Elvish IN WRITING SPANISH (CC) 2008 ADASTRA "2%` cH ZV CjxhV5 xj.D7M5x 1R5 `C ~ B º f ^ 17F8 jJ3F8 iHjH 1R5xY 2H8-zj.

D2hD 5H j%` B `º qR7H zHtH jJ3F5 ttm ~ N5 M5 V817Fm # 2R` 8 `C` Vm # August 2 $ 2% ZH `B ` ~ V81H8 2R8w7 N8 º "# Elvish WRITING IN SPANISH VERSION 0.8 (19/10/2008) (CC) 2008 ADASTRA SOME RIGHTS RESERVED (HTTP: / / CREATIVECOMMONS.ORG/LICENSES/BY-NC/3.0/DEED.ES) HTTP: / / ADASTRA.LACOCTELERA.COM Acknowledgements LEGAL AND CHACHA Nothing, I repeat, nothing in this document is genuine. The merit of this docume nt applies to many other people did, before me, lots of thankless labor of love. And this is not a fit of false modesty. Those who know me know that I do not ha ve the fatal defect of character called "modesty." It is simply a fact, nothing more. To compose this text, I have plundered many more authoritative sources on the subject than I, namely: • Tengwar Textbook1, which is the reference text for anyone wanting to start in the unfathomable mysteries of writing with Elven cha racters. Tengwar writing mode for castellano2, a brainy Lambenor3 Language Insti tute's work lays the foundation of any alternative mode of Tengwar writing with Spanish. Including this document, of course. Tengwar font description Annatar4 b y Johan Winge. This is the font used in the text. Tengwar font description Parma ite5, Måns Björkman, with a layout really useful. Without that map, I would have gone crazy for writing all the text. • • • Since I am a firm believer in the enrichment of humanity through knowledge shari ng, and in fact all I did was to systematize a bit with Tengwar writing in Casti lian, published this work with a Creative Commons type license LICENSE Attributi on-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported. You can view the text of the license in a human l anguage (ie, lawyers are excluded), here: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/deed.es 1 March 2 May 4 http://www.geocities.com/tengwar2001/ http://lambenor.free.fr/tengwar/espanol_20 06.html http://lambenor.free.fr/ http://home.student.uu.se/jowi4905 / fonts / an natar.html http://at.mansbjorkman.net/parmaite.htm CONTENT 1. 2. 3. Introduction ................................................. ........ ........................................ 6 A bit of personal history (you can sk ip it) ........................................ .. Basics ...................... ......................... 7 .......................................... 9 3.1. 3.2. Tengwar and Tehtar ............................................... ... ............................................... ............... 9 alphabet is ph onetic spelling not ........................... ................................ .................. 9 What are the Tengwar ?..................................... ...... .................................................. ......... ............ .......................... 11 primary Tengwar .................................. ................ Additional Tengwar ........................... ................ .... 12 .................................................. ..................... ........ 14 What are the Tehtar ?.............. ................................ .................. ......................................... 17 tengwar based Vo ice .... .................................................. ....................

................... 17 ...... tehtar based Voice ............................... ................... ........................................ 17 ...... Rules of precedence .................................................. .................. ............................ 19 The tilde ( diacritic accent ).................. ............................. .................................................. Ambiguities ................................................ 20 ............... ................................... ................ 21 words homophonous with ' b' / 'v »....................... ............................................... ... 22 words ...... homophonous with or without "h »............................ ....... ........................................... 22 words homophonous with "c " / 'z' .............................................. ......................... ........ 22 words homophonous with 's' / 'x' ...... ............................ ...................... ....................... 23 4. The Tengwar ................................................ ................... .............................. 11 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 5. The tehtar ................................................ .................... .............................. .. 17 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 6. Basic rules of writing .............................................. .......... .................. 19 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.3.1. 6.3.2. 6.3.3. 6.3.4. 7. The numbers ................................................ ................... ............................ 24 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. Number table ............................................... .................................................. decimal notation ........... ....................... ............. 24 ....................................... ........... duodecimal Notation .......................... 24 .................. ... .................................................. ......................... ........ 25 A case study: the date .......... .................................. ................ ..................................... 27 8. 9. Punctuation ............................................... .................... ............... 28 Diphthongs, and hiatuses triphthongs ........................ .................... ........................ 30 9.1. 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 9.5. 9.6. A brief review ................................... ............ .................................................. Diphthongs ..... ............................ ............... 30 ................................ .................. Diphthongs with tilde ....................................... ....... 32 .................................................. ................. ................................. Hiatuses ..................................... ........... 34 .................................................. .............. ................ 35 Diphthongs that become hiatus ............. ................ .................................. Triphthong ..................................

