The caliber of firearms

htm Sizing Home Back to ballistic The notion of size lends itself to many misunderstandings because it takes diffe rent meanings such as: - the internal diameter of the barrel - the diameter of t he projectile for a given barrel - the diameter of a conventional barrel or bull et for it - the usual name or commercial a cartridge. In technical terms the wor d gauge indicates the internal diameter of the barrel (core) expressed in units (millimeters, tenths of an inch, etc..) Or otherwise. The latter case it was onl y for the barrels of shotguns that remained of the old English system indicate t he size with the number of lead balls with the diameter needed to be fired by th em and that can be drawn one English pound (453.6 gr) of lead. So when it comes to a shotgun, the calculation 12 shows that 12 lead balls with it sparabili weig hs gr. 453.6; gauge 20 indicates that the barrel is smaller because a pound of l ead are obtained but not 12 but twenty balls suited to it. To find the number of balls to the theoretical diameter of the barrel is used the formula 1 of 6 27/05/2006 17:50 The caliber of firearms where n is the number of balls. I said theoretical diameter because the diameter and weight of the balls can vary a little, and therefore, in effect, the measur es of modern rods are fixed by CIP in the following values. Nominal Diameter mm Nominal Caliber 4 8 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 23.55 21 19.5 0 18.30 17.40 17 15.80 14.90 14.20 12.95 10.60 Maximum Diameter Minimum Diameter mm 23.35 20.80 19.30 18.10 17.20 16.80 15.60 14.70 12.75 10.40 14 mm 23.75 21.2 0 19.70 18.50 17.60 17.20 16 15.10 14.40 13.15 10.80 Rifled weapons in the problem of measuring the diameter of the barrel is complic ated because we must determine whether it is measured between full and that amon g the reliefs of the lining, or between the gaps. It is used to distinguish betw een the caliber of drilling on or between solids and voids between size, usually , if not specified, means that the measure is the size of drilling and therefore the minimum size of the soul. The gauge is measured between full directly, but instead to measure the size gaps between you prefer to force a lead bullet throu gh the barrel and then measure the maximum diameter with a micrometer. The diffe rence between the two values is 0.20 to 0.35 mm barrels for shooting jacketed bu llets with hard (steel tombak) and 0.30 to 0.50 mm for pipes intended to lead or jacketed bullets thin copper. Half of this value indicates that measured the de pth of the lining. In practice when it comes to caliber of weapon, no reference values to correct technical, but rounded and conventional values. It happens tha t the same thing you did with cars that, when you say that it is "two thousand" of displacement is not to say that the volume of the cylinders corresponds exact ly to 2000 cm / cubic well as there may be some irregularities. So when we say t hat a barrel has a size of 7 mm. does not mean that it is exactly seven millimet ers, but only that it is capable of firing 2 of 6 27/05/2006 17:50 The caliber of firearms

seven mm caliber bullets of all the tolerances set by the tables of the CIP (or custom construction, in countries where they are not applied). Thus, for example in various sizes 7 mm rifle, the distance between the solid can vary from 6.9 t o 6.98 mm and the distance between the gaps from 7.24 to 7.92 mm. Here is a smal l program that allows you to calculate mathematical values for conversion of the se measures hours. The caliber of the barrel tells us nothing about the cartridg e that can fire the weapon. A ball with a diameter of 5, 6 mm may be behind a sm all cartridge case with a few milligrams of propellant that the fires a few tens of meters thick or a cartridge case with half a gram of powder that shoots thre e kilometers away. To continue the comparison with cars would be like any attemp t to classify according to the size of the engine compartment. To say that a wea pon is 9 mm means absolutely nothing, except that the barrel has a diameter of a bout 9 mm (toy weapon can also have a rod of this size!). It is for this reason that when we talk meaning gauge cartridge suitable for use in a certain weapon, you should always add an additional indication as well as that of the diameter. It is here that for the layman the issue is further complicated because the Euro pean ammunition identification system differs from that Anglo-Saxon, for further complication is not uniform.