Lesson 6 Digital Counter 02/13/2006 Introduction.

In electronics quite frequently be needed to account for events and therefore re quires use of a counter, in our case it will be a digital electronic counter. Mo reover, today we are surrounded by devices that have some type of digital counte r, even in most of the appliances are equipped with one. A digital meter basical ly consists of a clock input which is responsible for shaping (square) signals, so that the counting of pulses is not disturbed by unwanted signals, which may d istort the final result. These pulses are accumulated over a meter itself the re sult of which is presented by a viewer that can be formed by a series of simple seven-segment digits or possibly through a sophisticated screen TVs. We begin by considering an input circuit that allows us to take the occasion of the count s ignal, for which we have to think about how to take the signal to be measured, s o we give it an appropriate way to assure us a much correct. For this circuit is as universal as possible is important: l l Having the high input impedance (Z). The circuit should not absorb too much sign al to induce no errors. This signal, the square we safely. The circuit breaker shall have a current through a low-capacity ceramic capacito r (47nf/400V) to detect high frequency signals, separating the high voltage, if any. The output is connected to a differentiator comprising a logic gate for add ed security the door will be a Schmitt trigger (wheat Schmitt). If we use a tran sistor, it must be high-speed, similar to 2N2222. Figure 01 shows the diagram of a two-meter digits formed by two counters (74LS192 or 74HCT192), two decoders ( or 74LS48 74HCT48) and their corresponding displays (display) or FND500 MAN74. Figure 01 General view Adapter signal. The circuit of Figure 02, represents the entry described in Figure 03, more elab orate, we can see the entire input circuit that can serve in most cases, in Figu re 04, presents a new circuit with better benefits to which he added to the afor ementioned Schmitt trigger formed by high-speed door 74HCT14 (6 investors Schmit t). In which we highlight the point (A) and that he detected impulses are not ye t fully squared, as with those obtained at its output. Fig 02 Fig.03 Figure 04 Figure 02, you can see two components, the capacitor voltage between t he resistor and the impedance rises enough for our purpose. In Figure 03, we pro pose a circuit using an emitter follower transistor with a voltage limiter to 6V , through zener diode, which is followed by a new separator that improves transi stor output, thus allowing a higher input impedance, a must in these cases and a diet with a wide margin. The Figure 04, the voltage limiters are the two diodes D1 and D2, their common point as shown, is connected to the base of a transisto r through a voltage divider formed by R2 and R4 and the output transistor as emi tter follower T1 gives us the signal we use for the counter, however, an investo r has been inserted or door trigerSchmitt to square the maximum of the signal. The counter. So far, we have seen how to detect and an important step. Now, try the one I e the circuit which is responsible for ulse of the account to the next and if subsequently square pulses to be counted, consider the heart of the meter itself, i counting, storing and accumulating each p necessary change the decade, but you bett

