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Inacio Lula da Silva President of the Republic MINISTRY OF CITIES Dutra Minister of State for Urban Erminia Maricato Deputy Minister / Secretary E xecutive Secretary MAGALHÃES INÊS DA SILVA National Housing RAQUEL ROLNIK Nation al Secretary of Urban Programs ABELARDO DE OLIVEIRA FILHO Secretary of Environme ntal Sanitation JOSE CARLOS XAVIER National Secretary for Transport and Urban Mo bility JOHN LUIZ DA SILVA DIAS President of the Brazilian Urban Trains Company CBTU Ailton Brasiliense Pires Director of the National Traffic Department - Den atran ARILD PRATES MARCO DA CUNHA Chair Company Urban Train from Porto Alegre Trensurb Carlos Chagas Foundation Responsible for the development of content 6 8 12 14 22 30 40 46 52 56 60 Defensive Driving PRESENTATION INTRODUCTION THE VEHICLE THE DRIVER OF TRANSIT VI A THE ENVIRONMENT GENERAL RULES AND OTHER IMPORTANT ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT and so cialized BREACH OF RENEWAL AND PENALTY Driver's license PRESENTATION On September 23, 1997 is enacted by Congress in the 9503 Act which established t he Brazilian Traffic Code, enacted by the president, entering into force on Janu ary 22, 1998, setting, once in its first article, one that would be the largest of its guidelines, which is, that the "transit insurance is a right and a duty o f the organs and entities of the National Traffic System." In order to improve t he education of drivers, given the alarming rates of accidentality in traffic, w hich currently represent 1.5 million of occurrences, with 34 000 deaths and 400, 000 injuries annually, with a social cost estimated at $ 10 billion, the Brazili an Traffic Code has brought the need for theoretical and technical courses and p ractice driving, including defensive driving, environmental protection and first aid. Extended, although this requirement to drivers already entitled, upon the renewal of drivers' license (art. 150), to update them and also enabling them to identify risky situations in traffic, encouraging safe behaviors, having as its goal the reduction of traffic accidents in Brazil. 6 As a result of extensive discussions within the National Traffic System, the per mitting process was reviewed and consolidated in Resolution No. 168 of the Natio nal Transit - CONTRAN will enter into force on June 19, 2005, in lieu of Resolut ion No. 50 . Aiming at improving the teaching-learning courses qualification of drivers, the Ministry of Cities, through the National Department publishes this didactic material on Defensive Driving. This initiative represents an important goal of the Lula government in relation to the National Transit, released in Sep tember 2004, focusing on the improvement of driver training in Brazil. OLIVIER DE OLIVEIRA DUTRA Minister of State of the Cities Ailton Brasiliense Pires President CONTRAN 7
INTRODUCTION Educating with values The traffic is done by people. And, as with other human activities, four princip les are important to the relationship and social interaction in traffic. The fir st is the dignity of the human person, which derive from human rights and values and attitudes fundamental to the democratic social life, such as mutual respect and rejection to discrimination of any kind, attitude necessary to promote just ice. The second principle is the equality of rights. Everyone has the opportunit y to exercise full citizenship and, therefore, you must have equality, ie the ne ed to consider the differences in people to ensure equality which, in turn, is b ased on solidarity. Another is that of participation, which justifies the mobili zation of society to organize itself around the traffic problems and their conse quences. Finally, the principle of shared responsibility for social life, which concerns the formation of attitudes and learning behaviors needed to enhance tra ffic safety, the realization of the right of mobility for all citizens and requi re government actions to improve the spaces public. 8 Behaviors express principles and values which society constructs and referenda, and that each person makes for himself and takes to the road. The values, in tur n, express the contradictions and conflicts among social groups and even among t he roles each person plays. Be "fast", "smart" and "take advantage" or "take the car as status" values are present in the society.But they are untenable from t he standpoint of the needs of collective life, health and rights of all. We need change. Change behavior for a collective life with quality and respect requires an awareness of the issues involved in social life, so that live traffic. It is the choice of principles and values that will lead to a more human traffic, har monious, safer and fairer. 9 INTRODUCTION Risks, hazards and accidents In everything we do there is a dose of risk: whether at work, when we fixed some thing at home, playing, dancing, practicing a sport or even passing through the city streets. When a situation of risk is not perceived, or when a person can no t see the danger, the chances of an accident happening. Traffic accidents result ing in damage to vehicles and their loads and generate injury to people. Needles s to say that they are always bad for everyone. But you can help and collaborate to reduce evitálos: ■ the suffering of many people, caused by deaths and injuries, including physical sequelae and / or mental, often irreparable, financial loss, loss of income and work absenteeism, legal constraints, for police investigations and court proceed ings, which may require payment of damages and even jail those responsible. ■ ■ Accident does not happen by chance, by the work of fate or by chance. 10 Expensive for Brazilian society to pay the damages in accidents: an estimated 10 billion reais, every year, that could be tapped, for example, to build thousand s of housing units to improve the lives of many Brazilians. It is therefore esse ntial to prepare the drivers for safe behavior in traffic, given the guideline o
