Ministry of Education and Science HY TO THE ATTENTION Educate students and students with Autism Spectrum Disorders GU Text

prepared and photographs lent by the technical team of the associations tha t make up Autism ANDALUSIA (Andalusian Federation of Associations of Parents of Autistic Children) Publisher: Ministry of Education and Science Directorate General for Educational and Solida rity Design and Printing: Tecnographic, SL Legal deposit: SE-3160/2001 HY TO THE ATTENTION Educate students and students with Autism Spectrum Disorders GU 1 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD CONTENTS Introduction ................................................. ................. ................................. ....... What are autism spectrum disorders ?.. ................................ Identification of students with autism spectrum disorders ........................................ ............................ ...................... . Educational needs of these students ................ Qu estionnaire for the detection of students with autism spectrum disorders ....... .............................. .................... June 9, 1911 April 3 Educational services to students with autism spectrum disorders ................ ....................... .................................................. .. 15 The role of the family ............................................ ........... .................................. Bibliography ................................ ................ 19 .................................................. ......... .. Autism on the Internet .............................................. 21 .... ......................................... Useful Addresses ..................... ......................... 21 ....................................... 22 2 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD PRESENTATION The Ministry of Education and Science continues with this new guide, the collect ion of publications which aims to disseminate the educational community the basi c information about students with special educational needs affected by various disabilities of a physical, mental or sensory. Therefore, guidelines have been d esigned with emphasis on what make possible a first approach to each group. Cont aining the definition of the general characteristics of this population, and tes ting systems, identification of educational needs often have these schools and t he educational response that corresponds to each one. Moreover, these guidelines are a first approach to be completed with the deepening of the literature and t he websites listed under the same or by contacting the technical teams of the Mi nistry of Education and Science in each province. This guide focuses on students with autism spectrum disorders, ie children with autism or features coming to t

his syndrome. This is a group of students who need an educational response very structured and planned, which should be developed and evaluated in a very organi zed and systematic. The educational response includes, among other actions, dete ction as early as possible of the disorder, assessment of the degree of developm ent of their abilities and special educational needs school proposal as consiste nt as possible with their special needs, adaptation of curriculum depending on t he needs in education, skills curriculum and style of learning that the students present as well as the identification of supports and resources to be ordinary and necessary expertise. The form of schooling for pupils with autistic spectrum disorders is always organized from the beginning of normalization, ie, trying t heir schooling with the highest degree of integration possible in any mode of sc hooling under Law 9 / 1999 18 November, Solidarity in Education. Even in the ter ms where the educational services has a more specific units and special schools for special education, seeks to find spaces and times within the school day to p romote contact and learning experiences with their peers in classrooms and schoo ls ordinary. The educational package mentioned should provide the most appropria te response to their personal needs, social and family, trying, in short, that e ach of these schools get the highest possible development of their potential.€SE BASTIAN FERNÁNDEZ SÁNCHEZ, Director General of educational and Solidarity. 3 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD WHAT ARE THE ASD? They are a group of developmental disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger Disorde r, Rett Syndrome, Disintegrative Disorder Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise S pecified) which always appear within the first three years of the child or the c hild and that are characterized by significant changes in the areas of Social In teraction, Communication, Flexibility and imagination. Basically, these changes include: • Socialization: difficult to understand the world of thought in social interaction, emotions, beliefs, desires, both outside as their own. This interf eres with social interaction, the ability to regulate themselves emotionally and causes loss of interest in sharing. • Communication: inability to understand th e concept of communication and their application to both the interaction and the regulation of thoughts. Communication used primarily to request or reject, not to share. Many have no spoken language. Those who do, do repetitive and stereoty ped use of language or subjects that interest them. • Comprehension: difficult t o understand and make sense of the activity itself, abstracting, represent, orga nize their thinking, behavior and understanding of others. • Imagination: seriou s difficulties to use toys properly, especially the symbolic conduct role playin g games or imaginative. As in other childhood developmental disorders, the sever ity of involvement each subject is suffering from very diverse. Its external man ifestations (deficits, excesses, deviations) depend on the severity of autism, t he chronological age and mental age of a student who has the condition and can b e very different between two students, as well as the same student at different ages. At the cognitive level, the pupils with autistic spectrum disorders 4 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD present a significant deterioration in the capacity which should serve to functi on in the social world or the mental world, also called social cognition and int uitive psychology. This would lead them to treat people as objects or having gre at difficulty understanding simple social niceties. Generally have good skills i n visuospatial areas (visual thinking skill for drawing), memory and motor mecha nics. A significant percentage of these students have mental retardation associa ted with autism alteration, although another high percentage (especially those a ffected by Asperger syndrome) did not have delayed cognitive development or lang uage development. These students are at high risk of being detected very late. B eing accepted by the majority of the scientific community the biological origin

