BASIC ELEMENTS OF MACHINE TOOLS BENIGN ESTEVES CARLOS BENITO PRODUCCCION TEACHING MECHANICS Machine tool CNC milling

machine. Definitions The machine tool is a type of machine used to shape solid materials, mainly meta ls. Its main feature is its lack of mobility, because they are usually stationar y machines. The shaping of the piece is performed by removing some of the materi al, which can be done by chip removal, by stamping, cutting or EDM. Definitions The term machine tool is usually reserved for tools that use a different power s ource of human movement, but can also be moved by people if they are installed p roperly or when no other source of energy. Many historians of technology conside r that the real machine tools were born when they removed the man's direct inter vention in the process of shaping or punching out different types of tools. For example, it is considered that the first round can be considered the machine too l was invented around 1751 by Jacques de Vaucanson, since it was first incorpora ted the cutting instrument in a mechanically adjustable head, removing it from t he operator's hands. Definitions The machine tools can use a variety of energy sources. The human and animal powe r are options, as is the energy obtained through the use of waterwheels. However , the actual development of machine tools began after the invention of the steam engine, which led to the Industrial Revolution. Today, most of them run on elec tricity Definitions The machine tool can be operated manually or by automatic control. Early machine s used flywheels to stabilize their motion and had complex systems of gears and levers to control the machine and the parts where she worked. Shortly after the Second World War developed numerical control systems. The CNC machines used a se ries of numbers punched on paper tape or punched cards to control their movement . In the 60 computers were added to increase the flexibility of the process. Suc h machines began to be called CNC machines, or machines, Computer Numeric Contro l. CNC machines and CNC sequences can be repeated again and again with precision , and can produce more complex parts that can do more experienced operator. Types of machine tools On the way to work the machine tools can be classified into three types; From ro ughing or trimmers, shaping the piece for removal. Presses, shaping the pieces b y cutting, pressing or drawing. Space shaping the piece using different techniqu es, laser, EDM, ultrasonic, plasma ...

Conventional Among the conventional machines have the following basic equipment: Torno, is one of the older machines and works by removing material by blades and drill bits. This piece by a car tour and which places the blade wears the same obtaining cylindrical and conical parts. If you put a bit in the appropriate pos ting, you can make holes. Lathe. Torno There are several types of lathes, the parallels, which are the conventional num erically controlled, which are controlled by a programmable electronic system, t he cam, the control is done via paddles they are also called free cutting, turre t lathes , which have a rotating turret, the gun, in which lie the various worki ng tools. Drills Drills, for drilling, these machines are tools, along with the winches, the olde st. In them the tool is rotating and the piece remains attached to a clamp or pl acement. The useful often usually in the drills, a drill that, properly carried out the corresponding hole sharp. You can also perform other operations with dif ferent drilling tools, as a special type of drilling and reaming are lasavellana r. working with pacer small teeth grinding or other material. They are used for precision operations a nd their speeds are usually very high. Milling machine

Milling. Milling, in order to obtain smooth surfaces or a concrete milling machines are c omplex in that it is the useful part that turns and it remains attached to a mob ile bed. The tool used is strawberry€that is usually round with different edges whose shape agrees with that is to give the workpiece. The piece is placed firml y secured to a car that's about the strawberry in three directions, ie in the X, Y and Z. With different tools and other accessories such as the divider, you ca n do many jobs and shapes. Shiner, works with an abrasive that etches the materi al of the workpiece. Typically used for precision finishing the possibility of p recise control of abrasion. Usually no mechanical pressure is exerted on the wor kpiece. Reciprocating

Profiling is used to obtain smooth surfaces. The piece remains stationary and th e tool, usually a knife, has a swinging motion with every trip to eat a little p iece to work. Planer, as opposed to profiling, the planer is the part that moves . Allows for smooth surfaces and different cuts. You can put several useful both to work simultaneously. Saws, are of various types, reciprocating, circular or band. It is the blade that rotates or moves and the piece that approaches it. Presses They perform metal cutting, shaping the material by cutting or shearing, the str oke for bending and pressure. Dies and matrices commonly used and useful. The pr ocesses are very fast and are high risk machinery accident. Unconventional Machines