f "preservation of life, health and environment" of the National Transit. And th is occasion is an opportunity you have to read carefully this didactic material and know and learn how to avoid dangerous situations in traffic, decreasing the chances of accidents. Study it well. Learn the concepts of Defensive Driving wil l be good for you, your family, your friends and to his country. 11 Defensive Driving Defensive driving or safe driving, is c, it helps preserve the life, health driving? It's how to drive, allowing dvance and predict what may happen to le and other road users. 12 For this you need to learn the concepts of defensive driving and use this knowle dge effectively. Always drive carefully, in order to predict in advance what to do and make the right decisions to prevent accidents. The first thing to learn i s that an accident does not happen by chance, by the work of fate or chance. In most accidents, the human factor is present, ie it is for drivers and pedestrian s a good deal of responsibility. Every tragic occurrence, they are predictable, preventable. The risks and dangers to which we are subjected in transit are rela ted to: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Vehicles; The conductors; The Roads Transit, Environment, Behavior of people. Let us examine separately the principal risks and dangers. Crossing the street in full is the right of the pedestrian. Respect it. 13 THE VEHICLE Defensive Driving Your vehicle provides equipment and systems important to avoid dangerous situati ons that could lead to accidents, like brakes, suspension, steering system, ligh ting, tires and others. Other equipment is aimed at reducing the impacts in case s of accidents, such as seat belts, the "air-bag and bodywork. Maintain such equ ipment in good condition is important for them to fulfill their duties. Periodic and Preventive Maintenance All systems and components of your vehicle wear out with use. The wear of a comp onent can affect the functioning of others and compromise their safety. This can be avoided by observing the life and durability set by manufacturers for the co mponents, under certain conditions. To keep your vehicle in safe conditions, the habit of doing regular preventative maintenance. It is essential to minimize th e risk of traffic accidents. Respect deadlines and guidelines of the owner's man ual and, where necessary, use qualified professionals. A maintenance done on tim e avoids breaks, repair costs, and especially accidents. 14 Vehicle operation Yourself (a) can observe the operation of your vehicle, whether the particulars of the panel, or by a simple visual inspection: ■ Fuel: see if the panel is shown in enough to reach the destination; level of bra ke fluid, engine and power steering, observe their tanks, as owner's manual; oil the best way to drive and behave in traffi and the environment. But what is defensive you to recognize dangerous situations in a you, with their companions, with his vehic
level in the transmission system (exchange) for vehicles with automatic transmi ssion, see the reservoir level. In the other vehicle, look for leaks under the v ehicle, the radiator water: water in refrigerated vehicles, see the level of the reservoir water, Water System Cleaner Windshield: Make sure the water tank; Wip er Blades Windshield : change, if they are dry; Desembaçador front and rear (if any): make sure they are functioning properly; Operation of headlights: visually check if everyone is lighting (lights low and high) Adjustment of the headlight s: make by skilled professionals; Flashlights front and rear direction indicator lights, brake light and taillight: visual inspection. ■ ■ The habit of regular preventive maintenance and generate savings and avoid traff ic accidents. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 15 THE VEHICLE Defensive Driving Tires The tires have three important functions: to boost, brake and stability to keep driving the vehicle. Always check: the vehicle ■ Calibration: Follow manuf acturer's recommendations is also the vehicle, noting the load condition (empty and loaded). Tires have withered their lifespan diminished, related to damage st ability, increase the consumption of fuel and to reduce the grip on the floor wi th water. ■ Wear: the tire grooves should have at least 1.6 mm in depth calibrat ion. The function of grooves is correct to allow the flow of water to ensure per fect tires. adherence to the floor and safely in case of floor wet. ■ Deformations in housing: see if the tires do not have blisters or cuts. These de formations can cause an overflow or a rapid loss of pressure. Dimensions Irregul ar: Do not use tires of different sizes of model or manufacturer's recommended t o not reduce the stability and wear other suspension components. ■ You can identify other problems tire easily. Vibration of the steering wheel ind icate possible problems with the wheel balancing. Vehicle pulling to one side in dicates a possible problem with the tire or alignment of direction. All this can reduce the stability and braking capacity of the vehicle. 16 Remember that all of these recommendations also apply to spare tire (spare), in
vehicles where it is required. Safety belt The seat belt in place to limit the movement of the occupants of a vehicle in ca se of accidents or a sudden stop. In these cases, the belt keeps people if in co nflict with the internal parts of the vehicle or being thrown out of it, thus re ducing the severity of possible injuries. For this, the belts must be in good re pair and all occupants must use them, including the rear seat passengers, even p regnant women and children. Always make an inspection of the belt; ■ See if the belts have no cuts, not to break in an emergency; Check if there are no folds to prevent the perfect elasticity; Test the lock to see if it works per fectly; Make sure your seat belts for rear seats are available for use to the oc cupants. ■ ■ ■ Correct use of the belt: ■ ■ Set firmly to the body, leaving no gaps; The bottom band should be below the abd omen, especially for pregnant women. 17 THE VEHICLE Defensive Driving ■ The transverse band to come over the shoulder, across the chest without touching the neck; Do not use tabs. They cancel out the effects of seat belts. ■ Transport children up to ten years of age only in the back seat, and stay on ret aining device affixed to the vehicle seat belt, suited to your height, weight an d age. Some vehicles have no rear seat. Exceptionally, and only in these cases, you can take children under 10 years in the front seat using the seat belt. Depe nding on the age, they should be placed in appropriate chairs, with the use of s eat belts. If the vehicle has air bag for the passenger, we recommend that you t urn it off, while carrying the child. The safety belt use is individual. Carry c hild on her lap, both with the same belt, may cause serious injury and even deat h of the child. People,in general, have no exact idea of the significance of th e impact of a collision in traffic. Know that, according to the laws of physics, colliding with a pole, or a fixed object similar to 80 km per hour, is the same as falling off a building with 9 floors. 18 Suspension The purpose of the suspension and shock absorbers is to maintain vehicle stabili ty. When worn, can cause loss of vehicle control and overturning, especially in curves and braking. Periodically check the state of repair and operating them, u sing as basis the manufacturer's manual and taking the vehicle to staff. Direction