.............. 36 .................................................. Introducti on ..................................... ........... 36 ........................ .......................... .................................................. Ke ymap ....... ....................................... 37 ........................ .......................... ...................... 38 10. Fonts ................................................. ........................ ......................... 37 10.1. 10.2. 10.2.1. No capital letters (consonant sounds ).................................. .......... ......................... 38 10.2.2. With capital letters (vowel soun ds )............................................ ............................... . 39 10.3. 10.4. Tengwar Annatar ................................................ ............... ................................... Tengwar Parmaite ........................... ....... ............. 39 .................................................. .... ..................... 40 11. Index of Tables ............................................... ................ ............................ 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 1. INTRODUCTION There are plenty of people in the world dedicated to studying the so-called dead languages, languages which are no longer used in the daily life of any populati on group. Latin is one of those languages, and no, not worth the ecclesiastical use as "use in day to day." Vatican clerics call for coffee in Italian, not Lati n. Within this group of people, perfectly respectable, there is a subset that, w ithout ceasing to be respectable, has traces of being weighed more than normal w ould be sensible given what the activity. I refer to students of languages exist . Not that they are dead, no. Is that they have been invented. The Klingon is on e of those languages, for example. Elvish is another. The Elvish language and wr iting were invented by J. R. R. Tolkien, writer primal Peter Jackson's film titl ed The Lord of the Rings. One moment ... Er, I get that it was not. It is the sa me. You all know who I mean. Tolkien's invented Elvish writing symbols, of unden iable beauty, and applied in the two Elvish languages of the tribes that appear in his works, Quenya and Sindarin. However, merely that, but laid the foundation s for English could be written using the symbols Elvish. Hence, until someone is brought to use these characters to write in, say, Esperanto, there was only one step. The script called Tengwar modes for x> <idioma have emerged like mushroom s and can be found easily on the Internet. In this document you will find a set of rules for using Tengwar writing in Spanish, which is as generically called El ven characters. These rules are based in part on the works that I mentioned in t he acknowledgments, but there are enough of my own. Try to make it clear when I' m talking about "the norm" and when he has taken over my fertile imagination. So if you want to learn to write using these beautiful characters to take notes in the midst of incomprehensible meetings, as I do, read on.

Page 6 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 2. A BIT OF PERSONAL HISTORY (CAN Skip it) On 18 May 2005 I had the brilliant idea of writing a little story on my blog abo ut writing dates in Elvish, entitled How to write dates in élfico6. Today, 8 Oct ober 2008, this story has 357 comments. Some time later, on August 31, 2005, I b egan a series of articles to teach writing in Spanish with Elvish characters wit hout knowing the mess in which I was getting into. The first story was titled El vish Writing: introducción7. Today, this story has 74 comments. Being on a roll, I continued to offer pearls to the readers of my blog, and September 6, 2005 I wrote my first serious lesson entitled Elvish Writing: Lesson 1 (Tengwar) 8. Tod ay this story has 69 comments. On September 7, 2005 I wrote the following lesson , entitled Elvish Writing: Lesson 2 (the Tehtar) 9. Today, this story has 69 com ments. As I was on a roll, the September 14, 2005 I wrote the story called Elvis h Writing: Lesson 3 (Numbers) 10. Today, that story has 49 comments. The most po werful lesson came October 4, 2005, and was called Elvish Writing: Lesson 4 (bas ic rules of writing) 11. It was long and elaborate lesson of all. Today, this st ory has 58 comments. But he was beginning to acknowledge the signs of fatigue. T he following story, entitled Elvish Writing: Lesson 5 (diphthongs and hiatuses t riphthongs) 12 arrived on May 19, 2006, but was in draft form since October 2005 ! Today, this story has 172 comments. June 7 August 9 http://www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2005/05/18/como-escribir-fechas-elfico h ttp://www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2005/08/31/escritura-elfica -introduction http://www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2005/09/06/escritura-elfica-leccion-1-l as-tengwarhttp://www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2005/09/ 07/escritura-elfica-l eccion-2-las-tehtarhttp: / / www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2005/09/14/escritu ra-elfica-leccion-3-los-numeroshttp://www.lacoctelera. com/adastra/post/2005/10/ 04/escritura-elfica-leccion-4-reglas-basicas-escriturahttp: / / www.lacoctelera. com/adastra/post/2006/05/19/escritura-elfica-leccion- 5-diphthongs "-and-hiatosP ágina triphthongs 7 of 41 October 11, 1912 Elvish Writing in Spanish I wrote the last lesson very reluctantly May 22, 2006, and entitled Elvish Writi ng: Lesson 6 (punctuation) 13. Today, this story has 42 comments. Finally, in a display of unprecedented little common sense, I wrote a story for fishing absurd comments, entitled Your name élfico14. Today, this story has 334 comments. 1175 comments in the space of nearly two years. Most translations asking Elvish, tho ugh he had put explicitly in the first story I would never do that. But you know how are the patonautas. And here I am now writing a story outline of absurdly l ong and totally unnecessary for the sole purpose of directing visitors to my blo g. If I have no choice. From left to customize this to use the royal we, which is much more professional , in the opinion of us. 13 14 http://www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2006/05/22/escritura-elfica-leccion-6-si

gnos-puntuacionhttp://www.lacoctelera.com/adastra/post/2006/06/05/ your-name-elv en Page 8 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 3. 3.1. BASICS Tengwar and Tehtar To begin to lay the foundations of this document, we must call things by their n ame. Tolkien called Tengwar (which means "letters" in Quenya) to Elvish symbols referring to consonant sounds and the symbols called Elven tehtar related to vow el sounds. Tengwar The term is plural, and singular form is tengwa. Similarly, t he term tehtar is plural and its singular form is tehta. We will use the terms t ehta tengwa and their corresponding plural to refer to the consonant and vowel s ounds, respectively, while Tengwar use the term in capital letters, to refer to the Elvish symbol set in general. 3.2. The alphabet is phonetic, not spelling The clever reader (all of you, of course), you will notice that we have used the terms consonant sounds and vowel sounds in the previous section. And it was fre e. The symbols represent not Tengwar spelling, but phonemes. To give you an idea , the most obvious example lies in the letter 'h': no tengwa that letter, simply because it is "silent" and therefore, having no associated phoneme is not repre sented. Spanish Another typical example arises when we consider the letters 'b' and 'v'. Both have the same phoneme, / b /, so both are represented by the same tengwa. In this document we will give a course in phonetics, most of all because it falls completely outside our area of expertise, but if you wish, you can che ck out the Wikipedia page on the Phonetic Alphabet Page 9 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish International (IPA) 15. Instead of using the phonetic formalism, we have chosen to illustrate the use of each tengwa with an example. Finally, it should be a co nsideration: the "alphabet" Elvish is flexible, so it can be adapted to differen t languages, which are called modes. There is a Tengwar mode for French, one for English, one for Spanish, etc. To give an example and show (finally!) The first tengwa, consider tengwa Hwesta (c). This tengwa represented in the Spanish way the sounds of the letters 'j', 'g' weak 'x' in certain contexts (we'll get to th at), while in the English mode, represents the sound for the combination of lett ers the sound "kh". 15 Page 10 of 41 http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfabeto_Fonético_Internacional Elvish Writing in Spanish 4. 4.1. Tengwar What are the Tengwar?