EDM, the EDM equipment worn by electrical sparks are tiny parts of it melting. T here are two types of EDM, the electrode, which made holes in the shape of the e lectrode surface wear or the reverse of the one with the electrode, and recordin gs made of thread, using a thread sparks jumping from wearing the material, will cut the pieces as appropriate. In both cases throughout the process, both usefu l as the piece are immersed in a liquid conductor. Arco plasma using a gas jet a t high temperature and pressure to cut the material. Laser, in this case is a po werful and accurate laser that makes the cut by vaporizing the material to be re moved. Ultrasonic vibrating a useful ultrasonic speeds above 20,000 Hz, using an abrasive material and water are doing the machining of the workpiece by the fri ction of the abrasive particles. Used to work very hard materials such as glass and the diamond and carbide alloys. Useful and cutting fluids

The tools used in machine tools is paramount to the success of the process to be performed. The quality of the material they are constructed and very sharp prep aration of these are determining factors for the accuracy sought and the duratio n of the useful. An extremely important issue is the cooling of the operation. T his requires the provision of a mechanism that is responsible for cooling the fr iction zone. This is done with the drilling fluid called that is a mixture of oi l and water. History

The evolution of man and in particular its technology is based on the use of too ls, these were like the extension of human hands. The first machines were tools that appeared lathes and drills. At first very rudimentary and manual. The movem ent is manual and directly provided useful material or wanted to work. The violi

n bow was that first embryo of machine tool whose origin is lost in time. In 125 0 the advance allowed to leave the hands free to work to be able to print the ne cessary movement by foot pedal device and flexible shaft. In the early sixteenth century Leonardo da Vinci had designed three basic machines for coins minted: t he laminator, trimmer and the press beam. His designs would provide guidance for the development of machines in the future. Around this time he discovered the c ombination of the pedal with a rod and a crank to get the rotary motion, which w as rapidly applied to the grinding wheel and a little later to the lathe, to whi ch we had to add a flywheel to avoid the effect high and low producing deadlocks . History

The winch will be refined and added 1658 and began chuck machining steel parts i n 1693 was not yet widespread this activity. In 1650, the French mathematician B laise Pascal, enunciated the principle of the hydraulic press,€but would not be used for industrial applications to 1770, the year in which Bramach patented in London a hydraulic press. Years later be used in France for the minted coin. The watchmakers in the seventeenth and eighteenth and used lathes and screw machine s that allowed them to get very good accuracy. Emphasizes the design of threadin g done by Jesse Ramsden in 1777. Water as a source of movement The waterwheel that provided motion to mills and hammers and bellows of the forg es and ironworks from the fourteenth century and the boring bit after, it became the source of movement for lathes and drills that made up the workshops of the seventeenth and XVIII, until the advent of truly practical steam engines that co uld be built by Watt boring thanks to John Wilkinson made in 1775 that achieved a tolerance of "thickness of a sixpence in a 72-inch diameter, precision suffici ent for the adjustment of Watt's engine. Steam as a source of movement, the Revolution

In the eighteenth century appears the steam engine, one of the causes of the ind ustrial revolution and the development of machine tools. The waterwheel is repla ced by the steam engine and with it acquired independence in their workshop loca tion. The movement pulleys distributed to all machines that compose it, which ha d already begun has performed with waterwheels. Also regardless of the weather t akes no longer depends on the flow of rivers. From now begin a process that last s until our day: the need to design precision machines that create other machine s. One of the leading manufacturers of machine tools of that time, the Englishma n Henry Maudslay, would be the first to realize this need. It was he who introdu ced improvements that ensured very high precision and robustness. The use of met al benches and guide plates for trucks carrying tools and screw-nut screws were the basis of increased accuracy and reliability.

To appreciate the precision of a machine in a depreciating work must have the to ols necessary for the completion of the measure. The important step in 1805 gave Maudslay, already five years earlier had made the first all metal around a lead screw pattern, was a micrometer measuring device which he called Mr. Chancellor and could measure to the thousandth of an inch. During the nineteenth century th e development of the machine tool would be tremendous. Maudslay's achievements w ere the beginning of an endless number of different machines that they responded to the needs of different manufacturers and construction industries with machin ing of parts needed for its activity. So before, for example, the need to plan i ron plates Brush built the first bridge. Maudslay technical heirs, Richard Rober ts, James Nasmyth and Joseph Whitworth, are the architects of this evolution of creation. Roberts built the brush bridge, Nasmyth, the first shaper, and in 1817 the German press Dietrich Uhlhöm made coinage, much progress in making them.