of these disorders, there are currently insufficient data to speak of many possi ble causes of them: genetic, metabolic, infectious ... However, there is still n o medical treatment of these disorders, being the most appropriate educational t reatment today. Impact: The various epidemiological studies on autism spectrum d isorders have been offering widely varying figures. In recent years, figures fre quently are those that tell you about 25 of every 10,000 births suffer from a di sorder of this nature. Within this population, according to studies published in the last decade, the largest number of cases is that of people with Asperger sy ndrome (characterized by cognitive and oral language close to normal and a great er interest in the interaction social). The number of men with autism spectrum d isorders is much higher than in women (approximately 4 / 1). 5 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD IDENTIFICATION pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders But fortunately things are changing rapidly, it can sometimes take several years without a boy or a girl is diagnosed and receive treatment. As in all developme nt alternatives, the sooner it is diagnosed the problem affecting a pupil or stu dent, the better the subsequent development: Effects of the late detection of au tism: • Confusion of parents and educators who ignore • what that child does not respond as others to their educational efforts. Inadequ ate response by teachers, special educational needs of these students who stay f or too long without specialized care. Difficulties in the teaching of basic skil ls for living and learning, which sometimes makes them "uneducable" Emergence of misconduct due to the lack of response to their needs and basic features. These behaviors greatly complicate their participation in an integrated school. • • Thus, early detection of students with autism spectrum disorders have the follow ing objectives: • The beginning, as soon as possible, the treatment most appropr iate education for each student, using early techniques and specific teaching st rategies. • The immediate formation of and responsible for their education (pare nts, teachers, instructors) to enable them to carry out these techniques and str ategies. • Prevention or educational treatment of inappropriate behaviors that m ay present the student with autism spectrum disorders. 6 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD On the other hand, have to take into account the difficulties most frequently so you can make an early detection: • The lack of teachers and educators about wha t might be the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that may indicate the pr esence of this problem of development . • The important variability of the exter nal manifestations that may have these disorders (some students have a language, others do not and can not understand hardly anything, some acquire or possess s pecial skills and others have a very limited level of learning). • The presence of mental retardation or other causes deficiencies put much emphasis on the trea tment of these aspects, ignoring the educational needs arising from the conditio n of autism spectrum disorder. The following are specified for the ages when the y should be identified these students in school, some of its most significant ch aracteristics mentioned by Angel Riviere: 3-5 year periods Low response to calls (verbal requirements) of parents or adults, or other claims, although there is evidence that there is deafness. Difficulties in establishing and maintaining re lationships that are requiring attention or action. Insufficient attention to wh at other people do in general delay in the onset of language that is not replace d by an alternative mode of communication. Difficulty understanding speech messa