We have already mentioned that the Tengwar are symbols that represent consonant phonemes. According to The Tengwar Textbook is divided into two groups: primary and Tengwar Tengwar additional. The primary tengwar phonetic criteria are strict , and always consist of a vertical element called Telco (~) and a curved element called Luva (]). On the other hand, additional tengwar not follow any form of c onstruction or are based on strict phonetic criteria. The tables below show teng war that contain a certain amount of information in each cell. Take for example any cell of the table: 1 T Tinco The cell consists of the following: 1. 2. 3. A tengwa Elvish writing or symbol ( in this case it is 1). The name of the tengwa (in this case, "Tineo"). The lette r or set of letters for which you apply this tengwa. Ojo! Since we are not putti ng the phoneme, we all spelling combinations where tengwa applies (in this case is used to transcribe sounds which use the letter 't'). Page 11 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 4.2. Primary Tengwar The following table lists the primary Tengwar. Explain in which cases each tengw a used just after the table. 1 T Tinco q P Parma to Quess ch Calma z c / q (u) / k 2 Ando d w Umbar b / v / w s Anga --x Ungwë g (u) 3 Thule z / c and Form f

d Harma - Hwesta c j / g / x 4 Anto --r Ampa v f Anca and v Lthough --5 Númen n t M Malta g Ñ Ngoldo b --- Ngwalmë 6 Ore - Vala Table 1: primary Tengwar and u-/ w h Anna iWilya n --• • • Tineo (1): is used where it appears the 't'. For example, in "bull." Parma (q): is used where it appears the 'p'. For example, in "ball." Calma (a): Use with th e sound for "ch." For example, in 'pileup' or 'disappointment'. Page 12 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish • Quess (z): Used for the sounds corresponding to 'c' box (as in "horse", but not as in 'pig'), 'qu' (as in "cheese") or "k" (as in "koala"). • • Ando (2): is used where it appears the letter 'd' as in 'decisive'. Umbar (w): U

se with the sounds' b '(as in' donkey '),' v '(as in "plane") and w' (in the cas e of foreign words as' Weihnachten '). • • Anga (s): This tengwa not used in the Spanish mode. Ungwë (x): Use with the soun d 'g (u)' (as in "cat" or "warrior"). • Thule (3): It is used both for the sound 'z' (as in "hall) to the 'c' weak (as i n" bell ", but not as in" collar "). • • Formen (e): Used for the sound 'f' (as in "starving"). Harma (d): This tengwa no t used in the Spanish way, except in the words of Aztec or Mayan as "Mixoactl. • Hwesta (c): Use with the sound 'j' (as in "piglet"), "g" (as in "Gijón" but not as in 'cat') or 'x' (only in cases where it becomes a 'j' as in 'Mexico'). • Anto (4): Following the recommendations of the mode of Lambenor16 published on t he website of Conrad Badenas17 on Tengwar can be used in the sounds' ze 'and' zi ', which would resolve ambiguities such as' above' / ' enzyme ", since otherwis e it would represent the tengwa Thule (3). • Ampa (r): This is another case of ambiguity resolution. In Spanish we use the sa me tengwa for the 'b' and 'v', but there are cases 16 17 http://www.uv.es/ ~ conrad / descripcionTengwarLambenorEspanyol.pdf http://www.u v.es/ ~ conrad / tolkien.orig.html Page 13 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish where it would need to distinguish the "v" independently, as in 'cow' and 'roof' . • Anca (f): Used for sound "and" (as in "gay", not as in "Aymar"). • • • • • • • Unqua (v): This tengwa not represented in the Spanish mode. Genius (5): Used to the sound "n" (as in "name"). Malta (t): Used for the sound 'm' (as in "dope" ). Ngoldo (g): Used for the sound 'ng' (as in "canyon"). Ngwalmë (b): This tengw a not represented in the Spanish mode. Ore (6): This tengwa not represented in t he Spanish mode. Vala (y): Used in the sound 'u' in a rising diphthong (as in "A güimes') or 'w' when it is an Anglicized (as in" war "). Diphthongs will return in a later section. • Anna (h): Used with the sound 'i' in rising diphthongs (as in "truck"). Diphthongs will return in a later section. • Wily (n): This tengwa not used in the Spanish mode. 4.3. Additional Tengwar The following table lists additional tengwar. Explain in which cases each tengwa used just after the table. And, as you have noticed, I copied and pasted this p

aragraph of the above. Vague that it is one. Page 14 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 7 R Romen Arda or r-/rr j L Lamb Alda m ll 8 Silm s i Silm nuquerna s k --- Aze , X-Aze nuquerna 9 Hyarmen h Table 2: Additional Tengwar or --- Sindarinwa Hwesta l Yanta -i/-y Ure . -U • Romen (7): Use with the sound 'r' weak (as in "clay", not as in "mouse"). • Arda (u): Use with the sound 'r' strong or 'rr' (as in "rodent" or "pull"). • • • • Lamb (j): Use with the sound "l" (as in "height"). Alda (m): Use with the sound 'll' (as in "wheel"). Silman (8): Use with the sound 's' (as in "whisper"). Nuqu erna Silm (i): This tengwa is exactly like the Silm (8), although it is preferre d when you have to wear a top tehta (return to this later). • •

