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It is defined as semisolid preparations intended to be applied on the skin or ce rtain mucous membranes to exert a local action to result in skin penetration of the active ingredient it contains. They are composed of an excipient, simple or compound in which dissolve or disperse one or more active ingredients. The compo sition of the preservative can influence the effect of the preparation and parti cularly in the liberation of the active ingredient of ointments Excipients subst ances can be natural or synthetic and may comprise a single phase or several pha ses can be integrated ointments additives appropriate antimicrobial agents, anti oxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers or thickening Characteristics of a good ointment

Stability: The ointment should be stable throughout the duration of treatment or until they are totally consumed should not show inconsistencies and do not vary with normal changes in temperature or humidity. Consistency: should be smooth a nd safe as they do often applied to inflamed or excoriated skin. Ease of use: Yo u should be optimized to facilitate its implementation. Appropriate Base: The ba se proper is one of the most important aspects in the preparation of a good oint ment. The base must be physically and chemically compatible with the other ingre dients of the formula, namely that the base should not destroy or inhibit the th erapeutic action of the active and must release the drug at the site of action. Classification of ointment

1-according to their degree of penetration) ointment epidermal When they have li ttle or no penetration. b) When endodermal creams penetrate the deep layer of th e skin. c) When diadérmicas ointments are absorbed and reach the bloodstream.

2 - According to its therapeutic action) Emollients b) Anti-Infective c) antipru ritic d) Antieczematicas e) antiperspirant f) keratolytic 3 - according to their categories 1) Ointments themselves: They consist of a s ingle phase excipients which you can disperse solids and liquids, all semisolid preparations that are used with different names relate to their physical charact eristics and chemical and consistency more or less soft. Ointments hydrophobic (lipophilic). Can absorb only small amounts of water. Oi ntments absorbents can absorb large amounts of liquid. Its ingredients are those of the hydrophobic ointments to incorporate these type emulsifiers W / O. hyd

rophilic ointments. It is made from water miscible excipients such as polyethyle ne glycols and liquid. May contain adequate amounts of water. 2) Creams: Creams are ointments nd the other lipophilic. Hydrophobic Creams polyphase consist of two phases, one aqueous a

Hydrophilic cream 3) These preparations are gels formed by liquid gelled with the help of approp riate agents. Hydrophobic gels (oleogeles) hydrophilic gels (hydrogels)

4) pasta: They contain high proportions of solids finely dispersed in the excipi ent therefore, usually their consistency is quite high. 5) ointments: These are semi-solid preparations consisting mainly of petroleum a re non-greasy and washable adhere well to the application surface and remain in contact for longer than creams. Preparations Salicylates Ointment

Formula: Salicylic Acid qs 04.00 g Vaseline 60 g SODIUM Spray Method for prepari ng salicylic acid in a few milliliters of ethyl alcohol and add the jelly mix ge ntly. Application: External Applications: hyperkeratosis and warts. It is most u sed in crusted lesions. Note: The continuous application of salicylic acid can c ause dermatitis Camphor ointment

Formula: white Vaseline Camphor 100gr 900gr Weigh Method for preparing component s such as camphor and then melt the white petrolatum and mix Application: Uses e xternal: in rheumatic pains. Analgesic Balm

Formula: Methyl Salicylate Menthol 20g 250ml Liquid Paraffin Paraffin 150g lenti ls 150g 500g Vaseline Method for preparing solid paraffin Place in a porcelain b owl or in a heated casting and fusion. Then add the jelly to add the complete fu sion mixed with menthol methyl salicylate. Pack in sturdy plastic cup hot wing c omposition. Application: External Use: joint pain and arthritis. Conservation

Ointments should be stored in tightly closed containers. This requirement is par ticularly important when the product under analysis includes an aqueous phase ca n evaporate or become contaminated. The cork stoppers are to be avoided, if poss ible, because it always contains the seeds of molds. Either way, when a product contains an aqueous phase is recommended the addition of antifungals. In prepara tions containing glycerides, is frequently required the addition of antioxidants . In general, ointments should be kept in cool places. This dosage form is very common, routinely prepared in the pharmacy, and also between the medicinal ointm ents there are numerous formulations. Packing

The creams are packed in jars (jars) or in metal or plastic tube. The ointment p ots are available in size from ½ ounce to 16 ounces (15g to 470g) tubes for oint ments, have the ability to 3.5g (in ophthalmic products) to 120g or more. advantage

Is uniform, and not seen any solid component. It is easy to apply. The container is suitable for the excipients do not stain clothes. disadvantages once and used the ointment has a certain duration.