Wirsberg-Gymnasium Würzburg 2005/2007 College Level Basic Catholic Religion Housework Interpretations of the Bible Author

: maintainer (Erstkorrektor): Reception info: Alexander Aumüller OStR Siegfried Hutzel The housework was delivered to me today . Date ............................................... Signature ............... ........................ Rating: Points (in writing): Einfachwertung: ......................... ............... x 3 = ... Points (oral): Einfachwertung: x 1 = .......................... ....... ....... ... Total: .................. Total: (Total) ........................ Points Signature of Erstkorrektors (Supervisor): ...................................... ..... ................. Signature of the second corrector: ..................... ......................... ............. . 2 Structure: 1 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1 .3.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2. 2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2. 4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.5 2.5.1 2.5 .1.5 2.5.2 3.1.1 3 3.1 The language Bible in a fair idea of the possible interpretations of Biblical texts historical-critical method of tex tual criticism, history of the text tradition criticism literary criticism sourc es and editorial criticism of formal and substantive requirements repertoire gen eric form of criticism criticism criticism of tradition determination the histor ic town clarify specific aspects clarification of important concepts clarificati on of issues Existentialist interpretation of the historical difference perceive the mythical elements of the text identify Existential understand questions and asked to be materialistic interpretation of historical materialism, structurali sm, feminist interpretation of historical-critical method of inner-correction Pe rsonalize the tradition of creative reconstruction Feminist Transformation chang e of perspective Linguistic interpretation analysis of the narrative perspective space characteristic time characteristic inner characteristic speech characteri stic values characteristic analysis of the actors, the text as a role The Aktant enmodell The application to Matthew, chapter 20, verses 1-16 The Historical-Crit ical Method genesis of the text p. 5 p. 6 p. 6 p. 6 p. 7 p. 7 p. 8 p. 7 p. 8 p. 8 p. 9 p. 9 p. 10 p. 10 p. 10 p. 10 p. 11 p. 11 p. 12 p. 12 p. 12 p. 13 p. 13 p. 14 p. 15 p. 16 p. 16 p. 16 p. 16 p. 16 p. 17 p. 18 p. 18 S . 18 p. 18 p. 19 p. 19 p. 19 p. 19 p. 19 p. 20 p. 21 p. 21 p. 21 3 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2. 2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3 3.3.1 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3. 5.1.4 3.5.2 4 5 Textual criticism literary criticism tradition, sources and editorial criticism of formal and substantive requirements repertoire of form criticism genre critic ism tradition criticism determination of the historic village clarify specific a spects of the Existentialist interpretation of the historical difference perceiv

e the mythical elements of the text identify Existential understand questions an d asked to be materialistic interpretation of historical materialism, political, economic and ideological conditions Structuralism Feminist Interpretation - Per sonalize the tradition of linguistic analysis of the interpretation of narrative perspectives characteristic space-time characteristic of inner speech pattern c haracteristic values characteristic analysis of the actors in the Bible as a gui de for reflection Annex P. 21 p. 21 p. 21 p. 22 p. 22 p. 22 p. 22 p. 23 p. 23 p. 24 p. 24 p. 24 p. 24 p. 25 p. 26 p. 26 p. 26 p. 27 p. 28 p. 30 p. 30 p. 30 p. 30 p. 30 p. 30 p. 30 p. 3 1 p. 32 p. 33 4 The Bible in just one language: On 6 October 2006 at the Frankfurt Book Fair pub lished a new edition of the book most of the world, the Bible, published under t he name "The Bible in a fair language." Various translations of the Bible in the past have caused quite a stir and divided the church, since they often brought with it a high potential for conflict. This new edition of Scripture, however, w as written by 52 Catholic and Protestant theologians, both in a five-year marath on and it is assured that they were responsible for scientific basis of their tr anslation does not allow any more wrong interpretation. The fact that one argues for a reinterpretation of the Bible with science, not faith, it's theoretically possible to try each on a self-interpretation of the Bible. In order to give in terested people a small glimpse into the possible interpretations of the Bible, I will discuss in the following five ways of exegesis first theoretically, and t hen to the text example, Matthew, 20, 1-16 explain in more detail. 