Aze (k): This tengwa not used in the Spanish mode. Aze nuquerna (,): Used for th e sound 'x' when it is at the beginning of a word. Usually sounds like an 's', b ut in the case of ambiguous words you can use this tengwa. Page 15 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish • Hyarmen (9): Although the letter 'h' has no sound in Castilian, which are homoph ones to be distinguished as 'browse' / 'browse'. In cases where there is no ambi guity, simply ignored. • • Hwesta sindarinwa (o): This tengwa not used in the Spanish mode. Yanta (l): Use with the sound 'i' or 'y' in falling diphthongs (as in "sex"). Diphthongs will r eturn in a later section. • Ure (.): Use with the sound 'u' in falling diphthongs (as in "euphonious"). Diph thongs will return in a later section. Page 16 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 5. 5.1. THE Tehtar What are Tehtar? The Elvish tehtar are symbols to represent vowel sounds. There are two methods t o represent the vowel sounds: through tehtar tengwar themselves or using individ uals to represent them. We prefer to use Tengwar tehtar rather than to represent vowels, and that is the philosophy that we follow in this document. 5.2. Based vocal tengwar This model is based on the use of tengwar consonant sounds that have no partners (they are free.) The correspondence of these tengwar vowels is as follows. n Wily to l Yanta and ` Luva i / y h Anna or ERUs . u / u / w

Table 3: Vowel sounds represented by tengwar For instance, the syllable "ma" would be represented with this system as tn. 5.3. Based vocal tehtar The canonical way of writing to almost all Elvish ways involves the use of certa in special characters called tehtar. This is the preferred method of us, and the refore is one that will continue in the rest of the document. These are the teht ar as Elvish writing in Spanish. Page 17 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish `C Wily to `V Yanta and `B Luva i / y `N Anna or ERUs `M u / u / w Table 4: vowel sounds represented by tehtar Note that we are accompanying each of the tengwa tehta Luva, also called short c arrier. This tengwa has no meaning, and only appears when the tehta must appear alone, as we shall see to explain the rules of writing. For instance, the syllab le "ma" would be represented with this system as t #. The table can be seen that the tehtar for the 'i' and 'u' vowel may represent di fferent variants. Thus, the tehta for the 'i' is used to represent the sound 'i' (as in "trip") but also to represent the sound "and" homophonous with "and" (se rve to "law" but not "Yeyo). Similarly, the tehta involving "or" would serve to represent the sound 'u' (as in "donkey"), to the sound "u" (as in "Agüimes") and to the sound 'w' when question of foreign homophones with the "u" (as in "Winch ester"). Page 18 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 6. 6.1. BASIC RULES OF WRITING Precedence rules We have the building blocks for writing sonnets of love if we feel like it, that is, Tengwar and tehtar. Now we have to know how to order them to say something

(but most likely no one learns to read even if they are placed at random). As me ntioned, we have seen the different symbols used for consonant sounds (Tengwar) and vowel sounds (tehtar). Make memory: tehtar are written above the Tengwar. Bu t in what order? Depending on how Lambenor for writing in Spanish with Tengwar, the tehta is read as if following the above tengwa found. Put another way, the c ombination t # is read "ma" (first tehta tengwa and then), not "am." Why use thi s rule of precedence? According to The Tengwar Textbook, the same picture is use d Quenya language because that language in most words end in vowels. That way yo u save having to use a carrier whenever a tehta orphan stays with you at the end of a word. I suppose in Spanish will be the same, but has not given us by check to us. Let's give some examples, so that the thing is not so barren. Take a cou ple of palabrillas in Spanish to see how they are written in Tengwar. Dog Pablo Albores Histogram Example Transcript qEwj qRuY B81Yx7Dt # `^` ^ 7i CJ2 Page 19 of 41 Table 5: Basic Examples Tengwar transcription Elvish Writing in Spanish Let's see ... May verify compliance with the order of precedence that I said: fi rst and then tehta tengwa. What happens when the word begins with a vowel, as in "dawn"? In this case using a special calling tengwa carrier, which has no meani ng, and only serves to bring the tehta "orphan." Another detail. If you look clo sely you will see that we have used different tengwar the "s" in "histogram" (8) and 'dawn' (i). Is immaterial. They can use their choice, but when you have to wear a tehta over, usually uses nuquerna Silm (i), as in "histogram." If you loo k closely will see that we have written "histogram" as if actually put 'istogram a. We have eaten the 'h'. Why? Remember that the Tengwar are phonetic basis, ie represent sounds, and 'h' in Spanish is silent. Therefore, we load it. As if the re were. Anyway, at the end of this section will discuss some ambiguities that c an not be resolved in phonetic form, such as 'cow' and 'roof', which sound the s ame but are written differently. 6.2. The tilde (accent diacritic) One element of the Spanish language that does not fit well with the phonetic nat ure of the Tengwar are the accents or diacritics. Keep in mind that the accents are elements of spelling, so there are no precise rules for transfer to Elven wr iting. Rivers of ink have run about (if not blood, that unless you throw bunches of nuclear bombs), but there is some consensus on the fact that we have to incl ude diacritics in the solution used. Imagine these three words: "medical" "medic al" and "doctor." If the tilde spare you the three words have the same transcrip t in Elvish: t $ 2% z. H It therefore need some mechanism to distinguish the vow els in a syllable accents. We will use tildes to represent another type of carri er carrier called long, which is the same as above, but longer, go. Thus, when a tehta accents straight out of the corresponding tengwa and spread on top of the long carrier. Let's see how the examples are precisely we have: • Medical: t ~ V2z. % H Page 20 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish • • % H Doctor: t $ 2z. Medical: $ 2z ~ t N. %

