# Better known as Operations Research, emphasizes the decision making process and what is logical and rational way

through a quantitative approach and determinist ic. He cares about creating mathematical models capable of simulating real situation s in the company. Their creation is oriented toward solving problems that arise in making decisions. Objectives Provide an overview of the influence of mathematical techniques in th e administration, particularly in the decision making process. Show the applic ability of mathematical models in management. To introduce the basic concepts and operations research techniques.

Management theory received in the last 30 years math countless contributions in the form of mathematical models capable of providing solutions to business probl ems in all areas A good deal of administrative decisions can be taken based on mathematical equat ions that simulate real situations both the mathematical theory applied to manag ement problems is called operational research. Wald eory iety ated (1954) and Savage (1954) led to enormous developments in the statistical th of decision. While the theory of individual decision today makes a wide var of practical applications, the theory of group decision, but more sophistic and complex, it has had few practical implications.

The study of decision making. With the emphasis given by Herbert Simon decision making process and the rise of decision theory, decision making, became a major element in the success of any cooperative system.

The existence of programmable decisions. There are qualitative decisions (not pr ogrammable and capable of being taken only by men) and quantitative decision (pr ogrammable by man or machine). Despite the complexity of decision making and the variables involved, some decisions may be quantified and represented by mathema tical models. The development of computers made possible the implementation and development of mathematical techniques in minutes to perform operations which would require ye ars if it were made on conventional machines to calculate. This theory has made enormous contribution to all areas of administration, but w ith certain restrictions: No standard application conditions that include the entire organization as a who le (only applicable to specific problems). It is based on the total quantificati on of administrative problems (all situations are carried numbers). It is very u seful for making decisions for the implementation of projects or works, but it i s restricted to the investigation of operations at the level executive.

Decision making is the process by which a choice is made among the alternatives or ways to solve different life situations, these can occur in different context s: at work, family, sentimental, business, etc., Decision making is basically to choose among the available alternatives for the purpose of solving a problem or potential. To make a decision, regardless of the ir nature, it is necessary to know, understand, analyze a problem, in order to r esolve it. Programmed decisions: Those who take frequently, are the kinds of problems resol ved and occur with some regularity since it has a well established method of sol ution and therefore already know the steps to address these problems, Therefore, decisions are also called structured. Unscheduled Decisions: Also called unstructured, are decisions that are taken in to problems or situations that arise infrequently, or those who need a specific process model or solution. In organizations in general and businesses in particular often exists a hierarch y that determines the type of actions performed within it and, consequently, the type of decisions to be taken, it is common to divide a company in three hierar chical levels . Identify and analyze the problem. This step is to find the problem and recognize that a decision should be taken to reach this solution. 1. Identify the decision criteria and evaluated. Is to identify those aspects that are relevant when making the decision. The wei ghting is to assign a value on the importance of each criterion in the decision taken. 2. Generate alternative solutions. Is to develop several possible solutions to the problem. Have many more alternat ives will be much more likely to find one that is satisfactory. 1. Evaluate the alternatives. Is to make a detailed study of each of the possible solutions were generated for the problem, ie look at their advantages and disadvantages, individually regard ing the decision criteria, and one over the other, assigning a value weighted. 1. Choosing the best alternative. In this step you choose the alternative that the evaluation will obtain better r esults for the problem. The following terms can help make the decision as the re sult you seek: Maximize: Take the best decision possible. Meet: Choose the first option that is minimally acceptable thereby meeting a goal or objective. Optimize: The one tha

t generates the best possible balance between different goals. 1. Implementation of the decision. To implement the decision so as to evaluate whether the decision was correct or not. 1. Evaluation of the results. It is necessary to assess whether or not solved the problem, namely whether the decision is having the expected result or not. If the result is not expected to be watching if that should be a little more time to get the results or if it was definitely the right decision in this case you must start the process again to find a new decision. Operations Research or Operational Research, is a branch of mathematics consists in the use of mathematical models, statistics and algorithms in order to make a decision-making process. Operations Research is a modern scientific discipline that is characterized by t he application of theory, methods and techniques, to find the solution of proble ms of administration, organization and control that occur in the various systems that exist in nature and those created by humans, such as various organizations to which they identified as: organized systems physical systems ecologica l economic educational social service GOAL Is to support the "optimal decision making" in systems and in planning their act ivities. FUNDAMENTAL APPROACH IS THE SYSTEMS APPROACH Since studying the behavior of a whole set of parts or sub-systems that interact with each other, identify the problem and discusses the implications, seeking s olutions that benefit the system as a whole. In the science of administration which is also known as operations research, man agers use mathematics and computers to make rational decisions in solving proble ms. Although these managers can solve some problems with their experience but in the complex world we live many problems can not be resolved based on experience .

Deterministic problems: they are where the information needed to obtain a soluti on is uncertain stochastic problem: they are part of the necessary information i s not known with certainty as in the case of deterministic, but rather behaves i n a probabilistically.

The purpose and aim of "operational research" (also known as "theory of decision making", or "mathematical programming") is to find the optimal solution to a gi ven problem (military, economic, infrastructure, logistics, etc. )

MAIN FIELDS OF APPLICATION OF THE IO (CHARLES GOODVE) 1 - Relating to People: - Organization and Management - Delegation of Management and Labor Relations - E conomy - Individual Decisions, Market Research. 2 - Relating to People and Machines: - Efficiency and Productivity - Manufacturing Organization flows - CC methods, i nspection and sampling, Accident prevention, - Organization of technological cha nge. 3 - Concerning movements: dling - Communications. - Transportation - Warehousing, distribution and han

Game Theory Theory of Queues Decision Theory Graph Theory Linear Programmi ng Probability and Mathematical Statistics Dynamic Programming

Initially proposed by the Hungarian mathematician Von Neumann (1903 - 1957) repo rted from 1947 published the work in the company of Oskar Morgenstern (1902) con sisting of a mathematical formulation for the analysis of conflict (opposition f orces or interests).

A situation of conflict is always the one where if one wins the other loses beca use the individual goals are incompatible in nature.

The number of participants is finite Each participant has a finite number of pos sible courses of action each participant knows all the courses of action to reac h each participant knows all courses of action available to the adversary, but w ill not know which course of action chosen by him. Two parties are increasingly involved and the game is "zero - sum", ie purely competitive: the benefits of on e player are the losses of the other and vice versa. Most of the work of the queuing theory is in some of the following situations: t elephone wiring problem Traffic Problems Problems machines and equipment d amage. In this theory the points of interest are: Timeout customers. ers in line. Value waiting time and service. Number of custom

Are diagrams of arrows aimed at identifying the critical path by establishing a direct relationship between time and cost factors. These diagrams have advanta ges over the traditional bar chart used in Planning: Allow to run the project in a shorter term and lower cost. shows the interrelationship between the stag es and operations of the project. Allows the optimal allocation of resources and facilitates its redistribution.

Provide alternatives for implementation, facilitating decision-making. Identi fy critical tasks that directly affect the term of the Project. Establish clea r definition of responsibility of all organs.

It is the method to obtain the same information with a smaller amount of data. C hoice of samples.

In business problems where the theory is applied in the choice between investmen t (purchase), change and maintenance of equipment in which decisions are taken a t regular intervals. Therefore the problem is to verify that is most convenient.