The direction is one of the most important safety components of the vehicle, the one responsible for handling. Clearances in the steering system makes the vehic le "pulling" to one side, exposing the driver to lose control. At the curb, thes e defects are increased. You should periodically check the correct functioning o f the direction and make the preventive actions within the time specified in the manufacturer's manual, with specialized staff. Lighting System The lighting system of your vehicle is essential, both for you and see your path , and to be seen by other road users and thus ensure safety in transit. No light ing, or with poor lighting, you may be a cause of collision and other accidents. Check out and avoid the main events: ■ Headlights burned in disrepair or misaligned: they reduce the visibility picture and you can not see anything that should; See and be seen by all the traffic becomes more secure. 19 THE VEHICLE Defensive Driving ■ Torches burned or faulty position at night or in darkened environments (rain, da rkness): undertake the recognition of your vehicle by other road users; Brake li ghts burned out or malfunctioning (night or day) you brake and it is not signale d to the other drivers. They'll have less time and distance to brake safely, dir ection indicator lights (flashing) fire or malfunction: prevent other drivers to understand their operation and this can cause accidents. Periodically check the condition and operation of lights and lanterns. ■ ■ Brakes The brake system wears out with use of your vehicle and its efficiency is reduce d. Brakes expenditures require longer distances to brake safely and can cause ac cidents. The main components of the brake system are: hydraulic, fluid, pads and discs or pads, depending on the type of vehicle. Here are the main reasons of e fficiency loss and how to inspect: ■ Fluid level low: just look at the level of the reservoir, fluid leak, observe th e existence of spots on the floor under the vehicle; ■ 20 ■ Disc pads and expenses: check with a qualified professional; spent Canvas: Check with a qualified professional. ■ When you go through local or soaked with puddles of water, using the vehicle wit h brakes canvas, you may experience momentary loss of efficiency of the brake sy stem. Observing traffic conditions on site, reduce your speed and step on the br
ake pedal a few times to return to normalcy. In vehicles equipped with ABS (cent ral electronics that receives signals from the wheels and handles the pressure i n the cylinder and the control of the brakes, preventing wheel lock) check in th e panel, the indicator light of problems in functioning. When driving, avoid sud den braking use both, as unnecessary, because it wears faster components of the brake system. Just drive carefully, observing the signs, laws and traffic condit ions. To brake safely we must be alert. Keep safe distance and brakes in good conditio n. 21 THE DRIVER How to avoid physical stress related to the way of sitting and driving The correct position to avoid direct physical wear and helps to avoid danger. Fo llow the guidelines: ■ Drive with your arms and legs slightly bent, avoiding stress, and Support the bo dy in the seat and the seat back, the closest to an angle of 90 degrees; Adjust the headrest according to the height of the vehicle occupants preferably at eye level; Hold the steering wheel with both hands as the clock in the position for nine hours and 15 minutes. So you see better panel, better enter the vehicle con trols and in vehicles with air bag does not preclude its functioning; ■ ■ ■ ■ Try to keep your heels flat on the floor of the vehicle and avoid supporting the foot on the pedal when you're not using; Use shoes that are well fastened to hi s feet,so you can throw the pedals quickly and safely; Put your seat belt, so t hat it fits tightly to your body. The lowest band must pass through the region o f ■ ■ 22 abdomen and the transverse band pass on his chest and not on the neck; ■ Stay in position to see clearly the information panel and always check the opera tion of major systems such as the engine temperature. Proper use of mirrors The more you see what happens around you while driving, the greater the chance o f avoiding danger. On vehicles with rear internal, sit in the correct position a nd set it in a position that gives you a broad view of the rear window. Do not p lace luggage or objects that impede your vision through the rearview, the outsid e rearview, left and right, should be adjusted so that you, sitting in the manag erial position, sees the rear limit of your vehicle and thereby reduce the The correct position while driving produces less physical wear and increasing yo
ur security. 23 THE DRIVER possibility of "blind spots" or without sight. If you lind spots" before starting a maneuver, move the head es of vision with the outside mirrors, or by the side he noise of the engines of other vehicles and just do onfident that will not cause accidents. can not eliminate these "b or body to find other angl view. Stay tuned also to t the operation if you are c
The problem of concentration: telephones, radios and other mechanisms that reduc e their attention while driving How we make decisions in traffic? Many of the things we do in traffic are automa tic, done without that we think of them. Once we learn to drive, no more think o f all the things we have to do behind the wheel. This happens after automatic re peat often the same motions and procedures. This, however, hides a problem that underlies many accidents. Under normal conditions, our brain takes a few tenths of a second to register the images you see. This means that as you are careful w hen driving a vehicle, there will be, in a short space of time, situations you c an not observe. Moving vehicles constantly change their position. For example, t he 80 km per hour, a car travels 22 meters in one second. If an emergency occurs , between perceiving the problem, deciding to stop, drive the pedal and the vehi cle stops completely, it will take at least 44 meters. Concentration and reflexes diminish much with alcohol and drugs. The same happen s if you do not sleep or sleep poorly. 24 If you are just unable to concentrate or focus entirely on the direction, their normal reaction will increase, making the risk of traffic dangers on the road. S ome of the factors that decrease your concentration and slows the reflexes: ■ ■ ■ Consuming alcoholic beverages; Using drugs; ehavior, according to his doctor, must have with strong family, work, or for any other ep, or sleep too little sleep badly; Eating ■ ■ ■ Drinking alcohol or using drugs not only reduce the concentration affects motor coordination, changes behavior and decreases performance, limiting the perceptio n of danger and reducing the capacity of action and reaction. Other factors that reduce the concentration, although many do not realize this: ■ Use the phone while driving, even hands free operation; Watching TV on board to direct; Listen stereo volume that does not allow to hear the sounds of his vehic le and others; ■ ■ 25 THE DRIVER Using medication that modifies the b participated recently in discussions reason; Staying too long without sle too heavy, entailing drowsiness.