ges through. More or less marked concern that translates into running around or roam "nonsense" that make it difficult to focus. 7 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD Few distractions and those that exist can become highly repetitive and obsessive . Difficulties to support changes in ordinary life, for example, in times or pla ces where certain activities are, etc. Sensory disturbances reflected in toleran ce to certain sounds, smells, tastes, etc. that affect daily life habits such as food, clothing, ... Weak development of symbolic play or the functional use of objects. Cognitive impairment (perception, memory, symbolization) that affect th e resolution of problems of this age. Behavior problems can range from running a round or stereotyped behaviors or flutter rate swings up tantrums of varying int ensity. PERIOD FROM FIVE YEARS. Check whether the symptoms described above are p resent or have been. For cases of autism spectrum more "mild" should be shown fr om this age the following: difficulties to share interests or play with other ch ildren. Tendency to solitude, recreation or similar or quickly leave the games o f other children due to lack of ability to understand "their role" in the game. Games or activities that although their age, draw attention, being very persiste nt, even obsessive. 8 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THESE STUDENTS AND ALUMNI The presence of an autistic spectrum disorder in the development of a boy or gir l causes several problems.€Such changes generated by these students with special educational needs and specific treatment which is best at present, it is educat ional. • Adaptation of the environment to its peculiarities: the environment tha t usually surrounds any student or student in the school system is very often a number of features that make it difficult to understand and adapt by students wi th autism spectrum disorders, especially these: Presence of excessive sensory st imuli, in quantity or intensity, especially sound stimuli. Low spatial structure of own physical environment and activities at the site. Predominant use of verb al instructions in communication between adults and children. Therefore, the fir st educational needs of student with autism spectrum disorders is the adaptation of the school environment, as far as possible, by eliminating or reducing these features that prevent or seriously impede the adaptation. • Explicit teaching o f humanization functions: The cognitive characteristics of these students preven t the emergence of a number of functions that take place spontaneously, ie witho ut explicit instruction in the general population. Formal education has among it s objectives of facilitating the process of culturiza9 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD tion. These schools need to be included in curriculum adaptation explicitly, bec ause otherwise you will not be developed or will do so sparingly. Are clearly re flected in the educational curriculum regarding the functions of the body and th e physical and social world. That curriculum should include the development of c ognitive functions that allow the child access to the world of minds, humanizati on features, called by Ángel Rivière third level: communication, especia lly communication. Mentalism, or ability to "read minds." Play and imagination. Flexibility and adaptability to change. These capabilities, which require more momentum in educational practice, are imp ortant for all students, but essential in teaching children with autism spectrum disorders. • The development of his "strengths": Usually the students with auti sm spectrum disorders, have a normal or even superior development of some cognit ive functions such as visuospatial skills, gross motor, fine mechanical memory .

. . The better they perform these functions, the greater the competition when th e world deal with the physical and structured, and increase the possibility, sup ported by these capabilities, to understand the world of the social and deal wit h it. Also, a good development of these "strong points" contribute to improving self-esteem and even a greater regard for their teachers and peers. 10 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE DETECTION pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders 11 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD 12 Age: Cycling: Stage: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE DETECTION pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders Name of student or student: Date of Birth: Level: School: Please indicate whether the following statements are attributable to the pupil o r student who is watching. Circle the most appropriate level in each case. AM: Often PV: N seldom: never F F F F F AM AM AM AM AM PV PV PV PV PV N N N N N F: frequent 1. Does not attend when called. Sometimes it seems dull. 2. No notes to show something is happening, or are watching 3. No speech or has quit. 4. His language is very repetitive and not very functional 5. Use people as if they were instruments to achieve what you want 6. It usually communicates to request or reject, not to comment FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM PV PV PV PV PV PV PV PV PV PV NNNNNNNNNNN AM AM AM PV PV PV N N AM N PM AM PV PV N F AM PV N 7. Do not react to what happens around

8. Shows no interest in the relationship with others, do not ask your attention, sometimes reject them. 9. He does not look to the face or eyes, smiling at the same time 10. It does not relate to other children, do not imitate 11. Do not look where he is mentioned 12. Use toys so peculiar (rotate,€align them, throw them ...) 13. Lack of social play, symbolic and imaginative ("act as if ...) 14. Their games are repetitive 15. Alinea or sort things unnecessarily 16. It is very sensitive to certain textures, sounds, smells and flavors. 17. Has strange movements, repetitive 18. Presents tantrums or resistance to environmental changes 19. Has unusual attachments to certain objects or specific visual stimuli 20. He laughs or cries for no apparent reason. 21. It has good visuospatial skills In the event that the student or student has scored F or AM in more than 5 items , it is important to contact the Educational Guidance Team in the area, or other institutions (Children's Mental Health, Autism Association of Area ,...). A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD 13 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD 14 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD Educational attention to pupils with ASD IMPORTANCE OF ADJUSTED ASSESSMENT. The valuation of development is crucial to th e design of educational programming. The assessment should take into account the functional competence of the person, their context and not only the behavior of the child. Some of the difficulties that may hinder the assessment process are: • Lack of cooperation of the child (neglect, opposition, hyperactivity, etc). • Difficulty understanding the demands of the tests. • uneven development pattern , with a highly developed areas and other undeveloped. • Most tests are based on "weak points" of the development of autism spectrum disorders, such as language and symbolization, and do not take into account the strengths "mentioned in the preceding paragraph. To overcome these difficulties, taken included the followi ng strategies in the assessment process: Tasks "in the opinion." Very useful i n cases where you can not use standardized tests. It allows us to assess the dev elopment of skills, abilities, behaviors, etc.. That the child has in different developmental areas. The information obtained can be contrasted with the develop ment that typically, is given in their peers. standardized tests. Some of the

