I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Item 1: THE GREEK TEMPLE 0 .
- Introduction: the historical context of the Hellenic world. 1 .- Greek Arch itecture: a) Chronology and general characteristics. The orders b) The temple: 1 . Structure and type 2. Historical evolution. 0 .- Introduction: the historical context of the Hellenic world Greek civilization (which was probably the first W estern civilization) was originally developed in the Balkan peninsula and the co ast of Asia Minor (now Turkey) and later spread throughout the Mediterranean (wi th special History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: a Greek temple I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . presence in southern Italy was known as the "Magna Grecia"). The geographical fe atures of the Balkan peninsula (climate, mountainous character, very cut costs, abundance of islands, etc..) Had important political consequences from which no doubt is worth mentioning the emergence of the polis (city-states independent of which emphasized Athens ) and the emergence of democracy (a democracy "sui gene ris") in which the citizen has full rights and in which "man is the measure of a ll things." In Greece also came a way of understanding reality based on reason a nd not just myths (philosophy) and an anthropomorphic religion. All these elemen ts affect the characteristics of Greek art also incorporates influences also the art of earlier stages (Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Cretan, etc.). The Greek genius and art stem from the combination of several elements: a) Contributions of the Indo-Europeans (Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian) who invaded Gre ece in the late second millennium (1100 years BC approx.) Crete and Mycenaean ar t in architecture (character b) Survival lintel, megaron) and the visual arts (sculpture and painting) c) Influence of th e art of Mesopotamia and Egypt. d) But the factor principal was the new political and social organization. Faced with the god-king of other cultures (Mesopotamia, 2 hierarchy headed by the History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Egypt), the Greeks were organized into city-states (polis) where the man lived b y and for itself. The democratic city and commercial art will enable a man's tai lored, realistic and humanistic. 1 .- Greek Architecture: a) Chronology and gene ral characteristics. The orders are three periods in the historical development of Greek art: 1. Archaic: S. A. VI VII C. 2. Classic: S. V and S. IV a. C. 3. Hellenistic S. IV until the 2nd half of the century A.C.
The rise and fall of each period are directly related to the vagaries of politic al and economic situation of the city-state. The main features of Greek architec ture are: 1. The materials used initially in wood and adobe buildings were replaced later by stone and white marble. Its buildings are adinteladas: no use is made of arches and vaults As man is the measure of all things, the architecture uses a measurem ent of human proportion and harmony visual search using optical corrections if n ecessary such as: a) A slight curvature of the ground. b) The inclination of the columns inward to avoid the feeling of falling. c) 2. 3. The entasis columns. (Thickening of the central part of stem) d) The unequal spacing between the columns. 4. Technical perfection that is evident even in the use of appliances (ie in the fo rm of blocks or pieces to place buildings with certain elements which enhanced o rnamental (decorative) and the meander, spiral, rosette, the eggs, pearls, acant hus leaves, Greek temples etc.Los looked very different from the one presented t oday as they were polychrome: triglyphs in blue, black stripes and red and black drum. 5. History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 3 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . 6. The most distinctive building is the temple, which has its antecedent in the Myc enaean Megaron. Also built palaces, theaters, covered porches (stoas), etc. Fina lly it is worth noting his view of the city as a planned and orderly space (Ej.p lano Hippodamus of Miletus influential later) to the Greek architecture is propo rtion, balance, number and mass.So there arose the architectural orders that ca n be defined as the harmonious union of building and decorative elements. The ke y element in each order is the column (Stilo). There are three orders: Doric ord er. It has the following characteristics a) The building sits on a base called s tylobate divided into tiers on all four sides b) The column starts from the ground and has no basis. 7. 1. Stem, longitudinally striated, with 16-20 striae sharp edge is shrinking in size but w idens up the middle (called entasis that widening). On the shaft is located the capital, consisting of: A molding powder or Collared, a core plate-shaped or hor ses, and a square prism called abacus. c) The load (the roof) of