5 Theoretical presentation of the two possible interpretations of Biblical texts: 21 The Historical-Critical Method: The first method, I should like to explain is the historical-critical interpretation of the Bible. The reason for this is tha t it often serves as the basis for other types of exegesis and to the understand ing and traceability of other ways, such as the existential, materialism, or eve n feminist interpretation, is necessary. The origin of this mode of treatment of specifically biblical texts lies in the time of the Reformation and the result of the questioning of the Catholic "Church tradition" one by the apprehension of the Bible as a historical document and a critical engagement with this text in its historical background. The methodology has been further developed in several phases. Then one could in the time of the Enlightenment, only to interpretation s that could withstand the ratio, that is the reason the enlightened people. Her e especially the Catholic dogmas were put under the microscope. End of the 18th Century widened the circle to the revelation, and with the growth of scientific knowledge and the related shift in the mindset of objectivity out, was now an an alysis of the Bible as a purely historical document possible (historicism). Over the years, certain practices have prevailed and set as follows: 2.1.1 textual c riticism: 1 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.41 6 The intention of textual criticism is justified in analyzing the text as possibl e in its original form, which is especially in the case of the Bible poses probl ems, since the manuscript traditions of time up to 1200 years vary, and are writ ten in different countries with different cultural backgrounds. To determine the earliest version usually four distinctive ways, for instance: "The criterion of

the best testimony to" those two sets as the oldest written version, which was previously used most frequently and in the major languages. "The criterion of th e shortest reading" 3 describes the selection criterion that the shortest versio n is the oldest, because it is more usual to add a little text, instead of delet ing things. "Says the criterion of the most difficult reading" 4 that it is more likely that a text with the times rather than complicated is simplified. Demens prechend the version with the most complicated language is assumed to be the old est. "The criterion of the relationship" five demands that the text must be cred ibly fit into the "context of meaning of the rest of the text" 6. 2.1.2 genesis of the text: literary criticism The literary criticism is an essential part of the historical-critical method and examined the text and in particular i ts consistency. There are two steps: The first part consists of several blocks o f text content of segregating: this is the 'context criticism. The second part i s called the coherence critique and illuminated the unity of the text. Then one tries to uncover this language and content inconsistencies, such as Repetitions, jumps in the text or the use of different language levels. tradition cr iticism: 2 3 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.45 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p .45 4 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.45 5 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.45 6 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.45 7 The goal of the tradition criticism is "the development of this text through ora l tradition," 7 to clarify the origin and history behind the writing, this versi on to bring to light. It can be really at all - both Old and New Testament - tex ts assume that an oral tradition has taken place. were passed in this way alone in the Constitution of the Gospels 40 years in writing to them. What can now be analyzed is the degree of distortion of the actual story, with one here is based above all on the elapsed time between 'reported time and time report "8 and the value and applicability of the text. Sources and editorial criticism: A nother basic type of interpretation is the source of criticism that its beginnin gs in the 18th Century. She tries to decipher whether a "larger, contiguous (... ) Source 9 is present, which has served as the base text. The most famous theory , which emerged from the source criticism, the "two-source theory," by Matthew a nd Luke have used Mark's Gospel as a template.€The editorial criticized the othe r hand, points to the change of the text of the original form until the final sh ape and let the "theological [n] orientation of the author recognize" 10, of the original text has its own personality and perhaps even given interpretation. Wh en working on the essay questions are the basic ideas, intention and effect of t he text is of great help. 2.1.3 Formal and substantive requirements repertoire: Form Criticism: The form of criticism examining the text to its form, th at is on outward appearance, stylistic devices used and the levels of language w ithin the text. "Typical breakdown characteristics" 11 are: 7 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.49 8 9 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.50 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p .51 10 11 http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redaktionskritik Horst Klaus Berg - A wor d like fire, S. 56 8 -

Opening and closing formula Reconciliation particles such as 'and', 'now', "but" or "also" adverbs like "then" "any time" or "that day" change in presentation o f such Report to a call of people change or change of scene This is followed by the analysis of the level of language (s) and style, with sp ecial features such as the type of language (personal or formal), the type of re presentation (graphic or less concrete), or "mark of poetic language" should be taken 12th genre criticism: The criticism is just mentioned form a basis of generic criticism dar. Thus one speaks of a text genre when various texts in the form, content and intent are similar. In New Testament texts can generally take a first distinction in narrative and teaching. be considered for further re finement of the 13 distribution facilities must be a fourth aspect: The designat ed by Hermann Gunkel, "in life" 14 This refers to the sociological realities and the circumstances in which a time and are as Advice on the situation of the spe aker or the target group of the author. criticism of tradition: the trad ition of criticism, as criticism of the genre needs a lyrically documented sever al times according to comparable material, but here it requires common "content knockouts" 15 as mindsets, motives and images. With this type of analysis, it fi rst examines both the personal and social, generally prevailing zeitgeist of tha t piece of text. Descendants of the same approach is applied to the author. 