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Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers MEKNES FINAL REPORT OF THE PROJECT OFFICE STUDY III Title: Design and Dimensionnent one-bladed wind Directed by: Mohamed Amine Hamdaoui Supervisor: Mr M Ali CHAABI. Arbaoua. Academic Year 2007-2008 CONTENTS 1. Introduction ............................................... ................ .................................. ............................................. ..... ...................... 3 1.1 1.2.. 1.3 1.4.. 1.5. 1.6. .............. Hist ory .................................................. ......................... ......................... .................................................. Tec hnology ................................................ 3 ..................... ............................. .................................................. ............. 3 Importance of the wind resource assessment .................... ........ ............................................ 3 turbines in the world .. ................................................ ............................... ................... ......................... 3 Impacts of Wind on the environme nt ............... .................................................. .......... ................... 4 Prospects for the future of wind technology in Morocco ... ....... .................................................. 4 2. Description of a Wind ........................................... ........... ....................................... ........................................ ..... 5 3. Technical Study .................................................. .. ................................................ ............................... ................... .......... 6 3.1 3.2.. 3.3 3.4.. 4.1 4.2.. 4.3. 4.4 4.5.. 4. 6. 4.7 4.8.. 4.9 4.10.. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. Blades Fixed ............. .................................... ........................................... ....... .................................................. ................ 6 bl ades rotating .............................. ................................... ............... .................................................. ............. ....... 9 Act (Np - Vv) and (β - x) ................. .......................... ........................ .................................................. .... ............... 10. Fv Cp Act ............................................... .. ................................................ ............................... ................... ............... 11. Circuit Diagram ........................ ....................... .................................................. ..... ............................................ 14 Sizing the cylinder ............ ................................... ............................................ ...... ........................... 16 Sizing distri utor jack ................. .................................................. Sizing ...................... 18 ...................... flow control ........................................

 

.......... ..................... 19 Pressure and Power (Receiver 1) ............ ......... .................................................. Sizing Engine ..... ............................. 19 ............ .................................. ................ .................................................. ........ 19 Sizing distri utor of motor .................................... ............... ................................. 20. Sizing engine governor ................... .......................... ........................................... 21 Pressu re and Power (Receiver 2 ) ................................................. ... ............................................... ...... 21 Sizing pump .......... ............................. .................................................. 21 ...................... ........................ dimensioning lines ......... ......................................... .................................. 23 Calculation of the set pressure and the pressure relief valve .... ............. ..................................... . ........................................ ..... 24 Pump Motor .................................................. ......... ..................................... 24 Energy alance. ....................... ........................................................ ....................... ........................... ........... 25 Brakes: ............................. ..... .................................................. ....................... .......................... 25 4. Hydraulic Design ............................................ ............... ................................... ......................... 14 5. La our CATIA (See attached CD and Drawing) .................................. .... .................................................. ........ 27 6. Conclusio n ...................................... ....................................... ........... .................................................. ................. ............... 27

1. Introduction 1.1. History There has long as men have devised ways to harness the wind. It was found among the Persians and the region of Mesopotamia, paddles, the wind was t urning. Towards the twelfth century appeared in Europe , to Greece, the first wi ndmills, rotating strange machines that were primarily used to replace animals f or exacting work. However, this wind tur ine, one of the older machines can prov ide mechanical power, was a out ecoming a museum piece if it were not for the t wo oil shocks of the 70s and especially the many concerns as o jectively ased o n the risks posed to the environment from the use of fossil fuels as the threat depletion of their reserves exploita le in a future that will soon see the day. 1.2. Technology Principles of wind are so old that the design of it has changed little over the centuries, ut the materials and technology have evolved. The te chnical development of modern wind tur ines has orrowed a lot to the Aviation a nd lades today are made of fi erglass and composite materials including car on fi er (lightweight and dura le). Most modern wind tur ines are horizontal axis a nd are fitted with three lades, ut there are two lades of wind tur ines or a single There are also other variations of wind tur ines, mainly the rotor and th e Darrieus Savonius rotor turning, unlike previous wind around a vertical axis. 1.3. Importance of wind resource assessment Due to weather and shape of landform s, the wind is pro a ly one of the sources of energy that ranges from the most r andom. Because of the irregularity of the wind the economic interest of wind ene rgy can e significant in a given place and negligi le in yet another neigh or. That's why wind power must e prospected as is the case for many other sources o f energy. 1.4. The tur ines in the world electric power from wind capacity in th e world was almost 9362MW in late 1998 and has grown 64% over 1996, with Germany , in first position, alone holds 2875 MW. For over 15 years, there has een a gr adual decrease costs and increase mechanical relia ility of the tur ines total i nvestment cost is currently around U.S. $ 1,200 / kW and the technical relia ili

