Office Ergonomics to Safety Manual on Ergonomics for Offices Objectives This Guide will enable you to: better understand

the basic elements of ergonomics office; identify tasks that can potentially cause the Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) and other injuries to muscles and joints; develop an Ergonomics Program and establish goals for your workplace, and focus on solving problems with involvement of employees and management. Scope This manual is applicable for work in offices and covers the factors that contri bute to the compatibility between workers and their work. Includes ergonomics of the workstation, work organization, working environment and safety practices re commended. This manual will assist in developing and implementing ergonomics pro grams for offices. Training courses for employees, can be a practical material f or participants. Target Audience This manual is designed for managers, supervisors, workers, people working at ho me, nurses work, occupational therapists, chiropractors, representatives and occ upational health and safety. Summary Ergonomics studies the compatibility between workers and their work. "Work" incl udes the desktop, workstations and tasks. Ergonomic conditions are inadequate wh en the "job" is incompatible with the body of workers and their ability to conti nue working. These conditions can cause discomfort, fatigue and, consequently, i njury. Injuries resulting from inadequate ergonomic conditions are known as Repe titive Strain Injury (RSI), musculoskeletal disorders Work-Related (MSDs) or Rep etitive Motion Injuries (MRLs). The causes for these lesions are extended work i nvolving repetitive movements, forceful movements and awkward postures. RSI inju ries are painful and often disabling, affecting primarily the wrists, back, legs , shoulders, neck, muscles and joints. Suitable environmental conditions are imp ortant for the complete well being of workers and productivity. A desktop that i s too cold or too hot, dimly lit, noisy, poorly ventilated, or unpleasant odors, cause annoyance, stress, fatigue, eyestrain, headaches and other problems. In e xtreme cases, an inadequate environment in the office can cause disease. Injurie s and illnesses related to inadequate ergonomic conditions can be prevented, mak ing the location and organization of work fits the physical and mental needs of each individual worker. Index Introduction Part I. Ergonomic Hazards in Offices 1. What is Ergonomics? . . . . . . . . . . . . is RSI? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alk in Ergonomics?. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. SI?. . . . . . . . . 5 MSDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. What . . . . . . 2 3. Why is so much t What are the common symptoms of R . . . . . . Pain 6. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Injuries occur as th e effort. . . . . . . . . . . . Repeatable (RSI)?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . June 8. RSIs affect how your body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Low back pain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . July 16. What do you notice the symptoms of RSI? . . . . . . . 19 8. Such as RSI are treated? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Part II. Ergonomics Program for Office 1. What is an Ergonomics Program. . . . . . . . . . . . Offices for? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. How to identify ergonomic hazards. . . . . . . 23 3. Controlling the Ergonomic Hazards. . . . . . . . 24 workstatio n and work organization. . . 28 Material Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Lighting and Vis ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4. Ergonomic aspects of comp uters. . . . . . 45 Common Health Hazards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 RSI re lated to the use of Computers. . . . . 48 Causes and Common Symptoms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Workstation Computer. . . . . . . 50 Using the Mouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Standing Working with Computers. . . . . . . 58 Working on foot - Chairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Footwear and floors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .€Work Orga nisation 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5. Safety in Offices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6. Exercises to do in office. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 7. Education and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Part III. Legislation Safety and Occupational Health 1. Legislalação Safety and Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational Braz il. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2. Responsibilities of the Empl oyer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3. Employee responsibilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4. Internal Commission for Accident Prevention (CIPA). . . 76 Part IV. Sources Information Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 U.S.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 0 Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Standardization in Ergonomics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Part V. Attachments A1: Sample Survey of Ergonomics. . . . . . . . . . . 85 A2: Sample Health Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 A3: Sample Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on Ergonomics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Introduction The Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) are health problems that occur more frequentl y in modern offices. These lesions result from plans and workstations designed i mproperly. Two common types of RSI are the muscle strain in the neck, shoulders and back, to remain seated for long periods, and muscle and joint injuries due t o excessive repetition of moves. Injuries resulting from repetitive movements ar e known as Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), Repetitive Motion Injuries (MRL), mus culoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and musculoskeletal disorders Work-Related (MSDs). In this manual, we use RSI. The following table summarizes the ergonomic hazard

s and safety at work most common in offices. USING an adjustable document holder. Put it beside the screen and at the same ti me. The head will have less turn and eyes will settle more easily. (See figure o n next page) changing the position of supporting documents on both sides of the monitor to vary the head position. Connecting the keyboard to the computer with a string of at least 70 cm in length. CHECK excessive noise of the computer or p rinter. Clean the screen regularly as instructed by the manufacturer. Report to your supervisor if you have problems with the controls, onscreen instability or excessive noise. You and your workstation Wrist in a neutral position (no bending) keyboard directly in front next to the keyboard and mouse at the same level shoulders and hips aligned backrest adapted to the curvature of the spine Rest arm at the elbow height of the patella assen toabaixo Knees slightly below hips feet flat on the floor or footrest 51 Ceiling Lamps filters to disperse light located parallel to the computer monitor minimum noise

Environment neutral finish of the walls and no furniture reflector Light Work Window located at the right angle of the computer screen Support Document mobile and adjustable

Computer Monitor position adjustable display brightness and contrast adjustable Keyboard thin, separate, mobile Chair armrests revolving wheels or casters Adjustable keyboard height stable base angle and seat height adjustable backrest Adjustable edge of the front seat rou nded armrests Footrest, wrist rest for Workstation height adjustable work surface height 52 Publications this Series Safety Guide for groundskeepers workers who care for soil and gardens Cold Weath er Workers Safety Guide information on health and safety for workers outdoors in cold climates School Workers Health and Safety Guide for teachers and other emp loyees of Schools Office Ergonomics Safety Guide helps workers to Offices in rec ognition of ergonomic hazards and corrective actions Food Service Workers Safety Guide on the aspects related to services and food preparation industries Wareho use Workers Safety Guide for workers in warehouses, depots and air Indoor Air Qu ality Health and Safety Guide information on the quality air indoors,€explains h Adjustable keyboard

ow to ensure occupant health and comfort Violence in the Workplace Prevention Gu ide information on violence in the workplace and its prevention Welders Health a nd Safety Guide helps in recognizing the dangers and prevention of diseases rela ted to the work of welders Health and Safety Committees Reference Guide practica l guide for the formation and effective functioning of health committees and saf ety Noise Control in Industry: A Basic Guide helps in recognizing problems relat ed to noise, control of exposure and the development of a program for hearing pr otection For more information about these titles TEL 1 905 5708094 FAX 1 905 5722206 E-mail: clientservice@ccohs.ca Web site: http://www.ccohs.ca

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