er start from the beginning. Later we will analyze in detail the circuits that m ake up a counter,now we will focus on what it takes to build a counter attached to a visor, which displays the total counted. The basic circuit is used, will de pend on the available technology, this can be best seen in the following table : FAMILY TYPE Freq. Value Decoder Vol V / C 32 MHz TTL 74LS192 74LS48 + 5.5 + cons umption rate 4 MHz CMOS CD4510B CD4511 speed 3 ÷ 12 HCTLS 74HCTLS192 consumptio n 54 MHz + 3 ÷ 6 74HC48 consumption rate The digital circuit 74LS192 decimal counter. Given that the speed is very important and at any time may require this capabili ty, we focus on the series 74HCTLS192 option or else by the 74LS192 and it is th e same device, the only thing that changes is the consumer job stress and little else. The device 'LS192, is a reversible ripple counter with parallel port, rea dy to make the binary-coded decimal count BCD, which also has cargo screening. T o charge the outputs to a given state, applied to the input data DA, DB, DC and DD and applies the low L to pin 11 'load', this load operation is independent of the clock and the state of the counter. For example: load the preselector to 9, this means that the data rows will the following levels: 1001, where DA1, DB0, DC0 and DD1, ie DBDC Dadd to positive and the negative. Figure 07 shows the arra ngement of the pins this IC. For more information about the operation of this de vice, 74HCT192 can click on this link, which presents an application and the con figuration of input and output signals E / S series or cascade mode. Fig 07 The circuit of Figure 08, is a practical application that will be complemented b y adding three NAND gates for a 74LS00, one of them connected at the same time a s an investor, or its two inputs together plus a few items, such as a button lau nching PAC zero, 4 preselectors, a switch arribaabajo 'UpDown' and a few resistors 1K5 1 / 4 W. You can also make the counter is set to a particular account automatica lly, I leave it to investigate by whom this concerned. Please note that entries ABCD, are forced to positive (permanently connected to + Vcc through two resista nces [1k]), this is necessary if we want no breaks in the bill, due to various s purious signals and interference that quite often affect integrated circuit when not used this method and recommend, although not shown in the circuit, apply a ceramic capacitor 100nf/100V lentil type (labeled 104), the power pins of each i ntegrated circuit assembly. Figure 08 Schematic of the meter to one digit. As seen in the circuit, to increa se the number of digits, so you just have to add as many counters as desired dig its and connect them in series or cascade, regardless of subsequent gates of the new meters, ie, outputs and Sb Sc to the respective entries Eu and Ed the next counter, load pins connecting the same way to their respective switches, just as all of the pins start to think, use the same single button PAC. On the other ha nd, are the CD4511 or 74LS48, BCD converters or decoders to 7 segments, the firs t device is a CMOS series being the most typical as to be compatible with the HC T and the second in the series TTL. This is if you decide to use the digit 7-seg ment LED common anode, as the MAN72 or FND500, for instance. Figure 09, shows th e image corresponding to the printed circuit seen by the faces of the components , which can be used to generate printed circuit board, care, note the dot indica ting pin 1 of each integrated circuit on the printed circuit. Fig 09 Note.If someone wants to make an adjustment to present account for threedigit counter with a plasma type display, this page is open to suggestions and c ontributions from readers. Digital counter with preselection. The counter will be discussing in this section, shall be fitted with a selector

that will allow us to indicate that maximum count should be done and so his depa rture will have a pulse, with which we can execute a command or with the help of a relay or by a light signal or other digital system that tells you when to per form a new function. The digital counter offer, your account will allow additive and down, depending on what you need at every moment in our work program. The u sefulness of a digital counter to count in both directions, has a greater advant age if we add a system that allows us to use the signal to account for the outpu t can start or stop a process that depends directly on that account. Based on th e integrated circuit we've seen in the second half, as is the 74LS192, if we see the circuit of Figure 08 and the description therein does, we can deduce that f or each decade (digit) are required the same components, ie : a 7-segment Displa y (observe polarity), common anode or common cathode. A 7-segment decoder output with the anode or common cathode (the output is H 74L S48 and 74LS47 output L). 1 A bidirectional decimal counter (up / down) with pre selector in parallel, as the 74LS192. 1 A preselector BCD coded decimal (prefera bly rotating, the latter is not essential). In essence little more will be added , although we must bear in mind the following points: First, we will consider ho w many digits we have in our case two. The preselectors'll need will depend on t he digits that we considered. The display we use, if we use the commercial one " (one inch) or manufactured by us through two or three lamps per segment or rapid start fluorescent tubes. The current consumption of the team will also depend o n these factors, we note that the devices involved in each digit is repeated for each decade and can be considerable. Finally, it would be desirable to have a c ontrol panel from which, we should be able to handle different buttons, forward or reverse switch or the various selectors. In principle, and only in principle, we could be facing a trial and error control of a marker of a sporting event, t his will be discussed in another lesson that we have planned to be made availabl e concerned. At this time, we will continue with our digital counter two decades to achieve a maximum score of 100 (keep in mind that 00, is also an account), o r rush the system, we can reach double digits until 1000 but not 1001. Now we in troduce the circuit of Figure 07 of the previous section, for better understandi ng, it can distinguish three main parts:

Digital Counter Fig. 08 preselector. A very important point to consider very car efully is the part enclosed in a box we have called 'mind control', this simple arrangement of three NAND gates (which may belong to a 74LS00) two-position swit ch and a 1k resistor, are the essential part of the command counter in the most simple and at the same time allows us the best guarantee of proper operation. An other of the three listed is formed by the preselector and the actual decimal co unter 74LS192. These two parts are responsible for what we might call particular concrete form of counting that can give rise, based on the exact layout of the preselector. Let's see in detail what we mean by the position of the selector, i f we use a small so-called 'switch Dualine line' of 4 or 8 contacts are on a dev ice similar to an integrated circuit,as shown in Figure 08, we note that the use r has to know very well count in binary, because not everyone is able to make a proper connection with ease. A B C D ACCOUNT 5 7 9 3 4 8 6 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

Of course for us is quite simple to understand this system and we can easily hav e deduced that a 1 means that the contact, according to the above figure, we wil l be left to 'air' as we say in the jargon of electronics, however for each 0 (z ero), we put in closed contact each contact has been applied. Note the provision that we have given to the contacts (DCBA), this is due to the weight correspond ing to each input line to the integrated circuit and that must be scrupulously r espected for his understanding.

Fig 10 Detail of a motor 10 to BCD decoder and displays real. Figure 10 shows th e design characteristics of a rotary decimal to BCD decoder. The four concentric circles, each one intended to be a contact where the thickest sections of track s represents the brush contact linking each with the central axis which is groun ded in our case, note that each line is connected through a 1k resistor to the p ositive. Compare the two images of Figure 10 and observe the similarity between the two. Having regard to the decoder, it will easier to understand how it works on the decimal counter circuit 74LS192 integrated into the device, which will c onnect at the entrance called screening. To charge the outputs to a given state will apply the information to the data inputs (pins 15.1 , 10 and 9), this allow s us to preselect the beginning of the account. connect the load input (pin 11) to low load L. This function is independent of the input clock and the state of the counter. The 74LS193 is a counter similar to that described 74LS192, the dif ference is that the 74LS193 performs a pure binary count. In this device counter , (items that do not receive impulses, must remain at high level H), has two ind ependent clock inputs The count (up 'Up', pin 5) and off (down 'down', pin 4). T he pin 14 'set zero' PAC, is what allows us to bring the counter to 0, by applyi ng a high level H. The counter outputs change state during the transition from l evel L to level H in any of them. The output reduction ('borrow' pin 13) gives a boost of the same length as the input when the counter reaches the minimum scor e (state 0). The carry output ('carry', pin 12) will give us a boost of the same length as the input to achieve the maximum count (state 9). These two lines ser ve to interconnect with other counters in series or cascade, allowing the cleari ng or discount in the respective decades. So when we loaded the item number in t he shortlist, we must charge that has a momentum L in the load pin (pin 11) , re turning to the state H. That is, each time leading to L this pin, it will count from that preset number. Digital Clock. The counter will be discussing in this section, as the title suggests, this is a watch. Now, we can address the implementation of a digital clock from two persp ectives: The traditional clock show us the digits from 1 to 12 or the clock bina ry numbers to please the fans of this type less seen and yet no less attractive. In principle the approach is the same: a pulse generator, a counter / divider 1 0, a counter / divider 12, a counter / divider by 6 and if we want a selector fo r an alarm. In one case we will use, displays and LED diodes otherwise to repres ent the bits. I propose to use integrated circuits CMOS series, by their very na ture, should have the classic TTLthe reader must find the equivalent. Digital clock with LEDs. Depending on the requirements that we ask, the pulse generator should be tenths of a second as we have seen time base and the 'second method' in Lesson 2, we ca n easily learn how to get the pulses of 10Hz / s and 1Hz / s. View image.

Accountants.