€Munitions are rarely identified only based on dim ensional data, but most of the cartridges has a conventional name in which, next to the figure relating to the size, and sometimes even to the cartridge case an d bullet, add different names, what model of weapon that uses the name of the in ventor or manufacturer, etc.).. If a cartridge was only produced for a particula r model of weapon, is used only to indicate the size in millimeters or tenths of an inch, followed by the name of the weapon. To understand, through an example, the complexity of the problem, consider that the 9x19 mm pistol. (But in fact t he cartridge case is 19.15 mm.!) Is also referred to as 9 Luger Parabellum 9, 9 long-M38 Beretta, 9 long, 9 M38, 9 mm PISTOLEN-Patrone 08, 9 mm Patrone PISTOLEN -400 ( b) 9 mm PISTOLEN Patrone M-1941, 9 mm Suomi, Swedish m/34 em/39 9 mm, 9 m m Parabellum 40 M. Important: the European measures in millimeters are not mathe matically convertible measures in Anglo-Saxon and vice versa; 9 European gauges correspond to 0.353 thousandths of an inch, but are shown in U.S. as cal. 38, wh ich corresponds to 0.96 cm. Keep in mind that names are conventional. Calibers o f ammunition for weapons annular percussion rifled there is a category of muniti ons, those hammer ring, which follows its particular rules and that currently in cludes (in the past there were cartridges annular percussion caliber) cartridges from target room in cal. 4 mm, the number of cartridges and Flobert series cart ridges so-cal. 22 ". They are used in both pistols and revolvers in rifles. The cartridges are designed to Flobert weapons of modest power and have reduced load of powder, are calculated. 5.6 mm, 6 mm, 9 mm (one time even 7 mm), which alway s accompanies the words Flobert, and can be either a ball that shot. 3 of 6 27/05/2006 17:50 The caliber of firearms Those ball have a short cartridge case brass, less than one centimeter, those sh ot a container a few centimeters in length. Cartridges cal. .22, Although hammer ring, have a normal powder charge and appear in various types, depending on the length of the cartridge case and the consequent different quantity of powder co ntained. The diameter of the projectile is shown in hundredths of an inch (.22) and corresponds to about 5.6 mm. In this as in all other cases, it should be not ed that the measure of size is purely nominal and should not be taken as an abso lute measure. The types of .22 cal cartridges are: .22 short or short (10.6 mm c artridge case) .22 long or long (15.55 mm cartridge case, the total length of 22 .5 mm) .22 LR (Long rifle) (cartridge case of 15.55 mm, total length of 25.20 mm ) .22 extra long (18.30 mm cartridge case) .22 Winchester Magnum (26.80 mm cartr idge case), plus another ten type, less common. The calibers of ammunition for r evolvers revolvers, except for a few models specifically adapted for the use of

the same ammunition used for semi-automatic pistols, ammunition use specific, ch aracterized by having the bottom with a protruding edge (flange, crown) over the body of the cartridge case. Some of these munitions, usually relating to guns s upplied to European armies at the end of the nineteenth century, are distinguish ed by the size in millimeters, and the name of the weapon or that the indication that it ammunition for weapons of order : cal. 11 m. Gasser, cal. 10.35 mm (Ita lian order, ie revolvers in the Italian Army from 1872 onwards), cal. Swiss orde r of 10.4 mm) cal. Belgian order of 9 mm cal. German order of 10.6 mm, cal. 8 mm Lebel (French law), cal. Japanese order of 9 mm cal. 8 mm Rast & Gasser (Austri an ordinance), cal. 7.62 mm Nagant, cal. Danish order of 9 mm, and a few others. Rare non-military source: the calculated 8 mm Pieper, and cal. 5.5 mm Velodog. Other cartridges are of British origin, originally loaded with black powder and are expressing the indicated size in thousandths of an inch, to avoid confusion with the pistol is used sometimes add the word "revolver" cal. .380 Revolver (cr eated in 1868 and produced until today), cal. Order of English .380 cal. .450 Re volver, cal. Revolver .320 cal Enfield .476 cal. .455 Webley. Gauges .380 .320 R evolver and then appear in two versions, long or short. Again it is worth repeat ing that the measures are purely nominal, 380 mils equals 9.56 mm but in fact th e projectile has a diameter of about 9.15 mm 320 mils equals 8.12 mm but the pro jectile has a diameter between 7.7 and 7.8 mm. Rare are the caliber revolver giv en to Americans in thousandths