temple has a horizontal (system lintel). The whole of this load is called the entablature. In the Doric order is composed of the following parts: • • 1 .- architrave: large smooth stone beam, resting on the abacus. 2 .-. Frieze: t he architrave Separated by a narrow ribbon, a second beam is divided into square spaces where available alternately triglyphs (rectangle divided vertically by t wo glyphs or grooves in the center and two half-stripes on the sides) and metope s , plates were decorated with reliefs or were empty. 3 .- Cornice: Composed of two parts: a plain eaves (eaves), which stands on a narrow frieze and corner tri m, more outgoing, called cyma History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 4 • I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . 2. Ionic ORDER slimmer in its proportions and decoration is higher than in the D oric. Many authors speak of an art rather female, compared with virility and str ength of the Doric art. Its features are: a) As in art although Doric temple stands on a plinth called Tier b) Column: The shaft does not rise directly from the plinth but rests on a basis consisting of two convex moldings called bulls, and between the m lies a concave area known as Scotland. The shaft is no one rests more slender than the Doric. Its diameter decreases toward the top. It has vertical grooves w ith edges polished. Ends in a neck brace, located between two thin strips;. The capital is composed of one piece (horse) decorated with eggs and arrows, and end s at the ends of two scrolls. On it rests an abacus (pad), which supports the en tablature. c) Entablature. As in the Doric style, the entablature is composed of: • 1.-lintel ": Three horizontal stripes in progression, one above the other, toppe d the last egg and decorated with pearls. 2.-Friso: plain or decorated with reli efs. 3.-Cornice: a body formed by indentations or rectangular blocks, and a seco nd body more prominent and smooth the top or eaves with curved section, as in th e Doric. • • 3. Corinthian order is the same except that the Ionic capital. The capital has t wo rows of acanthus leaves, scrolls and some reduced caulículos calls. b) The te mple 1. Structure and typology: The most important architectural building of Gre ek architecture is the temple whose function is to serve as home to the image of god that is dedicated. It is (as we have noted) a lintel construction, derived from History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 5 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History .
megaron pre-Hellenic, and the size and complexity is varied (from a simple shrin e to temple with three naves). Developed in the temple of the three orders or st yles of Greek architecture, a very influential post. On the ground, rectangular type predominates, although there are temples called circular Tholos Inside Gree k temples were divided into three units: a) PRONAOS or open porch with pillars t opped by side walls (one on each side), among which there are usually two column s. b) naos or cella, which contains the statue of the god, and is a rectangular chamber. c) opistodomus unit located at the opposite side porch or ships. (This unit was guarding the treasures of the temple). The agencies indicated they coul d be surrounded by columns (the peristyle). According to the arrangement and the number of columns, has established the following types of Greek temples: 1. 2. 3. 4. Apterous: No columns. In Antis: two columns in front and rear facades. Prostyle: If the columns (more than two) are only in the main facade.Amphiprostyle: With more than two columns only in the front and rear facades. Periptera: If you are surrounded by columns on all sides. Pseudoperípteros: If the columns are embedd ed in the wall, being visible only half of them. 5. 6. According to the number of columns on their facades, Greek temples can be: a) Di stil: two columns on the facade b) tetrastyle: four columns c) hexastyle: six (a lways go in pairs) d) Octástilos: eight columns , etc. ... When the peristyle is formed by a double row of columns, the temple is called Diptera. History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 6 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Although not a rigid rule, the number of columns in the side walls is twice as o ne of the main facade (eg in a terplo On the facades of the items listed are the columns and pediment, it is triangular in shape . It is decorated with sculptur al reliefs. Ledge Eaves cornice The Doric order Entablature Golas Glyph Fris or regulates Abacus Equine Collar baquetones Capitel Metopes Triglyphs Architrave (smooth) CAPITALS CAPITALS Fuste, with 16 or 20 grooves to sharp edge is not based Column FUSTE
Stylobate PEDESTAL Eaves cornice indentations Cornice Cornice Frieze ONYX J ORDER Entablature Scroll Astragalus moldings Ova Abacus Architrave (staggered) CAPITALS FUSTE Fuste, with 24 grooves for splines Column Toros Escocias stylobate BASA Or plinth PEDESTAL History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 7 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . 4. Parts of the Greek temple Circular More than two columns only main facade Two columns over two columns on both fron ts Tholos Surrounded by columns on all sides Peristyle columns into the wall twice The example you typology m g g rie o: ed History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 8 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . The Corinthian order Cyma cornice Entablature Frieze
