim of making good preparations for bike rs early age. 4.7 TIPS DIDACTIC • For better meet the aim, content will be developed as conference. The driver support sheets, transparency and other visual media, to e xpose the general issues to consider in the planning and execution of the prepar ation of the rider and to build the concepts and how they should be applied in t he development of preparation. You should also use examples to illustrate more c learly every aspect, inviting the coaches to participate as moderators or speake rs and reflect on mastering this content to improve their practice as coaches cy cling. • The driver will divide the class into groups so that each make a painting overview of the concepts provided about the capabilities that can be trained, th e characteristics of power systems and consumer demands in each event. Later in the meeting setting out the relationship between support for capacity building f rom a system of energy production in the body as well as consumer demands in eve ry cycling event. To do so, should the driver from scenarios and personal experi ence, as well as other coaches, gained in their professional practice. In the en d they will choose the best summary table which reflect concepts and examples an d will be photocopied for all coaches. Cycling 2 148 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER 4.8 SELF-ASSESSMENT Instructions: Match the following columns correctly, noting in parentheses the l etter of the correct answer 1. Refers to the total work done: 2. It is the absolute level of tax effort to t he agency: 3. The athlete must undergo constant stimuli of physical work: 4. The number of sessions within a given period of time: 5. It refers to the nature of the activity and the characteristics of training: 6. From a physiological stand point, the ability of an individual to adequately perform a task, Aryan is a fun ction of factors, including heredity, age and others: 7. If the training is adjo urned for a certain period of time, you lose the fitness gained: 8. Subsequently , the physical form is stabilized and from this point will only return relativel y increases in fitness: ((((((

) A) Specificity of training)) b) Volume of work) c) Intensity of training) d) G radual increase of the load and wavy) e) Frequency of training f))) h) Reversibl e effects of fitness (( g) Adaptability Instructions: Match the following columns correctly. 9. Is the range of joint motion with our body: 10. Is the maximum stress that an athlete can perform during muscle contraction: 11. The ability to repeat a musc le against a resistance effort relatively high: 12. It is the ability to put int o action quickly muscle strength 13. It is the ability to make or repeat work fo r a long period of time at a certain intensity: ((((( ))))) a) b) c) d) e) Flexibility Resistance Force Resistance Force-Power Cycling 2 149 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Instructions: Enter the right parenthesis of the letter that corresponds to the correct answer. 14. It refers to the ability of the broker to do work for a long period of time, usually hours at low intensity: () a) Resistance anaerobic b) m uscular strength c) Endurance 15. The human body gets energy through chemical re actions of cleavage of organic fuels, classified into the following systems: () a) Aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic-lactic-alactic b) Aerobic and anaerobic c) R esistance aerobic, anaerobic-lactic anaerobic-alactic Instructions: Match the following columns correctly. 16. Anaerobic-alactic: 17. -Lactic anaerobic system: 18. The ability to repeat a muscle against a resistance effort relatively high: 19. It is the ability to pu t into action quickly muscle strength 20. It is the ability to make or repeat wo rk for a period of time at a certain intensity: ((((( ))))) a) b) c) d) e) Force Resistance Force against the clock Kilometers-resistance power Instructions: Match the following columns correctly. Percentage of energy requirements provided by: Cycling 2 150

MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER Duration ATP-CP Anaerobic lactic Aerobic System Event a) 1000 m output stopped 21. 15-18 sec. 22. 10.5 to 12 sec. 23. 65-75 sec. 24. 3:45 to 4:00 min 25. 4:40 to 5:00 min 26. 4:15 to 4:30 min. 27. 20-23 min. 28. 53-60 min 29.€120-130 min 3 0. 3:45 to 4:00 pm 55-60 25-30 <15 <5 <3 <4 <1 = 0 0 0 35-40 60-65 60-65 30-35 = 25 = 30 = 10 <5 = 5-10 = 5 <5 = 10 <20 <60-65 <70 <65 = 90 <95 <90 <95 (((((((((( ) B) 3 000 m)) c) 200 m output stopped ) D) 4000 m teams) e) 200 m released) f)) g) Single route 150 km)) h) 15 km ITT) i) j) 40 km 100 km TTT ITT 4000 Single m Instructions: Enter the right parenthesis of the letter that corresponds to the correct answer. 31. Aerobic power is a function of two parameters: a) The oxygen consumption and metabolism of fat b) The oxygen consumption and aerobic system c) The maximum oxygen consumption and technical efficiency 32. The amount of oxy gen that can be used by muscle cells to break down food and produce energy aerob ically for an intense effort: a) The aerobic system b) Maximum oxygen consumptio n c) anaerobic system 33. Is the range between the mechanical work done and the energy used by the individual to perform such work: Cycling 2151 MANUAL FOR THE TRAINER a) The maximum aerobic power b) The technical efficiency c) The anaerobic system 34. It is the theoretical point at which lactic acid production by the effects of exercise exceeds the body's ability to metabolize: a) alactic b) Aerobic c) A naerobic Answer Sheet Chapter 5 Cycling 2 152