12 13 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.56 see Gerd Theissen - Original Christian miracle stories http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitz_im_Leben 14 15 Horst Klaus Be rg - A word like fire, p.59 9 It then looks at recurrent "images, themes, ideas, motifs and patterns" 16 resor ted to in other texts are also important. 2.1.4 Determination of the historical place: When determining the location of the historical task is to identify chara cteristics of the author through the examination of previous prominent events, c ultural and historical conditions "17 or confrontations of the author with the s ubject. 2.1.5 Clarification of issues from to clarify some important ter ms: Under the clarification of important terms is understood by and large, both working with the concordance, word dictionaries to the Bible, as well as the com ments to individual words can explain in more detail. Clarification of i ssues: where you try using the comments, and general "biblical literature to con temporary history" 18 people, places or names to be made clear. 16 17 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.60 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p .61 18 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.61 10 2.2 The Existentialist interpretation to interpret: In contrast to the historica l-critical method just outlined text, which operates from the past, we experienc e the existential analysis processes described a way directly to the present tim e sync "to transfer. The pioneer of this kind of exegesis of the New Testament s cholar Rudolf Bultmann, who is also known for the concept of de-mythologizing, b ut which performs only the dark side of the existential interpretation. To make this expression more accurately, one must first keep in mind what Bultmann means by the term myth. He covers him for trying everything transcendent events in wr itten way to make tangible. This means that God is objectified and is therefore lost its transcendence. But one should not commit the mistake to understand the Bible literally, or to pass the mythical parts of the Bible.€The Holy Scriptures should rather be interpreted as a whole new and existential. Bultmann divides h

is ideology into three parts: his basic question was, how it can address a text from the past directly with his undoubtedly historical background. The answer he gave himself on the grounds that one can never truly represent history objectiv ely, they are themselves constantly in the movement of history and moves permane ntly from the desire of his own existence is to go to 19 Bultmann's approach her e is quite clear: one can look at history only from the perspective of individua ls and the man, not the "story", is in the foreground. The next important concep t for him is that of existence, which he says here is not the existence of man, but the "center of one's own understanding of life" 20 which aims to our own des ire and volition. The third and last part is "the issue" in itself - where to go - is that one drives constantly for self-realization. 2.2.1 The historical diff erence perceive: 19 20 see Rudolf Bultmann - faith and understanding, S.12f. Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.96 11 This first step involves the help of the historical-critical method to filter ou t the difference between today's readers and the historical text and to accept. This provides an initial distance that is required to appear later in the new te xt still regarded with the same sharpness. Furthermore, the reader recognizes "i ts [own] place in history" 21 and out of this understanding he can recognize his own realization. It also awakened by the strangeness of the text, the "question of its mythical elements" 22nd 2.2.2 The mythical elements of the text identify : In this step, the identification is present in the text - up already raised my ths made - to thus make an existential interpretation of the text possible. 2.2. 3 Existential understand: In order to understand existential may have just recor ded the myths to be transferred to ourselves and to deter their fascination or a t our own behavior towards them analyzed and understood as a way of self-knowled ge (eg, fears or desires). 2.2.4 questions are asked: The question at issue here is the personal question of what the text can even bring one to new knowledge. It is so short that one is at all dare to Scripture, in search of his own ever-c hanging existence. The last part of the existential method of interpretation des cribes the assessment of the recent self-image and the new aspects that the text has a self-identified. 