of inches;€the best known is the 357 Magnum Smit h & Wesson. Cartridges U.S. Indeed, as a rule express the size in hundredths of an inch (before the number you can put your point to indicate that the zero is o mitted, according to the American use or you can write without the dot). As more companies are manufacturers of revolvers Colt and Smith & Wesson, the most comm on cartridges carry their names and then have the following names: .32 4 of 6 27/05/2006 17:50 The caliber of firearms Colt .32 Colt New Police, .38 Long Colt, .41 Long Colt, .45 Colt, .32 S & W, .38 S & W, .38 S & W Special, .44 S &W; over them, without any indication of the we apon, all Series munitions developed, these Magnum: .357 Magnum, .41 Magnum, .44 Magnum, etc.. You should not confuse the .38 caliber, now seen, with the semiau tomatic pistol P-38 (Guns = 1938) which, of course, use pistol ammunition. Calib ers of ammunition for each gun While the revolver ammunition has a unique name f or guns is that the cartridge has different names depending on the country of pr oduction of the weapon and when it was used. As a rule the most technically prec ise indication is formed by two numbers, the first of which shows the caliber, a ccording to the length of the cartridge case, however, usually indicates only th e first digit, adding, like revolvers, various entries. The most common sizes ar e: - Cal. 6.35 or 6.35 x 15.8 mm Browning Browning in America is called .25 ACP (Auto Colt Pistol) or .25 AP - Cal. 7.63 mm Mauser, .30 Mauser is called in Amer ica - Cal. 7.65, or 7.8 x 17.5 mm Browning Browning in America is that .30 or .3 2 ACP Browning - Cal. 7.65 or 7.65 mm Luger Parabellum, or in America, .30 Luger - Cal. 8 mm Roth-Roth Steyer or 8.2 x 18.8 - Cal. 9 mm or 9 mm Short Short Shor t Browning or 9 mm or 9 x 17 mm; in America: Colt .38 Auto or .380 or .380 ACP A P it was the cartridge Beretta mod. 34 used the Italian army until the eighties. - Cal. 9 or 9 x 19 mm long and 9 mm Parabellum or 9 mm Luger, the cartridge is used in Italy and in many countries for the submachine guns and semiautomatic pi stols supplied to the police or armies. Luger's name derives from the fact that it was built for the pistol created by Georg Luger, which later became known as P-08; name Parabellum is known by the trade origin of the Latin proverb. SteyerCal 9 mm or 9 mm Mannlicher-Cal. 38 or 38 ACP Auto Pistol-Cal. M11 Cars 45 or 45 or 45 ACP Automatic Colt, is the cartridge pistol American and some of their su bmachine guns. -Cal. 9 x 21 (in use only in Italy for legal reasons) 45 HP-Cal ( for use only in Italy for legal reasons) gauges of ammunition for rifles in Euro pe caliber cartridges for rifles, except those at Percussion annular cal. 22, al

ready seen, is indicated by two numbers: the first indicates the nominal size, t he second the length of the cartridge case, so that there will be, for example, the sizes 6.5 x 57, 7 x 64, 7.5 x 55 (order Swiss), 7.62 x 63 8 x 57 (order of t he German Mauser rifle mod 98), 6.5 x 52 (to order Italian rifle mod '91), etc.. In some cases, in addition to two decimal or its replacement, uses the name of the designer or manufacturer: 7 mm von Hofe, Sup 7 x 51 S & H, 6.5 Remington Mag num, etc.. Americans use different systems are not well coordinated. Typically y ou an indication of the size in thousandths of an inch, followed by the name of the inventor or manufacturer: 5 of 6 27/05/2006 17:50 The caliber of firearms .222 Remington, .224 Weatherby, .223 Winchester, .250 Savage, .270 Weatherby .30 3 British (ie English law), etc.. Other times were retained traditional names th at no longer has any meaning, for example .30-30 cartridge in the second digit i ndicates the position of black powder, in terms of grain, used in ancient times, but beware: the .30-06 cartridge (which corresponds to European size 7.62 x 63 mm) is so called because they adopted in 1906, the .30 M1 Carbine cartridge take s its name from having been used for the rifle mod. M1. In rare cases, such as j ust seen, and the cal. 308 Winchester, corresponding to the cal. 7.62 NATO milit ary use, it happens that there is a dual. Besides the official name of the calib er, the cartridge can be further specified by additional information on the cart ridge case (flanged, with or without collar, bottle, etc..) Or projectile (mantl e, semimantellato, pointed soft, flat blade, Wadcutter etc...) The weight of the projectile does not become part of the identification because of the size may v ary. 6 of 6 27/05/2006 17:50