(Smooth or continuous decoration) Architrave (staggered) Rosa moldings Caulículos Capital Column Acanto baquetones stylobate Toros Fuste, with 24 grooves for splines basa `PEDESTAL 2. Historical evolution) The archaic period. (VIII-VI centuries BC) It uses the Doric and Ionic styles: the first extends to the continental Greek cities and th e Magna Grecia, and the second by the Greek cities of Asia Minor and the Sea Isl ands Aegean. The temples were built at the beginning of humble materials such as adobe, brick or wood and then marble. Among the Doric temples of this period in clude that of Hera at Paestum in Magna Graecia, the temple known as the "Basilic a" of retaining the peristyle, and part of the architrave and frieze. This templ e is unusual as it has in its short facades an odd number of columns. Also in Pa estum is the temple of Poseidon As for the archaic Ionic temples are characteriz ed by being mostly flies (with a double colonnade of columns subsidiaries) and t he abundance of decorative elements. Among these temples Heraion the remains of Samos, the Artemision of Ephesus and the Temple of Apollo at Didyma b) The class ical period. (V-IV centuries. A. C). It is the moment of maximum splendor of the Greek polis stand out above all, Athens. This moment is identified with the gov ernment of Pericles, Athenian magistrate urged public works in the city most of which were conducted in the Acropolis (literally high city) located in an History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 9 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . defensive location, surrounded by walls that contained the most important religi ous buildings. The houses were built on hillsides and in the surrounding plain. The Acropolis was destroyed by the Persians (480 BC) in the Medical War and rebu ilt by Pericles in the S. V. A.C. The works were designed by an architect (Ictin os) and a sculptor (Callicrates) and attended by leading artists of the moment. Among the most important temples of this period we will note: 1.-The Parthenon. Situated on the Acropolis. Begun in 447 A.C. ends toward the 437 A.C. Its archit ects were Callicatres Ictinos and under the direction of Phidias, and rises in h onor of Athena Parthenos, the patron goddess of Athens. It is Doric, Amphiprosty le (portico with columns, anterior and posterior), peripteral,with 17 columns o n its side walls. Structure: It is built on three tiers (the latter is the stylo bate). Exástilos interior has two gates that give access to opistodomus or treas ure and pronaos. The naos or cella is divided into three aisles created by two l ines of columns. It was the statue of Pallas Athena crisoelefantina sculptor Phi dias. In opistodomus or Hall of the Virgin, which gives its name to the temple t reasury was kept of the goddess, that is, the wealth of the temple ... It is sma ller than the cella, almost square proportions. It also has three ships. Materia ls and technique: The Parthenon is built with white marble stones Pentelicus, pl aced in the bone without any mortar, reinforced, sometimes with metal staples. T he architects Parthenon is an example of Greek technical expertise. In it, to ac hieve effects that reached octástilo balanced visual and
counter possible optical distortions, nor are entablature stylobate nor straight , but slightly convex; between the columns do not always maintain the same dista nce, or the columns are all the same size, but the angles that are thicker. Deco rative elements: The sculptural decoration was extended by pediments and metopes and the frieze run outside of the cell and is the work of Phidias and his pupil s. History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 10 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . The exterior of the temple was painted in vivid colors: red, yellow, blue and bl ack. History: Built as noted in the days of splendor of classical Athens was a C hristian church, mosque and munitions to the Turks, when it reached a Venetian b omb destroyed the center. Between 1801 and 1803 Lord Elgin took to England much of his sculptural reliefs 2.-The Erechtheion. Also located on the Acropolis was built in honor of Athena Polias, and Poseidon-Erechtheus, to replace several old shrines. Built between 420 and 407 A.C. Menesicles by the architect, had to ada pt the building terrain with different heights. So has many irregularities, both in its plant (it has several levels) and their sum. Ionic style is, despite the complexity of its structure plan: It is divided into: 1.La cella of Athena Poli as, preceded by a portico of six Ionic columns. 2.The second place on the Erecht heion, itself composed of three campuses 3.A portico of six columns (four front and two behind in the corners), 4. To the south is the Porch of the Caryatids, o f 2'37 m in height, four in first row and two at the back of the end. They wear the Greek peplum belt and leg support further from the axis of the frame, bendin g the other. Her hair falls on the way back and their hair in braids, reinforcin g the strength of the neck and head offers a wide seat for the capital. It is sa id was the work of Phidias, or could be his disciple Alkamenes. 5. In the wester n facade built a wall with four columns attached at its lower end and free at th e top. 3.-Temple of Athena Nike or Victoria. It was built in 427-424 a. C., is d edicated to the goddess Athena Nike, and was designed by Calícatres. It is at th e entrance to the Acropolis. He got up in order of Pericles. Size is small: 8'27 m. long by 5'44 m. wide and 4 m. height. History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 11 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . It tetrastyle, Amphiprostyle with monolithic shaft columns. The interior is a ce lla with two pilasters. This small temple is the Ionic building model (based col umns and capitals decorated with scrolls, entablature consisting of architrave d ivided into three moldings, frieze decorated with reliefs continuous and similar to the Doric cornice. Finally gable roof that gives rise to two triangular pedi ment frieze shows the confrontation between Greeks and Persians (medical Wars). The reliefs show the goddess Nike Victory or immersed in activities such as carr ying a bull to sacrifice to just fastening his sandals (British Museum, London) 4 for Marmari .