21 22 see Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p. 102 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like f ire, p. 102 12 2.3 materialistic interpretation: The materialistic interpretation based on the interpretation of the Bible as a "statement to the community life of love and ju stice" 23, which will always form a contrast to the current political and social conditions, if the "liberation and justice" 24 allow. This kind of exegesis exa mines the historical conditions under which the text was written and how it shou ld work for the contemporary world. This is only possible if he was antiidealist isch, so out of the direct circumstances of the population previously. The metho d is very practical and materialistic arises out of serious, real existing socia l and personal deficits. It wants to create by this confrontation and hope to st art a revolution, which is facing the political grievances. From this point can be clearly seen that the Bible itself is biased and sets certain directions, suc h as "For life against death, for the oppressed against the oppressors" 25 Georg es Casalis calls for a critical analysis of both the former and the current pers onal situation to uncover a new and unique way of seeing things 26th Over time, two lines have combined the design, which they have developed independently. Whe

re the German line emanating from a historical fact, to use for them to look at the present time, the French-speaking line first queries from the current suffer ing and oppression of experience and is - on that basis - in time back to the Bi ble in order to get any answers. 2.3.1 Historical Materialism: 23 24 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, 227 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, S. €227 25 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p. 229 26 see Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire S.230f. 13 This first step will be the political, economic and social conditions under whic h clarify the text was written. This is done with the help of historical-results and process technologies that provide a solid basis for further interpretation. 2.3.2 Structuralism: Roland Barthes sound you have to see a text as an entangle ment event and strands of meaning, which he has written in code: The sequential codes are concerned with the action elements of a text. One can m ake three distinctions: - The action code describes the actions of the people involved. The behavior analy tic code shows how to interpret the act to share with the events. The code clari fies strategic on how they ultimately act. The topography code shows the locatio ns of the text and describes their possible significance. The chronological code sets the timing dar. The mythological code is responsible for mythical text ele ments. The symbolic code used to identify values and norms. The social code, the links with economic, political and social ideals dar. - The indexing / cultural codes describe the use of elements: - - - 14 2.4 Feminist Interpretation: The feminist interpretation arose from the unleashe d in the 60s and 70s of last century movement of feminism that calls for the ide ntification of women in all social and economic areas. interpret this new way of thinking inspired theologians to a new approach, the Bible. Until there women l ike Eve or Mary Magdalene have often been used as negative examples of desire an d sin in general. However, there are also positive images of women in the Bible, especially Mary, mother of Jesus. She is the epitome of purity and piety. The c oncept of patriarchy is essential to the feminist revolution anchored, as the bl ind subordination and dependence of women herewith the man to be expressed. This anchoring of the "low woman" in the Bible has many feminist theologians or prev iously brought believers to turn away from the Catholic faith in order to realiz e themselves. Feminism in the church be advanced three bars: 1 The Bible was wri tten at a time, which was completely dominated by men. 2nd Under this patriarcha l rule in the faith the church has come to secular power. 3rd Due to the long hi storical tradition, the forms of Männervorherrschaft to overcome deadlock and di fficult. The feminist movement has then joined the liberation theology movement, united as topics such as discrimination, human rights or related policy discuss ions both and they therefore constitute a stronger front. The methods to supplem ent the image of women in the Bible, go to the refutation of some passages - def

amed in which the woman - was on the way of presentation of God as a woman, to a more modern version of the Bible, the complementary functions of many shown of injustice in the Bible. The fact that this way of working 15 not of the historical-critical method, but rather from a creative and imaginativ e development should live here are not in question. Overall, it's a summary that is, two camps: the one to create a new life with a goddess at the top, the othe r to alter the existing Bible in favor of women. 2.4.1 Historical Critical Metho d: The feminist exegesis of the historical method used as a basis for the "texts of the tradition to expose" 27, and the critical aspect of the operation to cro ss-check feminist thought. Inner-2.4.2 Correction: In the inner-correction, to s et themselves - to within the Bible - contradictory passages in those documents and hereby. 2.4.3 Personalizing the tradition: In this methodology, dissolve the characters from their traditional setting and lets them back "to people" 28, wi th feelings, motives for action and character, but which can be supplemented by his own experience of the reader. 