As I said, it takes two types of counters, and tens of seconds minutes and hours . For all we use a decimal counter, which as we will see a combination of doors we can suit our needs. Another point to bear account is to minimize the componen ts used and use all its resources. As an accountant, we will use a dual binary c ounter such as the CD4520B or the 74LS393, which is shown in the figure on the r ight, this timer features as we shall see, we can set up as a divisor of 10 and a divide-by-6, both are what we need. The left figure shows the counter for ten seconds, you can see the push to bring the account to "0" to synchronize the time, this button resets the seconds and tenths of a second at the same time. The right figure shows the wiring in the sa me counter to divide by six to account for tens of seconds for 60 seconds. In th is way we take both counters contained in the same device and we minimize the in tegrated circuits that are involved in the assembly. The schematic below shows t he configuration to build a digital clock, made of 20 LEDs, known as the binary clock, diodes arranged to be read when adding up the bits of each column. Yes, i t is a bit strange to most, but there are many custom things like (as some say " tuneadas).

Click to enlarge The following figure shows the layout of the 20 LEDs in a panel that will have t o be submitted.

Component list. The list of components to build this binary digital clock reading is: 1 CD4022B CD4017B Divisor Divisor one decimal Johnson 1 4 Doors CD4093B NAND Sch mit Trigger 3 Double divisor CD4520B CD4081B 4 Doors Binary 2 AND 10 1N4148 smal l signal diodes 21 LED RED 5mm / m High Brightness LED GREEN 1 5m / m High Brigh tness 1 BC549C Transistor NPN universal two Zener Diodes 5'1V 0'5Watios 3 Pushbu ttons NO (normally open) a two-position switch (for 50 or 60 Hz) a network switc h. A network transformer 220240 / 9 + 9 Volts 500mA 1 Fuse holder with fuse resistors 10kohms 0'5A 3 5% 0.5 W 21 100Ohms resistors 5 % resistors 2K2Ohms 0'5W 4 5% '05W READ. Reading this type of clock is made by adding the weight of each LED lights in ea ch column, so that the image shown below, the indicated time is displayed as: 13 :50:25 In the photo below (not mine, even though it is the case) shows another example in a more personalized fitting in more detail.

Clock digits. For those interested in traditional, can use the same basic circuit to match the 7-segment displays, should be a change in the pattern shown above, in the dual can see the provisions as to the output of each divider, just before the 100 Ohm resistors limiting the LEDs, these points are planned in the scheme as a refere nce for this project. This is the point or rather, these are the points where we

connect the BCD inputs of decoders to be responsible accounts convert binary to decimal dividers. Integrated circuits to be used is determined by the type of d isplay available in the market, so, for some common-cathode displays must use th e CD4511 (the most common ) and if this series TTLmay be the 74LS47 for common a node displays or 74LS48 for common cathode. I will use the CD4511, especially si nce the device itself incorporates a coupling system (latch) to retain the accou nt until the next update (this is more necessary for high-speed counters, since in these conditions would be quite impossible to read the display), a BCD to 7 s egment decoder and an amplifier or driver, which minimizes the physical space. T his device as mentioned, requires a display (display) common cathode display dig its on the panel. In the picture below, for clarity certain lines have been remo ved, I think you can easily follow and their exclusion allows a better understan ding of general circuit in the image you can see the layout of the CD4511 and th e corresponding displays. This is the version with six displays, should only use 4 displays, be connected to the corresponding CD4511 (hours and minutes).

Click to enlarge The red terminals of the figure, are not used in the case of binary clock, howev er necessary in this case the watch displays. Now combining the two schemes elec tronic circuit will have digital clock display is the second option we can get a watch. The figure below shows the complete circuit.

Click to enlarge The circuit consists of two doubles in BCD counters, each manages the units and tens of hours and minutes. The integrated circuit 4518B has two counters, also h as two clock inputs and two inhibitors in addition to their independent reset te rminals. It will be equipped with a selector that will allow us to indicate that maximum count should be done and his departure will have a pulse, with which we can run a command either with the help of a relay or a light signal or other sy stem digital we indicate that the new function to perform. In another section is intended to make the same clock using a PIC microcontroller, for later. To cont inue press the appropriate button> Comments are welcome. Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved. Created: Aug 21, 2000 Revised: 14,082,004