most commonly used Wechsler scales, Brunett-LEZIN, Kauffinan, Leiter, Vineland a nd Raven's Progressive Matrices, among others. These tests can be very expensive to go through the difficulties described above. Observation. Is the strategy pr ovides more data in the assessment process, although it is recommended that the observations contrast with the views of scale Riviere IDEA (1997), which allows us to establish a profile within the autistic spectrum in different areas develo pment: social, communication, flexibility, anticipation and symbolization. 15 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD PATTERNS OF SCHOOLING: The decision on the most appropriate education for each s tudent with autism spectrum disorders will depend mainly on the resources that t ell the school to ensure an adequate response to their educational needs, includ ing those caused by autism. The conditions of schooling that exist today are: • Integrated Schooling: This is the most interesting for any student or student-wi th these disorders, especially in the early years because it best promotes the a cquisition of skills basic social. This type of education requires different typ es of support: monitors special education support in the classroom, or logopedic individualized educational support. It is also necessary to train professionals and psychological support continued. • Special Education Classroom specific int egrated into a regular center: When the characteristics of students is not adequ ate the previous mode, it is possible to enroll in these classes, where the expe rtise and experience of professionals is very important. This method facilitates the contact and integration experiences part-time students their age. • Specifi c Center: Some students need some schooling conditions, attention and care that can only be offered at a specific special education.€Training and professional e xperience contributes to improved quality of educational response offered to the se students. The specificity of autistic spectrum disorders and type of educatio nal response that requires progressively advise classrooms and special schools h ave special education teachers specially trained in providing education for this group. In some cases it may be advisable to the existence of a special school f or pupils with autistic spectrum disorders. 16 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES: The main guidelines of educational intervention with pup ils with autistic spectrum disorders are: • "Protection" sensory Taking account of possible sensory hypersensitivities suffered by the student with autism spect rum disorders (especially in senses of hearing, touch and sight) may be critical to facilitate a proper relationship between itself and its environment. • Organ ization of the environment or the environments surrounding the boy or girl: Due to the lack, in the student with autism spectrum disorders, from "social paramet ers" to organize their world, it is essential to organize through the introducti on of meaningful social cues accessible to their capacities. They organize a wor ld with a high degree of predictability. The organization of the environment sho uld be clear both in the physical plane, as in the temporal and social. • Use vi sual aids: There will be taken into account the strengths that the student or st udent in mind, one of them is a good visuospatial ability, his visual thinking. Use visual aids (artifacts, photographs, pictograms ...) to facilitate understan ding of the world around him, what he says, of what is to come, is an essential pattern in his education. In fact, be taken to ensure that all information conve yed about the class rules, assignments, schedules and other activities, have a c lear visual component. • Emphasize the development of communication: The severe expressive communication difficulties are factors that increase their social int eraction problems and often lead to numerous 17 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD

inappropriate behavior in their interaction with the environment. It is imperati ve to focus on developing basic communication skills, as well as everyday use an d adequacy of existing ones. A prominent role in this pattern is the use of alte rnative communication systems or instrumental skills and gestural communication as the main means of achieving greater development of this function. • Training in emotion: The introduction of student with autism spectrum disorders in the so cial world within the world of minds, must be done through training in the recog nition of emotions and their relation to situations , desires and beliefs, their own and others. • Set up the improvement of skills in interactive game pool pla y: The importance of play in child development for the socialization of the chil d points to the need for the student with autism spectrum disorders are trained in different types of play with adults and representation and participation in g roup games from children their age. • Standardization of the use of objects and toys: The spontaneous use of objects and toys made by the student with autism sp ectrum disorders is often inadequate, purely sensory. With the aim of bringing t he future symbolic play, it is important to start training in the functional use of everyday objects and simple toys. • Training and professional support: Becau se of the peculiarity of the response to the educational needs of pupils with au tistic spectrum disorders, we need the continuing education of professionals inv olved in their education (support professionals, specialist teachers monitors, s peech therapists ...) 18 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY The role of families in the education of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders is of great significance, but is conditioned by two fundamental questions: 1.€T he family can be passive as the core part that receives a "shock" for what he ha s to develop mechanisms for adaptation and overcoming of that state. The familie s of people with autism spectrum disorders require very intensive and specialize d support for nearly all his life, although these are more evident in the early onset of the disorder. During this period two key moments stand out: • When you suspect your child has a communication problem. • When suspicions are confirmed by a specialist, even casts a long shadow to appear the word "autism." This mome nt is too often delayed in many cases, mainly because the complexity of a disord er, poor training of professionals in this field. The assimilation of a disorder so severe is not easy, so that support for these families of the respect of the rates of uptake of each. However, respecting the rhythm does not mean "sit back " as an adequate understanding of the situation will cause the child or the chil d more favorable. 2. The family, as an active agent will have to adapt to the si tuation of your son or daughter and develop coping strategies and understanding of the disorder. You will need the guidance and support of specialized professio nals whose basic lines of advice could be aimed to: 19 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD Guidelines for organizing the activities of daily living, in a manner conducive anticipation and communication. Provide information to families to better unders tanding the problem every day. Support the objectives of the intervention progra m, especially those aimed at improving communication, personal autonomy and self determination. To facilitate the acquisition by the family, the basic technique s to help achieve the objectives, especially behavior modification and communica tion skills. Promote contacts with other affected families. Providing informatio n on social support in cases where necessary. Helping to build a realistic view of autism spectrum disorders that promotes the involvement of families without "