2.4.4 Creative Reconstruction: To reconstruct a piece of text creatively, we subject the person acting as a reader in the stor y and fills it with his own thoughts and fantasies to life. With this "self-crea ted" person is then possible to interpret their own experiences and experiences. 2.4.5 Feminist transformation: 27 28 see Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, S.€260 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like f ire, S.262 16 In this step, you change biblical images and people in women in order to free th em from their patriarchal basic form. Thus, for example from God or a Goddess fr om the Holy Spirit is a holy Geistin. 2.4.6 Change of perspective: In applying the methodology of the change in perspe ctive, slips into the role of women, she pulls out the old context and tries to play the story from their point of view. This can also occur as part of a comple te update of the text. 17 2.5 Linguistic Interpretation: The linguistic method employed to interpret texts with the purely linguistic aspects of 29, which involves as a consequence of it self, no additional factors other than the source. They are split into three maj or linguistic subdivisions: the syntactic, semantics and pragmatics. An advantag e that at the same time - because of its low coverage area - also served even to the detriment, is the unit that represents the text in itself. The questions th at arise here concern the interactions between the text blocks, the resulting se nse or even the structure of the standard text in general. It is the responsibil ity of the reader such a clear structure to uncover and learn to recognize their concatenation by the statement of the text. There are countless ways of linking text blocks and to review them to specific properties, but in general there are volume focuses on the most valuable texts yield, especially if one analyzes the narrative perspective and the persons involved. 2.5.1 Analysis of narrative per spectives: Room Description: In the space characteristics to describe th e position of the narrator in the story. It is unclear whether he moves or stays fixed in one place, whether it is part of the event as a disinterested third pa rty says or stationary. Time Description: 29

Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p. 119 18 This is the collection of narrative velocity - second style, time lapse or slow motion - and the story time - past, present or the future. inner characteristics: This kind of characterization to examine whether the narrator has insight into the feelings and thoughts of the people involved o r whether it merely reflects those events. Speech Characteristics: The c haracteristics of speech to reveal conclusions about the utterances of persons i n the text in their relations with each other. Value Description: This k ind of interpretation of the text is aimed at the moral values and ideas of the narrator and the actors bring to any developments and similarities of the two id eas to light. 2.5.2 Analysis of the actors: The text as a role-play: Thi s step introduces the characters, their situations and develop in the course of the narrative. In biblical texts, there are often recurring themes: kindness and help, especially from God to man, which should serve as a model for inter-human behavior. Subordination, but not in the sense of subservience, but as God's ima ge and managers in the world "30, of us is a loving father to the side. Oppositi on, especially for protection or as a reminder of your own. Balanced relationshi ps that often occur often in the innumerable expressions of love or peace. 30 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, S.123 19 The Aktantenmodell: The Aktantenmodell describes the "action roles," tak e on the players. So you can be perceived as a subject (Erstaktant), object (Zwe itaktant) or recipient (Drittaktankt), which are determined by the verb alone. S ubject (nominative) Erstaktant object (accusative) Zweitaktant addresser (nomina tive) Erstaktant addressee (dative) Drittaktant Algirdas Julien Greimas The Frenchman adds another aspect to this model, namely the differentiation between adjuvants, which promote the relations between the p layers and support, and opponents that act destructively in this regard. 20 3 The application of Matthew, chapter 20, verses 1-16: 3.1 Historical-critical m ethod: 3.1.1 history of the text: textual criticism: I could find reason able disagreement about his translation of the text, tradition or no detectable traces are found, the alienation or a misinterpretation could result. This text is accordingly as the original text to be understood. literary criticism : the context of criticism: V 1 leads from the conversation of Jesus with his di sciples (from 19.28 to 30) in the text and produces a specific context,€Uptake b y the term "heaven". In V 16, the passage leads back into the lap of Jesus, by r epeating the last verse of Chapter 19. Coherence criticism is that striking the frequent repetition of the different times of day (V 3, V 5, V 6), which goes to the landlord on the market. Furthermore, one could say the monotonous Verbwahl of the word '"in V 4, V 6, V 7, V 8, V lead 12 and V 13, but that in both cases due to the still rather limited variety of the language is then applied. tradition, sources and editorial criticism: In this version there is no evidenc e to doubt the direct tradition of speaking of Christ, as the text is coherent i n itself and identifies any breaks. The criteria by which one analyzes the text in this regard, all remain unanswerable. 21