An alternative method to represent accents. This method consists of writing twic e tehta representing the tilde. Here is a small example trying each vowel. Example Phallic Pate Rogue Historical Number Tengwar Tengwar with long carrier w ith double tehta e ~ ~ Cj% ZH qe1 BzD7H V q `B81 ~ ~ 5 ~ Mt N7GzH $ 7H EHJ% z `qE1F qÕzD7H B81H7GzH 5 & t $ 7H Table 6: Examples of carrier versus long double tehta The use of either method is a matter of taste but personally I prefer to use the carrier long because, in addition to the symbols are less gaudy (and therefore lighter), does not require an extra character. We will see in section on typogra phy as it takes a special game to represent certain characters, such as double t ehtar. 6.3. Ambiguities When written with Tengwar there is always the danger of having to represent word s that sound alike but are spelled differently. For example, 'cow' / 'roof', 'br owse' / 'browse', 'top' / 'enzyme' or 'within' / 'xeno. In such cases, if we are unable to determine the correct word from the context, we need some way to dist inguish the ambiguities. The use of the following disambiguation rules should ap ply only when the writing can be confusing. Thus, avoid spelling introduce more elements than strictly necessary in a system of writing that, as we have said, i s purely phonetic. Page 21 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 6.3.1. Homophone with 'b' / 'v' The word "beef" is pronounced exactly like 'roof' in Spanish (the 'v' should sou nd like 'b', but do not believe it.) Both sounds are represented by tengwa Umbar (w). However, we can use the tengwa Ampa (r) when we need to distinguish the 'v ' explicitly. Baca Cow Sample Transcript w # r # ZD ZE Homophones with or without "h" Table 7: Example of disambiguation 'b' / 'v' 6.3.2. Another pair of homophones are "browse" and "browse", since "h" in Spanish is si lent. According to the rule, as both words would be written with Tengwar, withou t the 'h', but as we must distinguish, we use the tengwa Hyarmen (9) to represen t the 'h'. Browse Browse through Ejemplo18 Transcript NCR 9YcR `` `C7 C7 Homophone with "c" / "z"

Table 8: Example of disambiguation "h" forced 6.3.3. Another case of ambiguity is 'above' and 'enzyme'. Both the 'c' as 'z' is repres ented by the tengwa Thule (3). To distinguish them we can represent the "z" by A nto tengwa (4). 18 This example contains the hiatus 'ea'. Patience, it explained shortly. Page 22 o f 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish Above Example Enzyme Transcription V53Bt `# #` V54Tt Homophone with 's' / 'x' Table 9: Example of disambiguation 'c' / 'z' 6.3.4. The last case of ambiguity that comes to mind is from "within" and "xeno" (yes, we are aware that 'xeno' is actually a prefix, but do not tell us we are not car eful). Normally the "x" at the beginning of word is pronounced like the 's', so that we can use tengwa Silm (8) or nuquerna Silm (i) to represent both cases. Ho wever, if there is any doubt about possible ambiguities, we can represent the 'x ' initial and Aze tengwa nuquerna (,). Breast Xeno Example Transcript iF5Y, F5Y Table 10: Example of disambiguation 's' / 'x' Page 23 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 7. 7.1. NUMBERS Table numbers We have seen the constructive elements of Elvish writing system in Spanish, but we still have some elements to complete the set. In this case, talk of numbers. The following table lists the Tengwar used to represent them. ð - 0 Mine ñ 1 ò

Atta 2 or Nelda 3 ô Canta 4 õ Lempa 5 ö Otso inwhichthe 6 ÷ 7 ø Tolt 8 ù Nerte 9 ú Caine to Minquan û B Table 11: Numbers represented with Tengwar The clever reader (all) will have noticed that there are two numbers 'rare', mar ked 'A' and 'B' in the table. Patience. All truths will be revealed. 7.2. Decimal notation The easiest way to write numbers in Elvish (hence, the non-use, of course) is th e decimal. That is, we use the Tengwar from 0 to 9 to make up the numbers. So if you want to write the figure "1974", combine the tengwar one after the other an d write wildebeest ÷ ô. Page 24 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish In The Tengwar Textbook mention m) written by putting the least an? Then they write the numbers 91." In this case, the previous that the inhabitants of Middle Earth (weirdo the significant digit to the left. What does that me on the reverse, ie, write "1974" in the form "47 number would look like

a ÷ ô. The problem with these notations is that there is no way of knowing when you're writing directly or inversely. I always recommend writing directly, letting the reader go crazy trying to figure out what method we are using. 7.3. Notation duodecimal

