Modern technologies for the use of wood fuels: model dies Posted by Valter Francescato The forestry wood

fuel source • Firewood pci = 4 kWh / kg (w20%) • Wood chips pci = 3.4 kWh / kg (W30%) pci = 2.8 kWh / kg (W40%) • Briquettes Pci = 4.7 kWh / kg • Pellets (Sawdust w <14%, w = 8-10%) pci = 4.7 kWh / kg 15 kg bags The remarkable technological advances of BOILERS Increase efficiency and reduce emissions of CO in wood boilers 1980-2004 (BLT Wi eselburg - Austria, 2005) INDICATIVE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SOME PROVINCES AND REGIONS OF THE ALPINE SPAC E Lombardy 4 large plants (> 10 MWt), 4 plants under construction or design, 4 medium power plants, 25 small power plants made / to be implemented; 3 large pellet plants 2 -3 MWt 60,000 tpa chips only large plants Bolzano Province 26 large plants (0.8 to 34 MWt); 173 MWt seven large plants under construction a pproximately 5,000 small to medium installations (<0.8 MWt) 300,000 tpa chips on ly large plants Piedmont 27 large plants (0.8 to 34 MWt) 55 MWt inst. Small-medium plants 148 (<0.8 MWt) 23 MWt inst. About 80,000 t / ano chips Veneto 30 small and medium power plants up to 1MWt, 96 small to medium power plants fin anced and achieve Friuli Venezia Giulia 1 plant 400 kWt, 79 small and medium power plants financed and achieve Trento Province 5 large plants> 4 MWt, a few hundreds of small to medium installations WHAT ARE MODELS OF CHAIN-maximizing ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS FO R THE LAND AND THE COMMUNITY 'LOCAL? Project's technical reproducibility REMUNERATION FOR PRIMARY OPERATORS LOCAL ACTIVATION OF FORESTRY CHAINS

Own consumption by farmers, foresters, forest owners: energy independence 2. And district heating / CHP average size to which farmers and forestry compani es sell biofuel 3. Small and medium establishments operated by farmers and forestry companies (c ompanies agrienergetiche): energy sales PIECES OF WOOD BOILERS with forced draft suction (Saugzuggebläsekessel) Fan fume 1. Drying: the primary air promotes drying temperatures up to 150 ° C, cellulose and lignin are beginning to be carbonated 2. Decomposition gases are oxidized and wood mixed with secondary air pre-heated , T ° C 800-1000. 3. Combustion complete combustion occurs in the second combustion chamber, with appropriate time spent by hot gases Rule of 3T TEMPERATURE TIME Coolers TURBULENCE The thermal storage is key! Inertial sizing accumulation according to EN 303-5 QH Qmin VSP = 15 * TB * QN * (1 - 0.3 * VSP TB QH QN Qmin [kW] tank capacity [l] combustion period [h] ) VSP 3000 [l] 2500 QH QM in 0.8 1 1.2 1.5 Rated heat [kW] minimum heat [kW] average building heating load 2000 1600 1500 2 2.5 1000 Example: 1,596 liters TB QH QN Qmin 7 h (hardwood) 20 kW 10 kW (50% rated power) 8 kW approx. 180 sq. ft. (new building) 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 500 140