3.1.2 Formal and substantive requirements repertoire: Form criticism: V1 V 2-5 V 6-7 V 8-10 V 11-12 V 13-15 V 16 transition and the initiation of the hi ring "first" hiring of workers' last "of the wage distribution of workers 'compl aints of the" first "workers' victimization of the landlord and explain teaching Noteworthy in this text are the high speech shares between the landlords and the workers, and no - as so often in parables and lessons - activity Nacherzählungs weise is applied. The analysis is also the first sentence, which is a transfer f rom Mt 19th Total, also supported by the many conversations, the text will be ve ry clear, even if such be made to the scene almost no information. genre criticism: The genus is clearly a lesson here with a built-parable, in which th e host is for God and for Jesus to be the administrator considered. Here is crea ted in the first place a confrontation situation that is ultimately resolved, cu lminating in a general rule. These teachers are counting the tradition of Christ ian values and rules with an explanatory direct application example. Your place in life, these narratives in the Christian community to those mediated by moral principles and rules to ensure a collaborative interaction. criticism of tradition: the tradition method of criticism can not, unfortunately, in our exa mple text give satisfactory information about the intention of Matthew. Teaching in general are rarely 22 comparable because they take up very different issues with completely different actions, and thus other images and conditions. 3.1.3 Determination of the histor ical place: When determining the origin of this statement one can assume that th e "shaping of the tradition," 31 in the early Christian community and the writte n final assessment by Matthew. This Gospel was, as evidenced by scientific evide nce, the end of the first century AD. written down. 3.1.4 clarify specific aspec ts: the vague, statements from people who are always interchangeable, and one fi ctional, unspecified location, the vineyard can take up no direct individual asp ects and thus falls away this last step for the present text. 3.2 The Existentialist Interpretation: 31 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, p.83 23 3.2.1 The historical difference in exercise: The text is particularly with respe ct to the payment morals of the home teams, today's capitalist basic attitude. A t the time, day laborers were more common than they are today and look a bit str ange for the "normal" readers of today. The lesson is taught in V 16, can not be regarded as valid according to General shall take a closer look, however, in ra re cases, and still applies. 3.2.2 The mythical elements of the text identify: S ince it is in Matthew 20, 1-16 is not a miracle story, but a doctrine that tries to present them real and applicable as possible to their own lives. As an exist ential myth, like Bultmann describes him, you can command the capitalist element s and the envy of "overpaid" employees designate. The host will serve as a model and symbolize the rejection of materialism and economic thinking for the common good as an act of detachment from worldly goods. 3.2.3 Existential understand: the myth of capitalism is preparing even today many people worry and anxiety, as this avoided the social and interpersonal component, and the dignity of man is ignored altogether. This is a general uncertainty holds for the ordinary populat ion, since one can no longer rely on the integrity of a business.€Each is first to strengthen his own advantage, trying to - some with exploitative ulterior mot ive - his personal position compared to others. The text we want to convey but t hat this restriction constitutes a threat to material goods, not only for the de

generation of our own minds, but also for society and interpersonal relationship s. 3.2.4 ask questions and be: 24 This story encourages the reader to think, as he himself has acted in the past a nd whether it is possible for him to his fellow citizens to act (to) social, esp ecially with respect of product distribution. An interpretation of the way Propo sition 16 would be in V such that everything is always changing and we have call ed for his current situation is not too much and also be adjusted for better or worse times to. However, every reader should take this step for themselves and r enew from time to time for themselves, as always something changed in our lives and surroundings. 3.3 materialistic interpretation: 25 3.3.1 Historical Materialism: First, was drafted to clarify the time in which th e text. Since this is a part copy of the Gospel of Mark is and handwritten docum ents to the second century AD. , AD may be present for the drafting of a time pe riod between 70 and 100. be assumed. However, the clarification of the "politica l, economic and ideological conditions" 32 is in the foreground, since much more information is available. political, economic and ideological condition s: Society in Palestine of the first century AD. has a strongly differing social and economic structure. So more or less dominated by a class system in which la ndowners, Temple head and kings and emperors at the head of power is. The middle layer are the farmers, craftsmen, priests and minor officials, while slaves, hi red servants