■ Transporting animals loose and unattended inside the vehicle transporting inside the vehicle, objects that could move during the journey. ■ We can not keep our attention focused all the time while driving. Constantly we are led to think about other things, whether important or not. 26 Force your concentration on driving, becoming accustomed to always look and eith er: ■ The information panel of the vehicle, such as speed, fuel, light signals, rear-v iew mirrors; The movement of other vehicles in front, their back or sides; The m ovement of pedestrians, particularly near the junctions, the position of hands o n the wheel. ■ ■ ■ ■ Constant improvement The act of driving has risks and can result in major consequences, both physical and financial. Therefore,driving requires constant updating and improvement, t o improve the performance and results. You drive a vehicle that requires knowled ge and skill, involves complex and diverse places, not always known, which also circulate other vehicles, people and animals. So you have a lot of responsibilit y on all that makes the wheel. It is very important for you to know the traffic rules, the technique of driving safely and how to act in situations of risk. Alw ays try to revise and refine their knowledge about all this. All our activities require improvement and updating. Living is a perpetual learn ing. 27 THE DRIVER Riding motorcycles and mopeds A large number of motorcyclists need to urgently change their way of driving. Co nstantly change lanes, overtake by right circular velocities incompatible with s afety, travel between moving vehicles and without keeping safe distance have res ulted in a disturbing increase in motorcycle accidents across the country. Many deaths and serious injuries that cause permanent disability and that could be pr evented simply with a safer direction. If you drive a motorcycle or moped, think about it and be sure to follow the guidelines below: Safety requirements for dr ivers of motorcycles and mopeds: ■ It required the use of safety helmet for the driver and passenger; It required t he use of protective masks or goggles, is forbidden to transport children under 7 years old, is mandatory for headlights on when driving, day or night; ■ ■
■ 28 ■ Overtaking should always be done by the left, the speed must be compatible with the conditions and circumstances at the time, within the limits set by the rules of the road, Do not ride between lanes of traffic; Use plain clothes, both the driver as the passenger; Request to "ride" that move the body the same way as th e driver to ensure stability in curves; Hold the handlebars with both hands. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Safety rules for mopeds: ■ The moped driver (two-wheeled, motorized, up to 50cc) should conduct this type o f vehicle the right of the roadway, preferably in the center of the track to the right or the right edge of the runway where there is no shoulder or he designed the band itself, The circulation of mopeds in the fast lane and on the sidewalk s of urban streets. ■ Motorcycles are vehicles like the other: they must respect the speed limits, mai ntain safe distance, just beyond the left and not moved between vehicles. 29 TRANSIT ROUTE Public highway is the area where passing vehicles, people and animals, including the roadway, the sidewalk, the sidewalk, the island and the central plot. Can b e urban or rural areas (roads or highways). Each route has its characteristics t hat must be observed to reduce the risk of accidents. Speed Fastening You have an obligation to drive at a speed compatible with the conditions of the road, respecting the speed limits. Although speed limits are those in signs, th ere are certain circumstances in the snapshots of the road conditions - traffic, weather conditions, obstacles, crowded places - that require you to slow down a nd redouble their attention to driving with security. The higher the speed, the greater the risk and more 30 Serious accidents are greater and the possibility of death in traffic. The time gained by using a higher speed is not worth the risk and stress. For example, th e 80 km per hour you are driving along a distance of 50 kilometers in 37 minutes and 100 km per hour will take you 30 minutes to travel the same distance. Curves Rounding a bend, we feel the effect of centrifugal force, the force that "plays" out of the curve and requires some effort not to let the vehicle out of the pat h. The higher the speed, the more we feel that force. It can get to the point of taking control of the vehicle, causing a rollover or crossing the runway, colli
sion with other vehicles or running over pedestrians and cyclists. The maximum p ermitted speed on a curve takes into account geometric aspects of track construc tion. For your safety and comfort, trust signaling and adopt the following proce dures: ■ Slow down in advance, using the brake and, if necessary, reduce the march, befor e entering the curve and start movement of the steering wheel; Start making the curve smooth and continuous movements with the steering wheel, 31 ■ TRANSIT ROUTE accelerating gradually and respecting the speed limit. As the curve is finished, return the shuttle to the starting position, also with smooth movements; ■ Look to the curve, moving as little as possible the wheel, avoiding sudden movem ents and fluctuations in direction. Slopes You realize that the front has a steep slope: before the descent begins, test th e brakes and hold the shifter in a reduced gear engaged during the descent. Neve r get off the vehicle disengaged. Because, if necessary, you will not get the en gine's power to help stop or reduce speed and the brakes may not be enough. Do n ot turn off the engine when going downhill. With it off, the brakes do not work properly and the vehicle can reach speeds uncontrolled. Moreover, the direction may lock if you turn off the engine. Passing Where there are signs prohibiting overtaking, not exceed it. The signal is the r epresentation of law and has been deployed by service personnel who have calcula ted that this stretch is not possible to overtake, because there is danger of an accident. 