The other way we write numbers in Elvish is using duodecimal notation, or base 1 2 numbering. Any middling computer is handled with the bases numbering as butter ed toast in the morning. Possibly better. But as the case may be just a bit abst ruse for the rest of us, the better he explained. A number base tells you (rough ly) the number of digits you use to type a number. In base 10 we use ten numbers (from zero to nine), so in twelve numbers use base 12, ranging from zero to ... Which one? For when we ran out of numbers of all life, we use letters, so when we arrived at 9 the next number is the "A" and then comes the "B". Thus, the num ber "24B" is perfectly valid in base 12. Yes, dear reader. I see now that you un derstand those two tengwar extar in the table of numbers. Congratulations. To gi ve you an idea, imagine that we have fifteen numbers in sequence. In base 10 is easy: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Capisci? Let's see what happens in base 12: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, 10, 11, 12. Are you awar e? After "B" is 10, as if we had normally. Logically, after '19 'is the "1A" aft er the "1B" and then "20." I think I get the idea. Any being with six fingers on each hand as the first Pillari. On the other hand, it is possible to establish equivalence between numbers of different bases. If you look at the above sequenc es will see that "13" at base Page 25 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 10 (that is written "1310" with a subscript) is equivalent to '11 'in base 12 (w hich is written "1112"). Okay, we count in base 12. Now we need to know how to c onvert base 10 numbers, which is what we use to base 12, more than anything beca use we have five fingers on each hand, not six, so rare accounts left for guys l ike me who We occasionally in binary. To convert use the method of integer divis ion, and we explain with an example. Take again the year nacimos19, 1974. The fi rst thing we do is divide 1974 by 12, but I mean a traditional division, not the calculator, or an entire division. At the end we get a quotient and a remainder . In this case: 1974-1912 = 164 (rest 6) Make the division by hand if you do not believe. Well, it is important to rememb er the rest, okay? Now we take the quotient and divide it again to 12. In this c ase: 164/12 = 13 (remainder 8) You can imagine we have to keep repeating this process while the ratio can be di vided on a whole by 12. Then proceed: 13/12 = 1 (remainder 1) We stop! We can no longer divide, so let's recap a bit. We obtained the followin g: • • • • A remnant of June. A remnant of August. A remainder of 1. Finally, a ratio of 1. If in any case we obtained a residue which was '10 'or '11', we must translate i t by 'A' or 'B'. Well, the number in base 12 is constructed by joining these num bers we have obtained since the last ratio to the first rest. Thus, in this case we have "197 410" amounts to "118 612". So, we were born in the year 1186 was d uodecimal, whatever it is that. 19 No, I do not mean the year in which you and I were born. Remember that we use th e royal we. Page 26 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish

Now it pass this on to write Elvish. If you want to write directly, ie "1186" on ly have to combine the tengwar one after another, with little exception the leas t significant digit (units) debajo20 should keep a small circle so that people k now we're writing in base 12. Thus, the glorious year when we came into the worl d is written as Nnooo ¨. If you want to write in reverse, I recommend you do not have to combine the tengwar figures for "6811", placing the little circle just below the unit (in this case is the leftmost tengwa). In this case the thing wou ld look like or ¨ ONN. 7.4. A case study: the date Uniting all of these elements, we tattoos date of birth of our dear mother in th e buttocks if we want to. Let's see how. Take for example today's date: 15/10/20 08. To convert each number separately take and transform to base 12. Thus: • • • 1510 equals 1312. 1010 equals 1012. 11B412 equals 200 810. So today's date format would 13/10/11B4 duodecimal. Now write the Tengwar for us ing a separator that is beautiful from the day, month and year. (15/10/2008) 10 = (13/10/1B14) 12 = NO ~-ND ññûô © °Do not worry if you do not know how to put that circle. There is a section speci fically for writing these characters with the keyboard. Page 27 of 41 20 Elvish Writing in Spanish 8. Punctuation In the reference work The Tengwar Textbook there is a section specifically desig ned to score in English. We assume that the signs are transcribed in one way or another, in texts from Tolkien. However, we can be reasonably sure that Tolkien left no text in Spanish mode, so signs such as opening or the opening question ( «¿») exclamation («¡»), not part of any literature. The best in these cases in w hich the author is dead and we have to ask, is to use the strategy kiss21: Let's simplify. The following table lists the most common punctuation marks. 21 Keep It Simple, Stupid. Page 28 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish Close puntuación22 sign question mark (?) Close exclamation mark (!) Opening par entheses (() Close parenthesis ()) Coma (,) Semicolon (;) Point (.) Colon (:) en d point (. ) Opening single quote (') Closing single quote (') Opening double qu ote (") Closure of double quotes (") Opening document Close document Transcription Œ œ À ¹ Á à º ± ² »'' ' Table 12: Punctuation in Tengwar

We do not have to open tengwar question and exclamation marks because Tolkien ne ver thought of millions of poor people to make the characters speaking. Very inc onsiderate on their part. Page 29 of 41 22 Elvish Writing in Spanish 9. 9.1. Diphthongs, Triphthong And Hiatus A brief review With the writing rules we have written so far, there are certain cases that are not properly represented. Diphthongs are treated, and hiatos23 triphthongs. Befo re continuing with how to write these constructions using Tengwar, give a brief repaso24 the definition of each, with usage examples, and we will do through a s eries of definitions. Consider that the open vowels or strong are the 'a', 'e' a nd 'or'. On the other hand, vowels or weak are the 'i' and 'u'. 23 The conjunction 'and' is written 'e' when the following word begins with "i" or "hi" (as the case of "sweat and intelligence 'or' shit and bastard"), but is wri tten "and" when the next word begins with a diphthong in "i" (as in "triphthong and hiatus"). Page 30 of 41 http://www.superchicos.net/acentuacion.htm 24 Elvish Writing in Spanish Construction spelling Diphthong Definition is the combination of an open vowel and a closed (in any order), or t wo vowels. Form a single syllable. In Spanish we have the following diphthongs a re possible: 'ia', 'ie', 'io', 'iu', 'ua', 'ue', 'ui', 'uo', 'i', 'i', 'oi ',' a u ',' eu ',' ou '. It is a diphthong that begins with a vowel. Rising diphthongs are: 'ia', 'ie', 'io', 'iu', 'ua', 'ue', 'ui', 'uo'. It is a diphthong that beg ins with a vowel. Diphthongs are falling: 'ai', 'i', 'oi', 'au', 'eu', 'ou'. It is the combination of a vowel, a vowel and a vowel, in that order. Form a single syllable. The existing triphthongs in Spanish are: "uai", "uei", "uoi", "iau", "UIS", "iou", "iai", "IAR" 'ioi', 'wow', 'UEU " , 'uou. The triphthongs "uai" an d "uei" written as "uay" and "EJU" respectively, at the end of a word. It is the combination of two vowels. Always forms two syllables. Possible hiatuses in Spa nish are 'aa', 'e', 'ao', 'ea', 'ee', 'eo', 'or', 'oe', 'oo. " Rising diphthong Triphthong descending diphthong Hiatus Table 13: Definition of diphthong and hiatus triphthong In all previous cases must be borne in mind that if there is an 'h' interleaved, does not alter the behavior of vowels. For example, "hostage" is still a gap. T he scenario gets a bit complicated when we introduce the accents or diacritics, as a tilde can break a diphthong to turn on hiatus. These are the possible cases .