The presses are perfect in the second half of the century XIX in 1867 appears pr ess fiction, Cheret French, and three years after the eccentric house U.S. Blis & Williams. The milling is born with the war of independence from the British co lonies in North America. The need for the production of large quantities of arms which led to mass production, Ely took Whitney to build the first mill in 1818 that 30 years later would be perfected by the engineer who would lend Howe movem ents in three axes, also develops a router copier. J. R. Brown introduces the di vider in 1862 to be a major breakthrough. The router reaches the peak in 1884 wh en the Cincinnati home of the United States builds the universe router first joi ns a cylindrical ram down axially. Another important step before the CNC automat ion was the introduction of the rotating head that can work in any plane between horizontal and vertical produced in 1894 by French Huré.

The Whitworth lathe that developed in 1850 and kept alive until now and only suf fered improving the Norton Fund introduced in 1890 (Whitworh also developed the standard screw that bears his name.)€In 1854 he introduced the gun turrets on th e lathe turret lathe born and which enables the realization of different operati ons with a single workpiece clamping. A variation of these was the introduction of continuous bar work. By 1898 had already developed automatic lathes (which so lved the major productions of small pieces). English leadership in the developme nt and manufacture of machine tools rose in early twentieth-century Americans. T he development of the tool is attached to the machine itself. Thus in 1865 the n ew tools out of alloy steel to increase machining capacity and in 1843 performed artificial teeth grinding can replace obsolete sandstone.

The discovery of high speed steel in 1898 by Taylor and White increased the cutt ing speed (the multiplied by 3) and the evolution of chip capacity (more than 7) . The manufacture of grinding wheels develops, both cylindrical and flat surface

. The discovery of silicon carbide in 1891 by Edward Goodrich Acheson who provid ed the opportunity to develop machines with large cutting speeds thus opening th e opportunity to build machines more accurate and powerful that were specified b y the growing automotive industry. The nineteenth century would be the industria l development. The twentieth century, the breakthrough The twentieth century should be divided into two distinct periods, which runs fr om the beginning of the century to the end of World War II and since the end of the century. Progress is very different, whereas in the first part remains the p ace of the nineteenth century, which was already high in the other technology pr ogresses very quickly, especially electronics, a new computer that allows, toget her with the knowledge of materials, changes that can be considered revolutionar y. Until the end of World War II

Electricity as a source of movement and had developed in the late nineteenth cen tury. In the XX engines, AC and DC take the place of steam mills and are respons ible to operate the general broadcasts industrial workshops. For 1910, starts us ing tolerances of thousandths of a meter and a micrometer is universalized as pr ecision measuring equipment. The automotive industry is a driving force in advan cing the technologies of machine tools and precision measurements. The demands o f interchangeable parts and an increasing accuracy makes significant advances oc cur such as the vertical Jig polar table developed by the Swiss Jacot Prrenond a chieves precision hitherto unimaginable.

The incorporation of different technologies, such as heads of bearings, ball bea rings or ball screws are there is a considerable increase in productivity across the industry, especially in the car. Advances in materials essential for the ma nufacture of cutting tools, suffers a major contribution in 1927 with the appear ance of the HW, presented at the fair in Leipzig (Germany) by the Krupp company. Systems control movement and complicated and will improve with incorporation of local electric motors, even for different axes of a machine, hydraulic controls , pneumatic and electric. In the 20 develops the concept of autonomous units of machining and with it the transfer of the workpiece and the union of both result s in a transfer machine which is a set of autonomous units. The second half of the twentieth century

In 1943 the marriage of Lazarenko Soviet scientists discovered and built the fir st EDM is developed from 1950 and 1955 space when the Americans were making simi lar machines. EDM have another quantum leap from having electronic control techn ologies turn of the century and developed wire EDM. In 1948 and begin to develop

the first electronic controls for machines. After an investigation starring the Massachusetts Institute of Technology achieved a prototype and present it in 19 52 (was programmed by punched tape and the machine could perform coordinated sim ultaneous movement on all three axes).