32 In sections where there is signaling allowing the excess, or where there is any kind of signage, if not exceed the range of reverse flow is free, and even then, only take the decision considering the power of your vehicle and the vehicle sp eed that go ahead. On slopes exceeding only when it is available the third track , designed to slow vehicles. Absence of this track, follow the same guidelines a s above, but consider that the required power of your vehicle will be higher tha n in flat track. To bridge, turn left arrow, change the track to a safe distance from the vehicle in front and only return to full normal traffic when you can s ee the vehicle exceeded the rearview mirror. The slopes, the speeds of all vehic les are much larger. To overcome, take extra care with the speed necessary to ov ertake. Remember that you can not exceed the speed limit along that stretch of t rack. Other vehicles may want to pass him. Make it easy to overdrive, keeping th e speed of your vehicle or even reducing it slightly. Road narrows Any narrowing of the track increases risks. Bridges narrow or no shoulder, works , collapsing Take your time. Wait a safe condition and allowed to make the overdrive. 33 TRANSIT ROUTE
barriers, the presence of objects on the track, for example, causing narrowing. Once you see the sign or notice the narrowing redouble their attention, reduce s peed and gait and, when possible the passage of only one vehicle at a time, wait for the opportune moment, with alternating passing other vehicles that come int o effect opposite. Coasting It is a part of the track, but differentiated from the roadway, designed to stop or park vehicles in an emergency situation, the movement of pedestrians and bic ycles in the latter case, when there is no appropriate place. It is forbidden to traffic with automotive vehicles on the roadside as this can cause accidents wi th pedestrians or other vehicles stopped for pedestrians or cyclists. Can occur in stretches of the road leveled the shoulder in relation to traffic lane, a "st ep" between one and 34 another. In these cases, you must redouble your attention. Concentrese alignment of the road and stay at a safe distance from its limit, preventing the wheels f rom falling on the side and this may cause a runaway vehicle. If you must stop a t the side, look for a place where there is no gap or it is reduced. If it is ex tremely necessary to stop, slow down first, as gently as possible to avoid causi ng accidents with vehicles that come back and signal with the arrow. After stopp ing the vehicle, signal with the triangle of safety and turn signals. Condition of floor traffic lane Undulations, holes, elevations, slopes or changes in the type of flooring can de stabilize the vehicle and cause loss of control. Pass through holes, dips or bum ps can cause imbalance in your vehicle, damage components or make you lose drive ability. Although you may worsen the problem if incorrectly use the brakes or ma kes a sudden movement with the direction. Realizing these occurrences in advance on the track, slow down, using the brakes. But, avoid punch them while passing through the holes, dips and bumps, because this will increase the imbalance of t he whole. It is forbidden and dangerous travel by road.It is meant for emergency stops an d the traffic of pedestrians and cyclists. 35 TRANSIT ROUTE Excerpts slippery The friction of the tire with the ground is reduced by the presence of water, oi l, clay, sand or other liquids or materials in lane and that loss of adhesion ca n cause slippage and lack of vehicle. Always know the condition of the pavement of the road and look for matching its speed to that situation. Avoid abrupt chan ges of speed and sudden braking, which made it difficult to control the vehicle under these conditions. Signaling The signal is a communication system to help you drive safely. The various types of signs showing what is allowed and what is forbidden to do, warn of dangers o n the road and also indicate the following directions and points of interest. Th e signal is designed based on engineering and human behavior, regardless of the individual skills of the driver and the particular state of conservation of the vehicle. For this reason, you should always respect the signs and adjust their b ehavior to the limits of your vehicle. 36
Sidewalks or Public Tours The sidewalks are for the exclusive use of pedestrians and can only be used by v ehicles for access to lots or garages. Even in these cases, the vehicle traffic on the roadway should be done with great care not to cause trampling of pedestri ans. Stopping or parking of vehicles on the sidewalks removes itself from the pe destrian area, leading him to transit traffic lane, which clearly is in danger o f being run over. For this reason, it is prohibited the circulation, stopping or parking of motor vehicles on sidewalks. You should also keep an eye on streets without sidewalks, or when they are under construction or deteriorated, forcing pedestrians to walk on the roadway. The sidewalks are public sidewalks or pedestrian spaces. 