300 QN * TB [kWh] AN OPTIMAL SOLUTION: INTEGRATION WITH SOLAR THERMAL PLANT Example: boiler room and storage plan (inspected) 8 to 50 kW 50 m² to 120 m² 120 kW 12 kW 20 to 500 m² A model of supply chain business Wood pieces (FARM) Burden Financial analysis - Basic data 1 TYPE OF FUEL POWER BOILER PERFORMANCE CERTIFICATE Number laden winter (DIC -> FE B) Number of positions between seasons (MAR, Ott and Nov) Number laden summer (A PR -> SET) Heated volume number and type of buildings heated buildings who Num L ength inhabit the buildings heating network construction Year No. hours annual o peration boiler MWh year paid kWe committed to the plant volume storage tank fue l consumption average water content capacity. Num% kW / day Num / Num days / wee k cu m num num years MWht hours kWe l t / y% w wood pieces 55 92 2 1 1 1000 3 4 +2 25 2003 1500 82.5 3 3500 25.6 20-25 Automatic wood chip boilers GRID undernourished THRUST Unterschubfeuerung Safety heat exchanger Very refractory according to EN 303 / 5 Exchangers Primary air Secondary air Screw Auger Power Grid ash removal Automatic cleaning of heat exchangers Installation diagram Again, the puffer is important! Requirements room and silo • • • Silo square with diameters of 3-5 m 20-50 cbm storage capacity above 25 kW are designed silo with a capacity equal to one year autonomy 1-0,5-0,3 Attentio n to traffic for the load of wood chips is very important to use wood chips of t he desired quality: W 30% homogeneous Weight • • Importance of quality of wood chips in small installations (fixed grid) Water content w <30% (silo logistics yard) Weight homogeneous (chipper) G30-50 FARM PAUL REFF - DOLO (VE) Pellet boilers 25-45 kW Automatic device. Cleaning the boiler

"Air Transport" up to 20 m Combustion chamber refractory extraction Auto. Ash Closing wheel cells Pellet boilers Households: the conversion of methane pellet PELLET: 4.4 t / year FEATURES • family home heating and hot water heater • • 420 m3 20 kW systems ins talled • floor living area with 21 ° C and 19 ° C sleeping space • Boiler • 150 * 80 cm pellets in big bags (800-1000 kg) • loading pellets every 8-20 days • me thane consumption replaced 2300 m3 Pellet burners coupled with a flange PELLET PLANT Microimplants of District Heating Cervignano del Friuli (UD) Solution: use the e xisting boiler and use of a pellet burner Before After FEATURES • 9 apartments • 2500 m3 heated • 80 • 30 m kW installed network products • 12,0 00 • 135,000 kWht the diesel consumed PELLET: 28 tonnes / year Plants medium scale private service: new buildings S. Giovanni Natisone (UD) boiler: 400 kW Heated volume: 20,000 cubic meters (44 units) annual consumption of wood chips: 400 tons (w% 35) Investment: 290,000 Farms and forest enterprises, production platforms of chips: the recent experience of enterprises of the Valleys of Natisone Annual contract based on the energy content 30% w 60 tons

Importance of quality of wood chips in small and medium plants (fixed grid) Contract (methods quickly) Uniform sized G30-50 Water content w <30% (silo logistics site) SIZES (ÖNORM 7133) AN EXAMPLE OF BILLING BASED ON THE ENERGY CONTENT OF LOAD FROM A BASE OF t with w 35% which means 16.10 per MWh 50 /

MJ / t 14312.00 14102.60 13893.20 13683.80 13474.40 13265.00 13055.60 12846.20 1 2636.80 12427.40 12218.00 12008.60 11799.20 11589.80 11380.40 11171, 00 10961.60 10752.20 10542.80 10333.40 10124.00 9914.60 9705.20 9495.80 9286.40 9077.00 886 7.60 8658.20 8448.80 8239.40 8030.00 MWh / t 3.98 3.92 3.86 3.80 3.75 3.69 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.45 3.40 3.34 3.28 3.22 3. 16 3, 11 3.05 2.99 2.93 2.87 2.81 2.76 2.70 2.64 2.58 2.52 2.47 2.41 2.35 2.29 2 .23 w (%) 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