exalt" too fancy. 20 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD REFERENCES Happe, Francesca introduction to autism. Alianza Editorial. Madrid, 1998 HERNAND EZ RODRIGUEZ, Juana M ª, Proposed Curriculum in the area of communication and re presentation for students with communication disorders. CIDE, Madrid, 1996 Rivie re Gomez, Angel, Autism: Guidelines for Educational Intervention. Editorial Trot ta. Madrid, 2001 Riviere Gomez, Angel, Marta Perez, Juan.: The Treatment of Auti sm. New Perspectives. APNA. Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Madrid, 1998: The young child with autism, APNA. Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Madri d, 2000 Various authors, The educational response to students seriously affected in their development. Centre for Educational Research and Documentation, Minist ry of Education and Science. Madrid, 1999 AUTISM IN INTERNET Asociación Nuevo Horizonte: American Association of Autism: A sperger Syndrome Program au/-asperger/ DISORDERS AUTISTACCH SPECTRUM: Spectrum http://www.Trastornos auti / Updates constants: British Associatio n of Autism: uk / 21 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD ASSOCIATIONS OF PARENTS OF PEOPLE WITH ASD ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS of autistic children AND OTHER COMMUNICATION DISORDERS OF THE PROVINCE OF ALMERIA AND (APNAAL). C / Pio Baroja No. 13, 7-2 º ALMERÍA Tel & Fax 04 006 950 March 22, 1932 ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS of autistic children of C adiz (APNA). C / pink S / N. 11 510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) Tel: 956 47 45 63 Fax: 9 56 47 August 26 ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS of autistic and PDD DE CORDOBA SAN JUAN D E LA CRUZ CORDOBA No. 9 Tel 14 007 49 957 25 27 Fax: 957 49 77 27 ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS Autistic DE GRANADA "AUTISM GRANADA" Argentinita AVENUE S / N 18014 GRANADA Tel / Fax: 958 34 11 01 Fax: 958 34 November 1901 Pr ovincial Association of parents of autistic children "MARTA PEREZ JUAN. C / GAME BALLS N º 8, 2 º DCHA. 23 740 Andújar (Jaén) Tel & Fax: 953 50 24 56 22 A PA RAL GU Í Ó ENCI AT AT I VA ALOSALUMNOSYALUMNASCO NEDUC WITH ASD ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS of autistic children and TPD "Archangel" CAMINO DE LA PEÑ A SOURCE, N º 53 23002 Tel & Fax 953234283 JAÉN ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS OF CHILDR EN AND ADULTS Autistic DE MÁLAGA "AUTISM MÁLAGA" URB. STA. CRISTINA. C / OBSIDIA N No. 1. ALFA TOWER. 29006 Málaga Tel & Fax 952 33 69 50 ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS AND OTHER PDD Autistic AVDA DE SEVILLA. SPORT S / N 41020 Seville Tel: 954 40 54 46/954 44 31 75 Fax: 954 40 78 41 ASSOCIATION OF PARENTS AND FRIENDS OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM AND PDD (Ansar "HUELVA) C / PADRE Andivia No. 10 Mezzanine A 21 003 HUELVA Tel & Fax: 959 January 28, 1914 Andalusian Federation of Associations of parents with autistic children "AUTISM ANDALUSIA" C / Martinez Campos, No. 5, 1 LEFT. 29001 Malaga Tel / Fax: 952 21 00 33 23