37 TRANSIT ROUTE Trees / vegetation Trees and vegetation in the central beds of boulevards or sidewalks may hide sig ns. Why not see these signs, motorists can be induced to do tricks that bring da nger of collisions between vehicles or running over pedestrians and cyclists. No ticing trees or vegetation that might be covering up the signs, to redouble thei r attention to reducing the speed to be able to identify restrictions on movemen t and thereby prevent accidents. Intersections between roads At a crossroads, the movement of vehicles and persons not change at any moment. The more crowded, there will be more conflict between vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists, increasing the risks of collisions and pedestrian accidents. It is ver y common, too, the presence of equipment as "public phones", poles, garbage cans , newspaper racks and even with advertisements, with the corners, thus further r educing the perception of movements of persons and vehicles. Thus, when approach ing an intersection, regardless of whether any type of signal, you must redouble your attention and to slow the vehicle. Always remember a few basic rules: ■ If no signal, the preference of passage is the vehicle approaching the intersect ion from the right; 38 ■ If the STOP sign in its sense of direction, you must stop, see if you can cross and only then move the vehicle, a roundabout, the preference of passage is the v ehicle that is already circulating in it; Having signaling by semaphore, the dri ver should make the switch to green light. Under the yellow light you need to sl ow down and stop. With the yellow light, you should only make the crossing if it has already entered the intersection, or if this condition is safest to stop th e vehicle, which comes after colliding with it. ■ ■ Junctions are areas of risk in traffic. Reduce speed and follow the signs. At intersections with traffic lights, you should observe only the focus of light that controls traffic of the road where you are and wait for the green signal b efore moving your vehicle, even if other vehicles, at his side, moving. 39
THE ENVIRONMENT Some weather and natural conditions affect traffic safety. Under these condition s, you should take some actions to ensure their safety and that of other road us ers Rain Rain reduces visibility of all, let the wet and slippery and can create pools of water if the bottom of the track is uneven, has not favorably inclined to the f low of water, or you are with holes. It's good to stay alert since the beginning of the rain, when the track usually gets more slippery due to the presence of o il, sand and dirt. And take more care in the event of heavy rain,when visibilit y is reduced further and the track is covered with a layer of water may appear m uch more puddles. In this situation to redouble their attention, turn the light low light, increase the distance from the vehicle ahead and slow down until you feel comfort and safety. Avoid stepping on the brake abruptly, not to lock the w heels and not leave the vehicle skidding, loss of adhesion. If your vehicle has ABS brakes (which leaves no lock the wheels), apply the force on the pedal holdi ng it down until your total control. In the case of rains of hail (hail), the be st thing is to stop the vehicle in a safe place and wait for your order. It does not last long under these circumstances. 40 Have the windshield wipers always in good condition, the defroster and signaling system of the vehicle running smoothly increase their conditions of safety and comfort on these occasions. The condition of the tires and the depth of the furr ows are very important to prevent loss of grip in the rain. Aquaplaning or hydroplaning With water on the track, hydroplaning can occur, which is the loss of grip the t ire with the ground. It is when the vehicle floats on water and you lose all con trol over it. The hydroplaning can happen with any type of vehicle and on any su rface. To avoid this danger, you must carefully observe the presence of standing water on the track, even without rain, and reduce the speed using the brakes, b efore entering the region puddling. In the rain, increases the possibility of lo ss of adhesion. In this case, reduce your speed and increase the distance from t he vehicle ahead. When the vehicle is over puddles of water, is not recommended to use the brakes. Hold the steering hard to keep track of your vehicle. The con dition of the tires and the depth of the furrows are equally important to preven t loss of grip. Wet weather reduces tire grip. Reduced speed and tires in good condition prevent accidents. 41 THE ENVIRONMENT Mist or fog Under mist or fog, you should immediately turn the light low light (and if you h ave or fog lamps), increasing the distance from the vehicle ahead and reduce you r speed until you feel more security and comfort. Do not use high beams because it reflects light in water droplets, and further reduces visibility. Remember th at in those circumstances the pavement is wet and slippery, reducing the grip of the tires. In fog, slow down and use the low light of the Wind very strong winds, reaching his moving vehicle and beacon. can move it causes the loss of stability and lack of control, that may cause col lisions with other vehicles or even rollovers. There are stretches of highway wh ere strong winds are frequent. Get used to observe the movement of vegetation on
the banks of the track. It is a good guideline to identify the strength of the wind. In some cases, these pieces are marked. Noting 42 If a on se you experience difficulty in continuing traveling, stop in a safe place, like gas station. Because of poor visibility in fog is generally not safe to stop the roadside. Use the shoulder only in extreme cases and emergency use in the cases, the turn signals.