/ t 64.06 63.12 62.18 61.25 60.31 59.37 58.44 57.50 56.56 55.62 54.69 53.75 52 .81 51.87 50.94 50, 00 49.06 48.13 47.19 46.25 45.31 44.38 43.44 42.50 41.56 40. 63 39.69 38.75 37.82 36.88 35.94 / MWh 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16, 10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 1 6.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 16.10 Consumption and SELLING YOUR ENERGY MODEL WARMER NEAR An Austrian model to be imitated! Holzenergie-Contracting when farmers sell ener gy LOCAL FARMERS Fuel supply contract COOPERATIVE sale of heat Public buildings and / or private • • • high acceptance level of 141 projects with 13.5 MW in operation by Were 12.31.20 04 30 projects with 3.5 MW Are Already Approved for 2005 Service heat from the farm: the first in VENETO: az. Agricola Soccol Agordo - EC ODOLOMITI ANNUAL BUDGET OF THE SALE OF HEAT: FIRST YEAR Months November December January February March April Date 14/11/2003 12/01/2003 01/01/2004 02/01/2004 03/01/2004 04/01/2004 30/11/2003 10 0.0 Accounting Date M Wh , 0 31/12/2003 33.0 31/01/2004 56.0 29/02/2004 72.0 31/03/2004 88.0 30/04/200 4 10.0 33.0 56.0 72 MWh , 0 88.0 92.0 Total energy Total Price MWh / MWh 70. 00 10,0 23,0 23,0 70.00 70.00 70.00 16.0 16,0 70, 4,0 70.00 2000 92.0 4% VAT 257.60 Total 700,00 1,610.00 1,610.00 1,120.00 1,120.00 2 80.00 6,440.00 6,697 , 60 Cost of wood fuel chips Months msr cost ( 15/msr) November December 45 25,5 3 82.50 675.00 772.50 January 51,5 February 8 March 45 120.00 675.00 Total 175 10% VAT 2625.00 2887.50 2683.85 Total Pellets 58.85 grate grate and food pusher Substations Private District heating The boiler (2 MWt) Substations public COOLING WITH HEATING! : Absorption refrigerator with lithium bromide WATER WATER 90 ° C 7 ° C COP single stage: from 0.6 to 0.725 while saving 20-30% - resp. EE BIOMASS BOILER

ABSORBED Itor USERS WATER 80 ° C WATER 12 ° C WATER 80 ° C WATER 12 ° C Absorption Chiller The combined heat and power generation - small scale (CHP Combined Heat and Powe r) The combined heat and power (CHP Combined Heat and Power) from woody biomass is closed through thermal processes, in which the combustion cycle and the cycle of biomass power generation are separated from one stage of heat transfer by gas c ombustine the hot working fluid used in the second cycle. That is because combus tion of biomass products contain aerosols and gases, metals and chlorine compoun ds that can damage internal combustion engines. Power generation (EE) from bioma ss, for energy and environmentally sustainable, must be bound to produce thermal energy according to this principle: produce the kWel only when you also need th e heat! Otherwise, the process leads to dissipation and thus wasting huge amount s of energy. The CHP, therefore, requires the simultaneous enhancement of heat a nd EE, which is not always easy to achieve. - The turbogenerator ORC (Organic Ra nkine Cycle) - The engine Stirlig - The steam engine According to the logic "if I can produce electricity using the heat" The turbo O RC (Organic Rankine Cycle) - Turboden Srl Power kWel 450-1500 About 10 plants in Europe two of them in Italy Up to 800 kWel the turbogenerator is assembled in the workshop Efficiency 18% The Stirling engine, is part of the expansion engines or engine in which hot air movements of the piston are not in the combustion gas, but are the result of the expansion of a constant mass of gas locked in a room that spans using the energ y released by chip-fired boiler (or any source of en. heat). The Stirling engine is suitable to be applied to thermal generators from 350 kWt , marketing, currently, there are electric motors with power between 35 and 75 k We, although the technology is not yet fully consolidated Economiser und Luftvorwärmer Sekundärverbrennungszone Primärverbrennungszone Economiser und Luftvorwärmer Stirlingmotor A new feature in Wels in March 2006 of 1 kWe Stirling engine applied to a pellet boiler 25 kWt. (KWB and Energieumwandlungs GmbH - Austria) Spilling Engine

Central Fund - Val di Non (TN) KWt 6000 - 7500 tons - 30,000 chips msr 220 kWe The gasification of wood chips (CAEM - Cremona) - w <15% - Charcoal - gas filtra tion Thanks for your attention! Read more www.aiel.cia.it aiel@cia.it

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