UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS METHODS OF SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF COMPOUNDS BY ORGANIC SOLVENTS, EXTRACTION acetylsalicylic acid

INTRODUCTION: The extraction is the technique used to sepa rate an organic product of a reaction mixture or to separate it from natural sou rces. Can be defined as the separation of a component of a mixture by means of a solvent. The procedure is shaken with an organic solvent immiscible with water and allow to separate the two layers. Different solutes are distributed between the aqueous and organic phases, according to their relative solubilities. Thus, inorganic salts, practically insoluble in common organic solvents remain in the aqueous phase, while organic compounds that form hydrogen bonds, insoluble in wa ter, are found in the organic. In practice it is widely used to separate organic compounds from aqueous solutions or suspensions in which they find themselves. The name derives from its structure aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid. Salicylic aci d formerly known as spiraeico acid (Spiraea ulmaria ulmaria of) and therefore as pirin was acetilespiraeico acid, from which it derived its name. As acetylsalicylic acid is readily hydrolyzed to give acetic acid and salicylic acid, the solvent water is not suitable as a means to conduct such an assessment Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS OBJECTIVES:-To know the fundamentals of the extraction of organic compounds. Thr ough the experiment, removed for a drug acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin, which is the identification. For this was used extraction technique and then take it to a purification process in the sgte experience. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The extracti on is a procedure for separation of a substance that can be dissolved in two imm iscible solvents together with differing degrees of solubility and are in contac t through an interface. The relationship of concentrations of the substance in e ach of the solvents, at a given temperature is constant. This constant is called the partition coefficient and can be expressed as: Molecular model of aspirin K = [substance] 1 / [substance] 2 where [substance] 1 is the concentration of th e substance to be extracted, in the first solvent and similarly [substance] 2 co ncentration of the same substance in the other solvent. VARIABLES: The concentra tion of our test compound (X), temperature at which the system is much like our test compound (T), the properties of our solution and the solubility (S), MATERI AL: Funnel-Beaker-settling - simple funnel-pylon-Mortar with filter paper. REAGE NTS: "Distilled water" tablets of aspirin, salicylic acid Dichloromethane Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS -Baguetas EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 1 - put three aspirin tablets in a mortar and proceed to crush it. 2: "Dissolve and stir, with the help of a baguette, the powdered sample in 30 ml of distilled water (H2O). 3 - Place the filter paper in the funnel. Faculty of Industrial Engineering

Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS 4: "With the help of a baguette, transfer the resulting solution to the funnel t o carry out the filtration by gravity. 5: "transfer the filtrate to settling pear to carry out a simple extraction. 6:-Add 3 ml of dichloromethane to the mixture, then close the top of the funnel and shake vigorously to form an emulsion of two immiscible liquids and allow the distribution of the solute between the two. Aqueous Phase Organic Phase Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS 7: - the funnel is inverted and the tap to remove the pressure inside. The proce dure is repeated so that the gases can be formed out of the funnel. 8: - is left standing for some time to form a clear interface between them. Open s the spigot bottom of the funnel and let drain the denser liquid in a suitable container such as a beaker. RESULTS: Through a replacement reaction of aspirin with water is obtained for sa licylic acid and acetic acid. Molecular Model A. Salicylic Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS DISCUSSIONS If you have a substance that is soluble in a solvent, but is more so luble in a second solvent immiscible with the former, can be drawn that the firs t€adding the second solvent and stirring the mixture to separate. As expected, extraction is never complete, but more effective would be obtained when the amou nt of second solvent is divided into several fractions and successive extraction s are made when you add it all at once and becomes a single extraction. CONCLUSI ONS The process of extraction of the sample is widespread at the industry level that is used in extraction of oils, fats and pigments. For example, iodine, slig htly soluble in water, is extracted from the same with carbon tetrachloride. Onc e the phase separation is to calculate the concentration of iodine in each phase , titrated with thiosulfate. We conclude that this process can also be used to c ontrol the solubility of our substances in different solvents. Especially in org anic chemistry, using different treatments to some functional groups can control the value of K, making them soluble and insoluble or as we are interested in, f or example: if we amines dissolved in an organic solvent and we pass to a polar solvent, we can treat them with acid to be charged and protons, thus dissolving our polar solvent, once we separate the reverse process (ie basificarlas and ret urned to its original form) and completely separated from our solvents. Faculty of Industrial Engineering

Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS Questionnaire 1: - What other techniques for extracting organic compounds are kn own? There are two types of mining: A) Batch Extraction, You may also call lÍqu idolÍquido extraction, the extraction process is performed by decanting funnels and pears. Liquid-Liquid: This technique is used to separate two immiscible liq uids using a solvent that preferentially dissolves one of them. It consists of p lacing a liquid mixture in contact with a second miscible liquid that selectivel y removes one or more of the components of the mixture. It is used in the refini ng of lubricating oils and solvents in the extraction of sulfur-containing produ cts and in obtaining parafinitas waxes. The liquid that is used to remove part o f the mix should be for key components insoluble. After the solvent to contact a nd mixing two liquid phases are obtained that are named overflow and underflow. The sludge and liquid waste accumulated in the bottom of the decanter or the tow er is the waste of the process. B). Continuous extraction, this extraction is known as sólidolÍquido extractio n and realization, are used Soxhlet type extractor. This process is long (takes about three hours). Solid-Liquid: It consists in treating a solid that is formed with two or more substances that are preferably a solvent that dissolves the tw o solids, which is called the solute. The operation also called leaching, the na me most commonly used to dissolve and extract inorganic substances in the mining industry. Another name used is that of percolation, in this case, the extractio n solvent is hot or boiling point. It is used to extract soluble minerals in the mining industry, also in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry and essence s and perfumes. Waste from this operation are accumulated in the bottom of the e xtractor containing solids and solvents. In the case of batch extraction, it is manifested in two ways: - Simple: When the process is done in two stages. - Mult iple: When the process is done in two or more stages. Acid-Base: The method of acid-base extraction is used when some of the substance s recovered acidic or basic characteristics. There are few organic functional gr oups to acidic or basic enough to interact with inorganic acids or bases. Among themselves Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS may be mentioned carboxylic acids and phenols, which react with strong bases to give the corresponding salts. The method consists of: 1 - Dissolve the mixture s eparated into an organic solvent with the following characteristics: "It must be inert. "All compounds must be soluble. "It must be immiscible with water. "It m ust have a low boiling point. 2 - Add a solution to remove acidic or basic aqueo us phase to the desired, components (such as a salt thereof). 3 - Neutralize the aqueous phase (pH = 7 to 25 oC). 4 - Remove organic solvent again. 5: - Evapora te separately both organic fractions to dryness to recover both compounds. 2.What is the partition coefficient of extraction using solvents? When a substan ce is dissolved in two solvents misciblers each other, the ratio of the concentr ations of the substance in each of the solvents is constant at a given temperatu re, this constant is called constant cast: Where k = C1/C2 C1 the concentration in grams of the compound in solvent 1 and C2 is the concentration in the solvent 2.Moreover k is the coefficient of distribution. If we have a substance soluble in a solvent, but more soluble in a second solvent immiscible with the former, you can win the first, add the second, stirring the mixture and separating the t

wo phases. At the laboratory the process takes place in a funnel. That is, the p artition coefficient is the ratio of concentration of any molecular species betw een two phases in equilibrium. 3: - Comment on the techniques of isolation of na tural products? The extraction and chromatography are two simple and widely used as a method for separating a desired compound from impurities or to isolate eac h component in a mixture, and are based on the principle of distribution of diff erent substances between two immiscible phases. Chromatography is a technique of separation of extraordinary Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS power that has displaced most of the methods used for this purpose at the labora tory. Modern techniques allow preparative chromatography applications in the sep aration of natural products, synthetic intermediates, macromolecules, metabolic and biologically active substances, such as the new compounds "seeded" from micr oorganisms and higher organisms and seascapes. Faculty of Industrial Engineering Organic Chemistry Laboratory