strong movements of vegetation or seeing the signs corresponding to slow down an d do not be surprised to maintain stability. Winds can also be generated by the air displacement of other larger vehicles at speed in the same direction or oppo site direction of traffic, or even outside of tunnels. The speed should be reduc ed, adapting itself to start the engine to decrease the likelihood of destabiliz ation of the vehicle. Smoke from forest fires The smoke produced by fires in the grounds outside the track causing reduced vis ibility. Moreover, the soot from the fire can reduce the adhesion of the surface . In cases of fires, redouble your attention and reduce speed. Connect the low l ight of the lighthouse and then to go up in smoke, do not stop the vehicle on th e track, because with the lack of visibility, other drivers can not see him stan ding on the track. Light condition The lack or excess of light can increase the risks in traffic. Seeing and being seen is a basic rule to a safe direction. Check how to act: 43 THE ENVIRONMENT ■ High or Low Lighthouse Lighthouse deregulated The low light of the lantern must be used at night, even on roads with street li ghting. The lighting of the vehicle at night or in situations of darkness, rain or tunnels, allows other drivers, and especially to pedestrians and cyclists,ob serve in advance the movement of vehicles and thus, protect themselves better. U se the high beam or low beam deregulated the cross with another vehicle, may clo ud the vision of the other driver. Therefore, always keep the lights and regulat ed, by crossing with another vehicle, turn the light low in advance. When we are facing a high beam headlight or a deregulated, temporarily lost vision (blurrin g). In this situation, try to divert his vision for a reference on the right tra ck to the track. When the light of the lantern on the vehicle which is behind th e mirror reflect internal, set it to deflect the beam. Most vehicles have this d evice. Check your owner's manual. It is recommended to use low light vehicle, ev en during the day on the highways. In the case of motorcycles, mopeds and public transportation for passengers, the latter when they moved in band itself, the u se of low light of the headlamp is required. Keep your headlights adjusted and use them correctly. Make the safe transit at a ny place or circumstance. 44 ■ Penumbra (no light) The shadows (twilight), is a frequent occurrence in the passage from late aftern oon to early evening or late night to dawn or even when the sky is cloudy or if
it rains with intensity. Under these conditions, as important as seeing, is also being seen. At the sligh test sign of poor lighting illuminates the low beam. ■ Slope of Sunlight In the early morning or late afternoon, the sunlight "knock on the guy." The sun , due to its inclination, can cause glare, reducing your vision. Needless to say , this presents a danger of accidents. Search plan your journey to avoid these c onditions. The glare can also happen by the reflection of the sun in some polish ed objects, like bottles, cans or windscreen. In all these conditions, reduce ve hicle speed, use the drop-sun (visor internal protection) or even a protective e yewear (sunglasses) and try to observe a reference to the right lane. The blurri ng may also occur with the motorists coming in the opposite direction when they are having the sun in the front. In this case, redouble your attention, slow dow n to your comfort and safety and the low beam lights to ensure you are seen by t hem. At intersections with traffic lights, the sun, to cover against the spotlig hts, can prevent you from properly identifying the signaling. In these cases, sl ow down and step out, until you are sure indication of the semaphore. 45 GENERAL RULES AND OTHER IMPORTANT Before you put your vehicle in motion, check the operating conditions of the com pulsory use of equipment such as seat belts, headrests, fire extinguisher, safet y triangles, spare tire, windshield wiper, lighting system and horn , and observ e if the fuel is enough to reach your destination. Has at any time, the field of your vehicle, driving it with attention and care necessary for traffic safety. Give preference to passing vehicles moving on rails, compliance with the standar ds movement. When driving a larger vehicle, take great care and is responsible for the safety of smaller vehicles by non-motorized and pedestrian safety. Reduce speed when p assing a transportation vehicle (bus) that has stopped making the boarding or di sembarking passengers 46 Wait for a safe opportunity and allowed by signaling to make an overtaking while driving on roads with double sense of direction and one lane in sections on cur ves and slopes. Do not overtake vehicles on bridges, overpasses and pedestrian c rossings, except if signaling permits. On a highway to make a left turn or a return, wait for a safe opportunity to the road. No shoulder on highways, follow the signs indicative of permission. Do no t slam on the brakes your vehicle, except for safety reasons. Do not stop your v ehicle at intersections, blocking the passage of other Larger vehicles are responsible for the safety of smaller vehicles. 47 GENERAL RULES AND OTHER IMPORTANT vehicles. Even if you're in the preferred route and the light is green for you. Wait, before the intersection, traffic flow and a space to wander along the stre tch of road ahead. Use warning signs (triangle up) and turn signals when you nee d to temporarily stop the vehicle on the roadway.
In places where parking is prohibited,you should stop just long enough for boar ding or disembarking passengers. This, provided that the parade will not stop th e flow of vehicles or pedestrian locomotion. Do not open the door or let it open , not sure it will not bring danger to you or other users of 48 pathway. Make sure that your passengers do not open or leave open the doors of t he vehicle. Loading and unloading must occur always on the side of the sidewalk, except the driver. Keep your attention while driving, even on roads with dense traffic and low speed, carefully watching the movement of vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists because of the possibility of pedestrians crossing outside the rang e and approach over other vehicles, which can cause accidents. These situations occur at prearranged times, known as "peak hours". These are the times of entry and exit of workers and access to schools, especially in centers that generate t raffic, as the shopping centers, supermarkets, sports venues, etc.. Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front. A good distance gives you time to react and apply the brakes before an emergency situation and there is time 49 GENERAL RULES AND OTHER IMPORTANT also for the vehicle, once stopped, stop before colliding. Under normal conditio ns of the track and the climate, the time required to maintain the safe distance is approximately two seconds. There is one simple rule - the rule of two second s - which can help you maintain a safe distance from the vehicle in front: 1. Ch oose a fixed point of the roadway 2. When the vehicle that will pass in front of the fixed point, start counting; 50 3. Count two seconds slowly. An easy way is to rely on string six words "fifty-o ne, fifty-two." 4. The distance between your car and going forward will be safe if your vehicle passes by the fixed point after the count of two seconds. 