Page 31 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish Construction accented spelling Diphthongs Definition If a diphthong accents, this is always in the open vowel (eg 'yacht' or 'plane'). In these cases the syllable breaks. The diphthong is forming a sing le syllable. The tilde is placed only if applicable to the normal rules of accen tuation. If the diphthong accents when the two vowels in it are closed, it goes over the second vowel (eg 'destroyed'). If the force of the word falls on the vo wel of a diphthong, it breaks and becomes a hiatus, that is, two syllables. Mind you, this is only possible with a tonic vowel (with tilde) and unstressed vowel (without tilde). For example, "mess" or "fall." The accent is always placed in these cases, though not entitled by the ordinary rules of accentuation. If the t riphthong is in a stressed syllable and must lead tilde by the normal rules of a ccentuation, it is placed on the vowel (as in "iniciáis). Diphthongs two accented vowels become diphthongs hiatus Triphthongs with tilde Table 14: Accents and diacritics triphthongs diphthongs 9.2. Diphthongs Each specific diphthong is written by a combination of tengwa and tehta. In summ ary, we say: • • • The basis for the diphthongs tengwa growing type 'i-"is Anna (h). The basis for the diphthongs tengwa growing type 'u-' is Vala (y). The teng wa basis for decreasing diphthongs such as '-i' is Yanta (l). • The basis for th e diphthongs tengwa growing type "-u" is Ure. (.) We combine these with the tehtar classical Tengwar for different diphthongs. Thi s table contains all possible combinations. Page 32 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish Growing iia ie io iu hN hV hD HM UUA ue ui uo yD yF yG yH Decreasing-i ai ei oi

lD LF LH -U au eu ou . D. V. N Table 15: Diphthongs with Tengwar The diphthongs are better explained when used examples. The following table cont ains an example for each type of diphthong. Page 33 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish Diphthong ia ie io iu ua ue ui uo ei ai au oi ou eu Example Pious Fiesta louse Diuretic Chapman Cattle Thief Well Care Authority Cai ro eidetic Coito Rouco euphonious Transcription ehF81E qhD2HiN qhHcY 2hJ7 ~ V1GzH zyE17F7N wyF5H 2yH5R7N zyT2 # 2Y zlE7N ~ V1GzH zlH1H LT2. D1H7G2 # 2. Ve ~ N5% ZH u.MzH Table 16: Examples of transcription of diphthongs 9.3. Diphthongs with tilde A diphthong is when the prosodic accent tilde (voice force) falls on the strong vowel ('a', 'e' or 'o'). And here we have a problem of representation. We have s een that the diphthongs are represented by a base and a tehta tengwa associated. That leaves no space to represent the tilde by the usual means, because we are not using a carrier. Some of the literature that we consulted recommended a doub le tehta tilde to represent the diphthong. However, this approach has a Page 34 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish problem: double tehtar are not in the same character as the rest of Tengwar we v isto25. While this may seem trivial, it is not if we are to build a system to au tomatically transcribe text in Castilian Tengwar26 representation, so we took th e magic manga miserably the second choice. The second alternative is to mark the two most tehta tengwa somehow. Since the top of the tengwa is occupied by the t ehta, we can use the bottom to put a bar (which in English is called tilde, prec isely), indicating that the diphthong carries the diacritic accent. Let the alte rnatives with a couple of examples. Example Airplane Boat Transcription Transcription with double tehta lower accent s `CwhH5 5.D1GzH `CwhH; 5 5.; D1GzH Table 17: Examples of diphthongs with diacritics 9.4. Hiatuses

Since hiatuses represent, by definition, two different syllables, using two sepa rate tengwar to represent each vowel. For example, take the case of the word "Ae olus", in which the two vowels are the beginning of the word. In this case the g ap is represented by two carriers short: `V` NjH. If the gap is in the middle of the word, as usual, gets the first tehta tengwa above, in line with the normal rules of writing, and the second on a carrier tehta short (or long, if the stres sed vowel). Take for example the word "slaughter", represented as the word "meód romo" represented as t $ ~ N27Ht. H eD `V5 #, or 25 26 There is a specific section on the font and its variants and their use. Yes, we are building this system to finish the job. Page 35 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 9.5. Diphthongs become hiatus According to the Castilian spelling rules, when the prosodic accent (voice force ) falls on the weak vowel of a diphthong (the 'i' or 'u'), the diphthong is brok en and becomes hiatus, following the rules we just saw. For example, the word 'c offin' is like `C1E trascribiría ~ M2. 9.6. Triphthongs The triphthongs are a little more rare to find (at least in the Canaries), but o f course, when they appear there is to know how to attack them. A triphthong is transcribed as follows: 1. 2. The first vowel is usually represented. The second and third vowel is represented as a diphthong, including representation of tild es. Here are some examples triphthongs transcription, including a tilde. Example Transcript Miau Limpiéis Ox t%. tqGlF j% D, 8 wulf Table 18: Examples of transcription triphthongs Page 36 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish 10. 10.1. TYPOGRAPHY Introduction Everything we've seen so far is great if you want to write with Tengwar by hand, but when we write Tengwar to publish internecs glorious scratched in, because a