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

ty exceeds 95%. In same time the power unit is continuously increasing. The aver age unit capacity of the tur ines used in wind farms in Germany with up to 50 kW in the mid-'80s, declined in 1998 a700 kW. 1.5. Impacts of wind on the environment Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas and other polluting and exhausti le resource su stitution y another non-exhaust i le. We can summarize the impacts of wind up records dateessentially noise enge ndered y the rotation of the rotor lades and the potential hazard in some case s, wind tur ines in operation, the ird life. Regarding noise, considera le effo rts have een made in order to reduce it to a lower level. The manufacturers hav e reduced this potential nuisance y improving the aerodynamics of the lades, f inding ways to reduce the noise of the gears in the car, and more recently, y c ompletely removing the gear ox . As for the impact of wind tur ines on irds, se veral scientific studies have shown that most irds identify and avoid the prope ller turns. It is nevertheless essential to ensure that the location of a propos ed settlement of wind tur ine is not located in a corridor for migrating irds, or near a reeding site. 1.6. Future prospects of wind technology in Morocco Wit h oth wind fields important (especially to the north and south) and a scientifi c and technological potential to the am itions of our country, Morocco has the a ssets necessary to develop and take advantage of this technology. It is a le to create a dynamic that can lead traders to invest in this sector. This can cause the emergence of an industrial ase with great potential for the creation of But employment in the meantime, the small steps made so far can e classified as im portant. Indeed, as part of the production policy of concessional electricity in itiated y the ONE, it is planned to produce a wind farm 50 MW Koudia Al Baida i n the province of Tetouan and a project to install 200 MW is eing prepared. 2. Description of a wind A wind tur ine transforms the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. It consists of: • A mast allows the rotor to place high enough to allow its movemen t (necessary for horizontal axis wind tur ines) and / or place the rotor at a he ight allowing it to e driven y a strong wind and regular at ground level. The mast houses usually a part of electrical and electronic components (modulator, c ontrol, gear ox, generator, etc..). • A rotor, consisting of several lades (usu ally three) and the nose of the wind. The rotor is driven y energy from the win d, it can e directly or indirectly coupled to a pump (the case of wind pumps) S ource : Wikipedia and more generally to an electrical generator. The rotor is co nnected to the car via the hu . • A oat, clim the mast, housing the mechanical parts, tires, some electrical and electronic components required for the operat ion of the machine . • Emergency rake, this mechanism is triggered automaticall y when the speed reaches a certain threshold through a speed sensor. In case of slow wind, the rake is released and the wind runs freely again. 3. Technical Study Thus: dS-C1 r1 r2 With r-r2 We will do our study in two cases: - - Fixed Blades: Blades no rotation rotation

C2 3.1.Pales fixed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the case of fixed pitch, we have: We set 3.1.1. Torque engine nacelle effort per lade is: The goal is to find the maximum value of F. For this we will maximize over θ the n compared to Cx, Cz. Differentiating the function with respect to θ, we find: W ith It must maximize over Cx, Cz, why we selected a profile NACA23012.This profile i s characterized by the polar e uation: With the problem is to find the maximum o f the function:

MATLAB program % Declaration of constants rhoair = 1.25, C1 = 0.6 C2 = 1.7; r1 = 14.0, r2 = 1.0 , V = 25, Cz = -0.9:0.01:0.9; for i = 1: 181 = 0.25 * rhoair gama * ( C1 + C2) * (r1-r2) * V ^ 2 a = Cz (i) / (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) F (i) = gama * (Cz (i) * sin ( atan (a)) + (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) * cos (atan (a))) end plot (Cz, abs (F)) title ('Variation of tor ue Pod function Cz ') xlabel (' Cz '), ylabel (' C (Nm) '); Result:

Thus the maximum stress on a blade is then the maximum tor ue on the crown of th e pod is: With d: distance between the center of the platform and the blade, it takes from 3 meters

3.1.2. Couple on the blade's normal force on the blade is: In the same way as the previous paragraph, we must maximize the function: MATLAB program rhoair = 1.25, C1 = 0.6 C2 = 1.7; r1 = 14.0, r2 = 1.0, V = 25, Cz = -0.9:0.01:0. 9; for i = 1: 181 = 0.25 * rhoair gama * (C1 + C2) * (r1-r2) * V ^ 2; if Cz (i) == 0 F (i) =-gama * 0036; else a = (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) / Cz (i); F (i) = gama * (Cz (i) * cos (atan (a)) - (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) * sin (atan (a))) end end plot (Cz, abs (F)) title ('Change the "normal force on the blade accord ing Cz') xlabel ('Cz'), ylabel ('F (N)'); Result:

Thus: To calculate the tor ue induced by this effort, we calculate the center of thrus t of the blade. the center of pressure P x, y is defined by: y C1

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For ease of calculation, is the center of pressure of the surface S1 and the cen tral thrust of the surface S2. We have: S1 S2 C2 x With: The calculation gives: And

To maximize tor ue, it is assumed that the axis of the blade is the axis OY. The tor ue induced by the normal force on the blade chord is: Then 3.2.Pales rotating In the CAS fixed pitch, we have: With As in the previous paragraph, we calculate the maximum tor ue in the crown of th e car and the tor ue in the blade. We find: Note and

To calculate the power of the engine causing the crown of the car, we must choos e the gear ratio between crown and pinion gears of the car. And that while keepi ng yields mechanical transmission. 3.3.Loi (Np - Vv) and (β - x) After displacement Δx, we have the following figure: A A 'α JB λ θ B ' μ λ I β O OBA ': initi configur tion A'B'O': configur tion fter disp cement Δx We wi ll compute x = f (β) with x the displacement of the cylinder.

Consider the triangle A'B'J: Was

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π sin (π - α) sin α sin 2 sin (θ) 2 = = = JB 'A' B 'AB + Δx - Δx AB + BJ - BJ ⎧ A'B '= AB = cos (α) = Δx + - a sin (β) (I)

Consider the triangle O'B'B: Thus: (Π - β)) cos (β) sin (β) sin λ sin (2 = 2 = = B 'BO' B 'O' B λ = π-β 2 Bec use the tri ng e is isosce es O'B'B.

cos (β) 2 sin (β) h s Consider the tri ng e A'BB ': W s π-β π sin (π - ()) sin (β) 2 sin α sin (μ) sin (2 - λ) 2 2. = = = = BB 'A' B 'AB

From ( ), we h ve: And fter (I) nd (II) we find th t:

Δx =

2 - (a * tan (β 2) * sin (β)) 2 + sin (β) -

We know the race of the lade is β = 40 °. We take a =

= 40cm and 50cm.

So will the cylinder stroke: Stroke = 24.82 cm If we derive the a ove relation w e find the relationship etween the speed of the piston and the cylinder rotatio n speed of the lade: ⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ * sin (β) ⎜ ( * t n (β / 2) * sin (β)) * ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 2 cos 2 (β 2) + * t n (β 2) * cos (β ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ° x = ⎜ ⎝ * * cos (β) - ⎟ β 2 2 - (a * tan (β 2 ) * sin (β)) ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ °

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β ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ sin 2 (β) sin (2) ⎜ cos (2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2

+ Δx ⎟ ⎛ -

sin (β) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = a * * 1 + ⎟ ⎜ β)

  

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sin (β) 2 (II) sin α =

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B 'B =

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With ⎨ ⎩ BJ = OB' = OB sin β sin β sin β = a

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cos (2 sin (β)

⎝ ⎠

If we t ke β = 23.27 * 10 ° -3 r d / s (Ie d. Rot ted 40 ° in 30s). We find the ver ge speed of piston cy inder:

With Hence:

So Kinem tic system you Rotor B de Rotor C1 A P te

O1 Cy inder rod C O1 A Body of Fv B γ β Rotor α Fp C C1 O1 O Schem tic of the l de pitch module

4. Desi n hydr ulic 4.1.Schém circuit

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r AB,€we find the fo

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3.4.Loi Fv - Cp It iso tes the

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4.2.Dimensionnement the cylinder We h ve the followin d t : • • • • 4.2.1. Choice Thus: So ccordin to the c t lo Piston di meter = 125 mm To c lcul te the di meter of the stem, we use the criterion of verific tion slee ve: It w s: Stroke = 400mm So Li = 800mm So: F = 12,000 N, K = 2

Thus our chosen cylinder is: • • • • 4.2.2. Audit Ref: 125/56 * 400 CK P 0 piston rod 56 mm 125 mm 400 mm Stroke W s: Gold Cylinder resists ucklin . 4.2.3. C lcul tion flow cylinder nd nd

It w s: So: Given the sence in the c t lo , ch rt or method to find the volu metric efficiency, we c n t ke for ex mple then: 4.2.4. Pressure nd Power's ctu l cylinder The pressure tr nsmitted y the cylinder: The power tr nsmitted 4.3.Dimensionnement distri utor of cylinder Accordin to the c t lo ATOS (E010.pdf), we selected: DHO-0711 / 2 XK

y the cylinder:

Accordin c t lo ATOS (C321.pdf), we selected: QV20/2/K This component in turn induces loss, nd from the c t lo ): You must turn the "kno " five times to et the desired flow. 4.5.Pression nd Power (Receiver 1) Let us c ll the whole cylinder + Dist. Cylinder + Re ul tor, receiver 1. Thus:

4.6.Dimensionnement En ine 4.6.1. Choice Power

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receptor for the pump.