The development of electronics allows for the early 70's, electronic controls. B orn the concept of numerical control is widespread in the 80s and benefits of bi rth and progress of computing.€With the numerical control and its extension to a ll types of machines is born the concept of machining center, which is a machine that is capable of performing other functions of different types, lathes, milli ng, godmother, drill ... has a warehouse of tools and is capable of positioning the workpiece in different positions needed and different placements. All this w ith a centralized control. The machines have won in mechanical simplicity, first in electronics and then passing the elements of mechanical devices to control e lectrical / electronic, first, and programming later. As in the case of computer s, the hardware is replaced by the software.

The union of individual machines with transport elements and placement of the pi eces, like a robot or gantry, all controlled from a central control system and c oordinated create flexible manufacturing cells. The integration of mechanics and electronics is to have called mechatronics. Along with the advancement of contr ol systems has developed another, much quieter, referring to the construction ma terials of the computers, plastics and resins developed hardness and excellent f lexibility and motor systems that allow better performance levels in the movemen ts parts and tools. In terms of tools, progress in ceramic materials and studies of geometric forms have influenced a remarkable performance of cutting tools ha s greatly improved the work. Basic structure

All machine tools have a set of parties, activities and principles that distingu ish and characterize. The main parts and their functions Party Base Maintains function and sets the machine on the floor, table, or its own structur e. There are three basic types of bases: • Anchored to the floor or grounded • S upport d.Integrada table or bench on the body of the machine supports parts of t he machine, on some machines used for sliding and other tools for fixing of the pieces that go to work, usually on the bench or stand is located fixed head mach ines. Dota moving to different parts of the machine, usually consists of the fol lowing parts: • Engine or engines • Bands • Pulleys • Gears • gearboxes or worm screws or levers in connection g.Manijas

Thwart or support Powertrain Headstock and main spindle In the fixed head are located all moving parts that generate the movement of the main spindle. The main spindle attachment which placed the arrangements for sec uring work pieces. Set the pieces that are going to work, both rotating parts to fixed as well then: b. Chucks or mandrels c. D. drag clips E. Press F. setting Cones G. slots Jaws of one or several teeth h. Fix dishes turners of the tools o ff the chips and shape, the main ones: b. C. Torres Chisels Porta d. Fixing one or more nails e. F. strawberries Rails Chuck g. Manual support Securing workpiece Tool clamping Cooling Dotan liquids or fluids for cooling the tools and cut parts. Usually equipped wi th a pumping system and transmission and collection of fluids. Mechanisms of progress and / or penetration Movement permit or lend the tools to achieve the continuous release of chips, th e main ones are: b. C. herrmientas trolley Brazos prota chisels or strawberries d. Spindles Town or slips (drill) Mechanism of automatic or semi automatic control Initiate or discontinue an action of movement of a part or parts of machines, th ese can be: b. Worm connected to gears and machine parts c. Bumpers signal to mi cro switches d. Stepper motors e. F. tape reader units Digitized signal receivin g units CAM computer g. Material supply systems h. Tools Power Systems i. Automa tic Inspection Systems Fasteners Fasteners on machines require a special analysis tool, even if the presentation of each machine will be special mention of the corresponding fastening systems. In this part of the course presents some general their main characteristics. Chucks or mandrels They are also known as chuck jaws in the specific case of around two types of ch ucks. Universal and independent Chuk The universal chuck is characterized by its three jaws move with a single key and separate each jaw is set with a separate key in put. Chuck Vests Within subject mandrels can be placed on the chuck with taper shank with the fun ction of holding the bit and its operation is similar to universal chuck.

Drag clips

The best known and fasteners are used dish, which can be closed or open. Everyon e always used to a dog known as a skidder. They usually are used for work on sys tems points or divisors of the strawberries. DRAG AND PLATE DOG Presses Cones fixing It is an element used in most systems that hold the piece has an axis of rotatio n. It consists of a conical surface that is inserted into another conical surfac e between these pieces work force meets the surface prevents their separation, f riction prevents the rotation and also gives great support. Drill with taper shank

Most of these fasteners are the chuck or taper shank drills. Slots It is usually located in the worktables of machine tools in them are inserted sc rews with your head down at the table and press plates or nails to fix the piece s. Turners plates or dividers

Although the purpose of these devices is not the setting, are considered as elem ents to keep moving parts of the sites in which they will work. Turners plates or dividers These devices attach via a chuck or a bowl of drag of a piece with a handle to r elease the clamping force can turn the piece a number of specific grades.