s it does not work. The problem arises when we try to write in Tengwar on a keyb oard could be summarized as: but where the hell is the key to the q? Remember wh en we told them that each tengwa represents a different sound depending on how i t is used? The example that was put Hwesta (c), which represents the sound 'j' / 'g' weak / 'x' in Spanish, and the sound "kh" in English. Therefore, we can not fix every tengwa to a specific position on the keyboard according to the sound it represents. What do we do then? A possible solution: placing each tengwa as t ables and additional primary tengwar we have seen in previous chapters. This is the solution that he thought Daniel Smith27, creator of the font Tengwar Quenya, Tengwar Sindarin and Tengwar Noldor. Tengwar Daniel Smith placed directly on a US-style keyboard (U.S. Keyboard), so as to fulfill the following pattern: • • • The key '1 'corresponds to the tengwa 1. The key 'q' corresponds to the tengwa q. The key "a" corresponds to the tengwa a. 27 Page 37 of 41 http://www.acondia.com/fonts/tengwar/index.html Elvish Writing in Spanish • • The key 'z' corresponds to the tengwa z. ... If you check the primary Tengwar table will see that these four tengwar are loca ted precisely in the first row of the table. It is useful to have a template tha t tells us where each tengwa located, although there are many more characters th at are not directly accessible through the push of a button and which require en tering a code number. In any case, they may find a very handy tutorial on writin g in Tengwar, transcribers and other on page Perälä28 Harri. 10.2. 10.2.1. Keymap No capital letters (consonant sounds) This table shows how to write both the primary and the Tengwar Tengwar additiona l. All are accessible directly on the keyboard, ie no need to use a modifier as "uppercase ',' control 'or' alt '. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 89 1234567 q w e r t y u i o io qwertyu a s d f g h j k l asdfghjkl z x c v b n m,. zxcvbnm,. Table 19: Map keyboard without using capital letters 28 ~ http://www.sci.fi/ Alboin / tengwartutorial.htm Page 38 of 41 Elvish Writing in Spanish

10.2.2. With capital letters (vowel sounds) To write Tehtar is necessary to use modifier keys. Since the Spanish keyboard is a bit different from U.S. keyboard, the correspondence is not entirely straight forward. In the U.S. keyboard only have to use the modifier "capital" in Spanish but also must use the "alt" in a case. In addition, the layout of keys is not s ymmetrical. Although there are only five Tehtar, four complete games depending o n their position above the accompanying tengwa. The Tengwar have sizes proportio nal to how they are written, so occupy different widths. In order to better unde rstand the concept, we have drawn a reference tengwa under each tehta, indicatin g the width for which you are prepared that tehta. # $% ^ & 2 # $ 2 2% 2 ^ 2 & E R T Y U 1E 1R D F 1T G 1U 1Y H J 3D C 3F V 3G B 3H N 3J M `C `V `B `N `M Table 20: Map keyboard using upper case 10.3. Tengwar Annatar Tengwar Annatar Typography is a typeface created by Johan Winge29. It is what we used to compose this document.

29 Page 39 of 41 http://home.student.uu.se/jowi4905/fonts/annatar.html Elvish Writing in Spanish It is an elegant typeface comes in two flavors: normal, italic, and is similar t o that which can be read at the One Ring of Sauron. This is my name written in t he typeface, both in normal mode and in italics. ViE7 qEwjH 3 ~ q ~ ~ CjR3 V7F3 xY53 ViE7 qEwjH 3 ~ q ~ ~ CjR3 V7F3 xY53 10.4. Tengwar Parmaite In some writings have sometimes used the font Tengwar Parmaite, Måns Björkman30 work. Lower price is a typeface that Annatar Tengwar, but is more legible to be more square. This is my name written in the typeface, both normally and in itali cs. ViE7 qEwjH 3 ~ q ~ ~ CjR3 V7F3 xY53 ViE7 qEwjH 3 ~ q ~ ~ CjR3 V7F3 xY53 30 Page 40 of 41 http://at.mansbjorkman.net/parmaite.htm Elvish Writing in Spanish 11. INDEX OF TABLES Table 1: primary Tengwar ............................................. ......... ......................................... .................. 12 Table 2: Additio nal Tengwar .......................... ......................................... ......... .................................. 15 Table 3: Vowel sounds represente d by tengwar ....... .................................................. ........ ..... 17 Table 4: vowel sounds represented by tehtar ........................... . ............................................. 18 Table 5: Examples Tengwar tra nscription basic ............................................. ................. ......... 19 Table 6: Examples of carrier versus long double tehta ........... . .......................................... 21 Table 7: Example of disambiguation 'b' / 'v' ........................................... ......................... ............... 22 Table 8: Example of disambiguation "h »forced ............... ................................. ...................... 22 Table 9: Example of disambiguation 'c' / 'z' .............. ........................................ .......... .................... 23 Table 10: Example of disambiguation 's' / 'x' ................ .................................................. ........... ..... 23 Table 11: Numbers represented by tengwar .......................... ... ............................................... ..... 24 Table 12: Punctuation i n Tengwar .................................... ................................. ................ 29 Table 13: Definition of diphthong and hiatus triphthong .... .................................... ................................... 31 Tabl e 14: Accents and diphthongs triphthongs diacritics ..... ...................... ............................ ............. 32 Table 15: Diphthongs with Tengwar .............................. ................................................. . ....................... 33 Table 16: Examples of transcription of diphthongs . ................. .................................................. ......... 3 4 Table 17: Examples of diphthongs with diacritics .............................

.. ....................................... 35 Table 18: Examples of transcriptio n triphthongs .. .................................................. ............ ............. 36 Table 19: Keymap unused capital ............... ............... ................................... ................ 38 Table 20: Map keyboard u sing upper ......................... ........................................... ....... 39 ....... Page 41 of 41