- The Tholos at Delphi. Tholos The temples round or were not comm on in Greece, and the few found are placed chronologically in the archaic period . reproduce the kind of circular hut, and were destined to the worship of fire o r a grave. At Delphi, Epidaurus and Olympia temples were built during the fourth century, with a circular floor. Although strictly speaking are not temples, wer e places with a cella sacred to the god.The Delphi has two rings of columns sur rounding the cella. The exterior and has 20 Doric columns The inner ring, with 1 0 columns lined up against the wall, were of the Corinthian order. 5 .- Others: Doric style is equally Lysicrates Lantern Monument or (D), Athens (S. IV). Final ly we can point to the temples of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena at Aegina Aphaea
. c) Hellenistic Period (IV-II century BC) The center of Greek art in this perio d is shifted to the new capital of Hellenism in the East, to the territories con quered by Alexander the Great (D) and his successors. The conquest of the area a mending the Greek spirit. The architecture becomes a trend as colossal proportio ns and luxury ornamental. Doric was abandoned by its severity. They forget the r elationships between different parts of the building mixed Doric and Corinthian History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 12 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . adding to this animal figures and adjust rates as palmiforme Eastern capitals. A mong the great temples of Zeus stand built at the foot of the Acropolis in Athen s, more than 100 m. long, started the S. II a. C., and completed under Emperor H adrian. But it is the most important urban joint Hellenistic architecture. Citie s with an established plan, large spaces with porches with columns, which were t rue auctions, abounded in this period. Cities such as Pergamum was distinguished by its monuments, palaces and shrines. Among these buildings emphasizes the socalled Altar of Zeus which is currently in Berlin. Let's look is an open temple. It was built on a high plinth, decorated with reliefs. Had built in 180 a. C. B y King Eumenes II. His basement has five steps. Its structure has Ionic portico on either side of two square pilasters of base initiated the extension of the sa me in all around the building. The Altar is constructed in the Berlin Museum. Gr eat relief with a frieze around 112 m. the altar by three sides: it represents t he struggle of giants and gods (sons of Gaia): Zeus and Athena fighting with the ir opponents, they symbolize cosmic elements and struggles of titanic forces. Th e movement is most important, along with technical perfection d) Other structure s: the Theatre of Epidaurus. During the classical period are built, in addition to the temples (civil architecture) houses and buildings for people: race tracks , gyms, Odeon and theaters. Among these buildings include theaters, which was in tended to represent comedy and drama. Let's analyze the most important and best preserved theaters consisted of scena, orchestra and koilón, grandstand or dig f or the public. The work of Polykleitos Epidaruro is the younger, mid-century IV. Tier two arms of the U, closing with Ionic columns form of U. On the steps of o pening a portal History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 13 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . uses the slope of a hill. It has the circular orchestra, the chorus is the area in the center is an altar dedicated to Dionysus. Koilón The two areas are 13 sta irs in the interior and the exterior 23 that is steeper. A tier is accessed thro ugh two corridors at the ends (parodic) the scene was not preserved in its entir ety, should be similar to that of Roman theaters, high and with pilasters and Io nic columns. Before her stood the stage elevated platform where actors acted Ini tial Meaning: religious (representations were held here in honor of Dionysus). 1. Parthenon History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 14 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . FRONT SIDE (17 COLUMN) OMO I OD ST OP
OS NA 8 COLUMNS PORTIA ELPARTE NON COS (SI GL OIV ac). PLA NO The Erechtheion History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 15 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . N North Portico O ER EC T Sanctuary EI O Sanctuary of Athena This hexastyle Ionic Portico E N South Portico of the caryatids S History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 16 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Cella and Erechtheion North Portico Caryatid Porch of the Western Front History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 17 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Temple of Athena Nike Tetrastyle cella 8.27 Long ms Width 5.44ms TEMPLE PLANT Amphiprostyle of Athena Nike
History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 18 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Tholos of Marmari IN DELPHI Pergamon Altar History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 19 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Theatre of Epidaurus Epidaurus Theater Koilon orchestra (steps) scena History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 20 I.E.S. "Francisco de Goya" Department of Geography Molina de Segura. and History . Harrow or koilon orchestra scena History Course art.2 º Bl. 2008-2009. Topic 1: The Greek temple 21