# WHAT IS THE ELECTRIC POWER CONCEPT OF POWER To understand what is the electrical power is necessary to unde rstand first

the concept of "energy", which is more than the ability of a mechan ism or any electrical device to perform a job. When connecting a computer or con sumer electrical circuit powered by a source of electromotive force (EMF), such as a battery that supplies electric power flowing through the conductor, allowin g, for example, a light bulb lighting, transform the light and heat energy, or a motor can move a machine. According to the definition of physics, "energy is ne ither created nor destroyed, transformed." In the case of electric power this tr ansformation is manifested in the production of light, heat, cold, movement (a m otor), or other useful work to perform any device connected to a closed circuit. Energy used to perform any work, is measured in "joules" and is represented by the letter "J". ELECTRIC POWER Power is the rate at which energy is consumed. If energy were a liquid, the power would be liters per second pouring tank that co ntains it. Power is measured in joules per second (J / sec) and is represented b y the letter "P". A J / sec is equivalent to one watt (W), so when one joule of power consumed in a second, we are spending or consuming a watt of electricity. The unit of measurement of electrical power "P" is the "watt," and is represente d by the letter "W". CALCULATION OF THE LOAD OF AN ACTIVE POWER (RESISTIVE) The simplest way to calculate the power consumed by active or resistive load connect ed to an electrical circuit is multiplying the voltage value in volt (V) applied to the value of the intensity (I) of the current that runs through it, expresse d in ampere. To make the mathematical calculation using the following formula: The result of this mathematical operation to a single phase electrical circuit d irect current or alternating current is given in watts (W). Therefore, if we rep lace the "P" which identifies the potential for its equivalent, ie, the "W" watt , we also have: P = W, therefore If now we find the current intensity (I) flowing through a circuit watt power in knowing who owns the device that is connected and the voltage or applied voltag e, we can solve the above formula as follows and perform the corresponding mathe matical : Looking at the formula one expressed at the start, we see that the voltage and c urrent intensity flowing through an electrical circuit, are directly proportiona l to the power, ie if one increases or decreases its value, the power also incre ases or decreases proportionately. It follows that 1 watt (W) is equal to one am pere of current (I) flowing through a circuit, multiplied by 1 volt (V) voltage or applied voltage, as shown below. 1 watt = 1 volt • 1 ampere CALCULATION OF THE POWER reactive load (inductive) To calculate the power of some types of teams working on AC power, it is necessa ry to consider also the value of power factor or cos of "phi" (Cos) they possess . In such cases the teams are working with or inductive reactive load, ie electr ic energy consumers to operate using one or more coils or coiled copper wire, as , for example, with the engines. The pure resistance, such as incandescent bulbs and halogen lighting, and electric heaters using nichrome resistance wire (NiCr ) are active or resistive load and power factor is equal to "1", which is the va lue considered ideal for an electrical circuit and therefore this value is not t aken into account when calculating the power consumption of these devices. Howev er, reactive or inductive loads such as electric motors that have, have a power factor less than "1" (usually its value varies between 0.85 and 0.98), thus the work efficiency equipment in question and the utility grid when the factor varie s far from the unit, translating into greater spending power and greater financi al outlay. However, both industries have many AC electric motors work as well as power plants, always seek the value of power factor, also called cosine of "fi" (Cos), as close as possible to the unit load consuming equipment reactive power . Typically the value for the power factor is indicated on a plate

metal along with other features of the equipment. In the electric motors that pl ate is usually located on one side, where other data are also important, as elec tricity consumption in watts (W), working voltage in volts (V), current frequenc y in hertz ( Hz), current work in amperes (A) if single or three phase and revol utions per minute (rpm or min-1) it develops. The formula to find the power of t he teams working on AC single phase, taking into account the power factor or Cos is: Cos P. - Power in watts (W) V - Voltage or voltage applied in volts (V) I. - Value o f current in amperes (A) .- Cosine phi (phi) or power factor (less than "1") POWER IN AC: AC circuits is presented in the following situation, in a resistor the voltage a nd current are always in phase and is always passive resistance, all the time el ectrical energy is converted into heat, capacitors and inductors store energy an d produce an angle phase of 90 ° between the current and voltage so are active p eriods and periods are passive, meaning that these elements return to power gene rators, in AC circuits are generally considered three types of power: Apparent p ower (S ): corresponds to the total power that sends the source to the load circ uit is measured in volt ampere VA: Active power (P) corresponds to the power tha t actually uses the circuit, is measured in watts w: Where f is the angle phase between voltage and current, a cos f is called the power factor. Reactive power (Q) corresponds to the power that the circuit returns to the source due to the p resence of capacitors and / or coils in the circuit. It is measured in watts rea ctive VARS: CALCULATION OF MAINS "According to rules ICONTEC NTC2050-General lighting, common outlets include 20 amp or lower branches ycircuitos minimum of clothes and kitchen area. First 3000 W ------------- 100% Between 3000 and 120 000 120 000 35% ------- ---------- ----- 25% Stove: Load plates between -12 8.75 ---------- KW 8000 W 8.75KW With a c apacity of less than 80% -------------- EPM "According to standard general light ing and take: First 2500 W. 100% ----------------- About .--------------------2500W -30% 100% -------------------------------- Stove stove Circuit: Circuits ( 1 -2) I = 8000 / 240 = 33.33 A. ⇒ TABLASCalibre driver: 2 # 8 AWG-2 # 10 AWG THW THW-pipe diameter: ∅ 3 / 4''Protection: 2x40 A. Tina Circuit: Circuit (3 -4) I = 1500/240 = 6.25 A. ⇒ TABLASCalibre Driver: 3 # 14 AWG, THW pipe diameter: ∅ 1 / 2 "Protection: 2x15 A. Microwave Circuit: Circuit (5) I = 1400/120 = 11.66 A. ⇒ TABLASCalibre Driver: 3 # 14 AWG, THW pipe diameter: ∅ 1 / 2 "Protection: A. 1 x15 lighting circuits and outlets: Circuito6: I = 1000/120 = 8.33 A. TABLASCalib re driver: 3x14 AWG THW-diameter pipe : ∅ 1 / 2 "Protection: 1x15 A. Similarly o thers are calculated ytomas lighting circuits. EPM Standard Total installed load : 17 675 W. Total load of lighting circuits and outlets: includes all circuits e xcept circuit Stove: Stove 9675 W Circuit ⇒ ⇒ 100% 8000 W. 2500 W. First ⇒ ⇒ 100 % 2500 W. About 2500 W. ⇒ ⇒ 30% 9675 -2500 = 7175 W. 30% 2152 W. 7175 W. ⇒ Total shedding load: 12 652 W. I = 12,652 / 240 = 52.71 A. TABLES Calibre2 ⇒ # 6 AWG, THW-2 # 8 AWG THW pipe diameter: ∅ 1 "Protections: 2x60 A. COUNTER (specif ications) Single-phase, three wire, 240/120 V 15/60 A Cyclometric TABLE OF CHARGES