and government wage workers, such as Police officers, the lowest le vel of revenue. This system has the military power of the Roman occupiers and th eir high tax demands, which based the gap between rich and poor increased, or at least contributed to, that they are not narrowed. Moreover, the great fear of G od at that time was heavily in ensuring that there are no riots or revolutions, formed since the population was afraid of the consequences for themselves and th eir offspring. Structuralism: 32 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, S.242 26 Coupon Code: V1 V8 V 2-7 V 12-13 V 13-15 The host goes on a search for workers h e hires day laborers at different times and talking to them, the landlord's mana ger, the workers pay equally befielt The first workers complain about the "unfai r" distribution The host berated the grumbling workers The behavior analytic code here really refers only to V 12-13. The workers who h ave worked the whole day complaining that the day laborers, who were only an hou r in the vineyard, mathematically seen were paid much better and faster. This ca uses them discomfort and anger that they place by the confrontation with the hom e side to express what is part of the strategic codes. Topographic code: The two sites that are mentioned are the market and the vineyard, they have no signific ance in the further course. Chronological code: the text begins at the first hou r of the day, where the first workers are hired and ends with the twelfth hour, when the work is completed. In the meantime, be recruited more workers. Mytholog ical code: in this piece of text can be found no real mythical elements. Symboli c Code, the text is true of values and norms, but they are not expressed by symb ols, so this may take place without further processing. Social code: the social

conditions described here take place between either the upper or middle class an d the underclass. Even if the workers complain of lower initially, but ultimatel y they will accept the decision of the landlord, because it simply has more infl uence and society occupies a higher rank. 4.3 Feminist Interpretation: 27 In the feminist interpretation, I shall argue only one perspective, since the po ssibilities of interpreting texts, or persons or to create new quasi inexhaustib le. Personalize the tradition: In the following I will try the story from the pe rspective of the landlord and who is adversely affecting workers explained.€Host : If you look at the home side from the perspective of feminist theology, sting specific character traits in the eye: the quality and impartiality of the worker s to begin later and the thoughtfulness with which he confronts all the workers and recruited for the day. These properties are most often awarded to women, sin ce they are just in working life as a sensitive and open. For the home side, it seems to be the most normal thing in the world, several times a day to visit the market and hire workers and to give each of them the same wages for the work, e ven if his actions - in economic terms - could make more lucrative. This must th erefore be done from other motives. One possibility would be the drive every poo r workers, who have - as experienced in already - by the Roman occupiers were struck financially difficult to provide a basis for life and thus increase the public good by enhancing the Individualwohls. Complaining workers: The work ers offer women a very good possibility of identification, as both feel wronged: the workers, because they are in comparison to the latecomers paid less per hou r worked, and women, because they suffered from the Patriarchate of the male-dom inated society or are still suffering. According to Tatyana Goritschewa can find another approach to interpretation: "In humility lies the strength", so it is a published article that the humility of the woman looks not as subservience, but the "socially imposed weakness 28 accepted "33 and they help as a commitment to the need for women and strengthen looks. The question is whether the humility of the woman a result of deprivation and humiliation, or whether it only the humility of the woman is created, remai ns an important part of feminist theology and gives divergent answers. 5.3 Linguistic interpretation: 33 Horst Klaus Berg - A word like fire, S.265 29 3.5.1 Analysis of narrative perspectives: Room Description: In Mt 20, 116 is the narrator, Jesus, outside of the event and described the events of the various actors in the third person. Time Description: The text used is g enerally a strong time-lapse, which means the time shown (about 12 hours) may be read in minutes. The talks, however, are as they are presented in dialogue form , submit to the second style. The narrator uses the past tense to play the story and thus it is a past history, which in this case, but rather hypothetical natu re. inner-Description: As the reader gets portrayed by the actors, only the actions and conversations may here no more profound inner characteristics ar e created, the narrator looks from the outside to the event and only once. 3.5.1 .4 speech characteristics: information about the circumstances of the characters in the story can be given only in V 14-15, as master of the house a little hars her tone towards the workers strikes and thus reveal its superior position. Here