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4.4.Dimensionnement flow control The lo d must tr nsl te with velocity V = 0.08 m / s, which is equiv lent to de it side rod

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This le ds to

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The di meter of the stem must e: Rod di meter = 56 mm

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ove 45, then from the st nd rd v lues, we h v

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ATOS (B015.pdf), we find:

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There re two v lue for Or So Accordin c t lo PARKER-CALZONI, we selected: • • • • Ref: C p city: 4.6.2. C lcul tion yields

4.6.3. C lcul tion of ctu l flow W s:>> sor ed y the en ine

4.7.Dimensionnement distri utor of motor Accordin to the c t lo ATOS (E010.pdf), we selected: DHO-0711 / 2 XK

4.8.Dimensionnement en ine overnor Accordin c t lo ATOS (C321.pdf), we selected: QV20/2/K This component in turn induces loss, nd from the c t lo ): You must turn the "kno " three times to et the desired flow. 4.9.Pression nd Power (Receiver 2) Let us c ll the whole en ine + Dist. Motor + Re ul tor, receiver 2. Thus:

4.10. Sizin the pump 4.10.1. Choice It w s for the desi n of pump usin the criterion of power: Now we is lre dy included in the powers of receivers, nd we t ke, we And you h ve imposed Hence So ccordin to the c t lo Ref: C p city: 4.10.2. Determin tion of speed nd volumetric efficiency ATOS (A005.pdf)

ove, we selected: • • • •

the In ddition there is the volumetric efficiency:

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The oper tin system requires th t the pump provided t le st 60 l / min. then fter followin c t lo , we h ve:

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This induces

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4.6.4. C lcul tion of pressure nd en ine power It h s the power in the en ine is written: And the power is:>>>>

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From the nd nd

r ph

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ove, there

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> 4.10.3. Determin tion of torque pump nd mech nic l perform nce We ne lect in the first p rt, the pressure drops line rly, we h ve: In ddition there is the volumetric efficiency: >>>> (Receiver 2) (Receiver 1) 4.11. Sizin pipes 4.11.1. Forcem in To determine the di meter of the disch r e pipe, we impose the speed limit of oi l in the pipe, then we h ve:>> PIPE R8-16 Estim ted losses for - - Aver e speed of flow Reynolds num er λ = 0.03, t king L = 3m. 4.11.2. Suction To determine the di meter of the disch rge i e, we im ose the s eed imit of oi in the i e, then we h ve:>> R4-32 I E Estim ted osses for - - Aver ge ve ocity Reyno ds num er λ = 0.048, t king L = 1 meter 4.12.

Since there is no simu t neous o er tion etween the two receivers defined ove , Then we must t ke the m ximum ressure over the different ressure osses = 15 5.82 r Then norm ized According to the c t og ATOS C010. df, we se ected: AER S -CART-15 / 200 / F 4.13.

um Motor

N = 1200 r m

= 20 kW

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According to c cu tions m de y t king ng motor of the um is:

s fety f ctor s = 1.25, the drivi

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C cu ting the set

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4.14.

Then 4.15. Br kes: The industry offers wide v riety of r king system. In this section we choose system of hydr u ic disc r ke in the c t ogs of the com ny Twif ex. Br king is done y s ring, nd the o ening is m de y o en w ter (under ressure of r oom). It w s: So we dimensioned with s fety f ctor of 1.5

According to the ch rt e ow cons, the gr fted

ressure is re uired to o en

XSH MX 9.6

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5. Work CATIA (See tt ched CD nd Dr wing) 6. Conc usion This roject owed us to r ctice different techni ues of design nd design in hydr u ic engineering. As ros ects: • Design of o d-sensing hydr u ic system to incre se erform nce • Design nd construction of coo ing system • Use of um with servo to e imin te the rge osses in the choke

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Amendment to

dd the circuit r king system

 

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We then se ected

r king system:

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Sizing the

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Choice of disc

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The tot

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Energy B

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