are the "power" is the first time clearly stated and there is no response from the vineyard laborers to his reprimand. Value Description: Since the tex t fulfills a teaching function, the values are in the narrator's Jesus and the " protagonist", the landlord agreed. Jesus wants to give the example to its presen t disciples around him just as a value and demonstrates this through the plot of his story. 3.5.2 Analysis of the stakeholders: 30 In this step, that relations between the people involved will be presented once more in depth and the course will be discussed during the story: the relationshi p between the landlords and the workers is at first only from a normal employmen t relationship: the people working for him and he paid for it . But when trouble arises among the first workers, it does not stop with the neutrality of simple work. The workers are angry, understand the home side and not feel unfairly trea ted. Here in V 9 So the turning point at which changes the relationship between the two parties, there is now a personal conflict. But the landlord makes his hi gher social and business position to benefit and inform the other workers with i t. 4 The Bible as a guide for thought 31 I hope they could see in these brief examples that the Bible is very probably st ill find application in daily life and serve as advisors can.€If you only read a little between the lines, one can see that the problems that open up to us and we employ people, roughly speaking, for at least 2,000 years ago are the same or at least comparable. Of course there are many more modern works of our lives, a nalyze, integrate things like cars or computers, and give us wisdom for the jour ney to which we can implement directly. But even if the analysis of Biblical tex ts needs some more time, I firmly believe that most aspects of life in the Bible at least as good if not better explained, even partially. Especially because of the diverse methods of biblical interpretation, one gets very different and dif ferentiable perspectives on the same topic. This provides an even chance to own a mixed opinion to form or understand in the broader sense, other views, and abo ve all be able to understand. And it is what is needed in our ever faster moving world. 5th Appendix: 32 Excerpts: Mt 20, 1-16: 1 For the kingdom of heaven is like a householder, who we nt out early in the morning to hire workers for his vineyard. 2 And when he was in agreement with the laborers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard . 3 And he went out about the third hour and saw others standing idle in the mar ket four and said unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard, and I will give you w hat is right. 5 And they went. Again he went to the sixth and the ninth hour and did the same. 6 To the eleventh hour he went out and found others, and said unt o them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? 7 They said to him: We are no one ha s set. He said to them: Go ye also into the vineyard. 8 When it was evening now, the Lord of the vineyard said to his steward, Call the laborers and pay them th eir wages, beginning from the last unto the first. 9 Then came that were hired a bout the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. 10 But when the first c ame, they thought they would receive more, and they also received every man a pe nny. 11 And when she received it, they murmured against the master 12 and said, 'These last worked only one hour, but thou hast made them equal to us who have b orne the burden and heat of the day. 13 He answered and said to one of them: My friend, I do thee no wrong. Are not you agree with me for a penny? 14 Take what

is yours, and go! But I will give to this last the same as you. 15 Or I do not h ave to do what I want, with what is mine? Do you askance heels, because I am goo d? 16 So the last shall be first, and the first shall be last. 33 Mt 19, 27-30: 27 Then Peter began, and said unto him, Behold, we have left every thing and followed you, what is given to us for it? 28 Jesus said unto them, Ver ily I say unto you, you who have followed me will, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, also have on twelve thrones, jud ging the twelve tribes of Israel. 29 And he who leaves houses or brothers or sis ters or father or mother or children or fields for my name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold's and inherit eternal life. 30 But many who are the first shall b e last and the last shall be first be. Sources: Horst Klaus Berg - A word like f ire - 1991 - Kösel_Calwer Verlag - Munich http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitz_im_L eben http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redaktionskritik Luise Schotthoff / Silvia Sch roer / Marie -Theres Wacker - Feminist exegesis - 1995 - Scientific Paper Compan y - Darmstadt Norbert Scholl - Understanding the Bible - 2004 - Scientific Paper Company - Toronto Gottfried Adam / Otto Kaiser / Werner Georg Kümmel - Introduc tion to the exegetical methods - 1979 - Kaiser Grünewald - Munich Harald Schweiz er - Biblical texts, appreciating - 1986 - Kohlhammer - Stuttgart Rudolf Bultman n - New Testament and Mythology - 1941 - H.-W. Bartsch - o.o. Rudolf Bultmann faith and understanding - 1964 - Mohr - Tübingen Gerd Theissen - Original Christ ian miracle stories - 1974 - Poppy - Gütersloh 34 Declaration: I declare that I have made the work without outside help and only t he uses listed in the bibliography of sources and resources. Giebelstadt, 26 01. 2007 .................................................. .........