5. Oth erwise, slow down and do a recount. Repeat until you establish a safe distance. Avoid collisions, keeping safe distance. For vehicles over six meters in length or in the rain, increase the time of coun ting: "fifty-one, fifty-two, fifty-three." 51 RESPECT THE ENVIRONMENT and social living Vehicular pollution and noise pollution Air pollution in cities is now one of the most serious threats to our quality of life. The main cause of air pollution are motor vehicles. The gases leaving the exhaust containing carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxide s and particulate matter (black smoke). The amount of these gases depends on the type and quality of fuel and the type and adjustment of the engine. The better is the burning of fuel, or rather, how much better your vehicle is covered, the less pollution. The presence of these gases in the atmosphere is not only a prob lem for every person, is a problem for the whole community of our planet. Carbon monoxide has no smell, is tasteless and colorless, it is difficult to identify them by people. But it is extremely toxic and cause dizziness, vertigo, changes in central nervous system and can be fatal in high doses, indoors. The sulfur di oxide present in the combustion of diesel, causing runny nose, phlegm and irreve rsible damage to the lungs and can also be fatal in high doses. Hydrocarbons, pr oducts of incomplete burning of fuels (ethanol, gasoline or diesel), are respons
ible for the increased incidence of lung cancer, cause irritation to eyes, nose, skin and respiratory tract. Soot, which is composed of solid and liquid particl es are suspended in the atmosphere and can reach the lungs of people Preserving the environment is a duty for all of society. 52 and aggravate allergic conditions asthma and bronchitis, irritation of nose and throat and facilitating the spread of influenza infections. Noise pollution caus es many negative effects. The main ones are: sleep disorders, stress, hearing lo ss, deafness, headaches, digestive disorders, loss of concentration, increased h eartbeat, and allergies. Preserving the environment is a necessity for any compa ny to which all must contribute. Some procedures contribute to reducing air poll ution and noise pollution: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Adjust and do the regular maintenance of your engine, tires gauge periodically; Do not carry excess weight; Switch gears in correct rotation of the engine; redu ctions Avoid constant motion, acceleration and sudden braking excessive;Stop th e engine a long break, Do not accelerate when the vehicle is idling or stopped i n traffic; Keep the exhaust pipe and muffler in good condition; Make periodic ma intenance of equipment to reduce pollutants - catalyst (in vehicles where it is expected ). ■ ■ ■ ■ 53 RESPECT THE ENVIRONMENT and social living You and the environment The dirt thrown in the street or on the edges of highways stimulates the prolife ration of insects and rodents, which favors the transmission of contagious disea ses. Other materials dumped into the environment, such as cans and plastic bottl es take a long time to be absorbed by nature. Very expensive for society to keep public spaces clean and restore the affected nature. Therefore: ■ Keep garbage bags inside the vehicle. Do not throw garbage on the road, in vacan t lots or in the vegetation alongside the highways, dumps should be transported to premises. Do not throw rubbish on roads and their margins; In the event of an accident involving transportation of hazardous materials (chemical, flammable, toxic), try to isolate the area and prevent them from reaching rivers, springs, and flora; Make maintenance, repair and cleanliness of the vehicle in a proper p lace. Do not pour oil or discarded materials in the track and in public spaces; By observing situations that violate nature, foul public places or that they can also cause risks to traffic, request or cooperate in its removal or cleaning. T he public space belongs to everyone, do your part maintaining them clean and mai ntained. ■ ■ ■
■ ■ 54 You and your relationship with the other In the Introduction, we talk about the relationship of people in transit. To imp rove the living and quality of life, there are some principles that should form the basis of our relations in transit: ■ Human dignity Universal principle of human rights which are derived and the values and attitud es fundamental to the democratic social life. ■ Equal rights It is able to exercise full citizenship through equity, ie the need to consider the differences in people to ensure equality, solidarity reasons. ■ Participation It is the principle underlying the mobilization of people to organize themselves around traffic problems and their consequences for society. ■ Co-responsibility for social life Behaviors needed to enhance traffic safety and the realization of the right of m obility for all citizens. Both the government and the people have their share of contribution to a better and safer transit. Do your part. Respect for human solidarity and harmony make traffic safer. 55 BREACH AND PENALTY When a driver does not comply with the laws of any item he is committing a traff ic infraction and is subject to the penalties provided in the Act Violations als o typically generate traffic accident risks. For example: Do not respect the red light at an intersection may cause a collision between vehicles or run over ped estrians or cyclists. The traffic violations are classified by their severity in light, medium, serious and very serious. Penalties and Administrative Measures Every violation is punishable by a penalty. A fine, for example. Some offenses, in addition to the fee may have an administrative consequence, ie, the traffic a gent should adopt "administrative measures" whose goal is to prevent the driver continue driving in irregular circumstances. 56 Administrative measures are: ■ ■ ■ Retention of the vehicle, removal of the vehicle; Collection Document's license (or CNH Permission to Drive) Collection of certificate of license; transshipment
of excess load. ■ ■ Penalties are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Violating traffic laws is also a risk factor for accidents. Written warning, fine, suspension for driving; seizure of the vehicle, enabling the document Cassation; Frequency compulsory refresher course. For example, driving faster than the maximum allowed in more than 20% on highway s, has as its consequence, besides the penalties (fines and suspension of drivin g), also the recollection of a qualifying document (administrative action). Values and scores of fines Gravity Grave grave Take Average Price U.S. $ 53.20 U.S. $ 85.13 U.S. $ 127.69 U .S. $ 191.54 Pts 3 4 5 7 57 BREACH AND PENALTY If you reach 20 points will have their drivers' license suspended for one month to one year, as determined by the transit authority. To score points, is conside red the sum of violations in the last year,to count down the date of the last p enalty received. For some infractions, because of its severity and consequences, the fine can be multiplied into three or even five times. Resources After a violation is recorded by the transit agency, the notification of tax ass essment will be forwarded to the address of vehicle owner. From there, the owner may indicate that the driver drove the vehicle and forward the tax assessment a ppeal for the national transit. From NOTIFICATION OF PENALTY, the vehicle owner may apply to the Administrative Board of Appeals Violations - Jari. If the appea l is dismissed, may further appeal to the State Board of Traffic - CETRAN (in th e case of the Federal District to CONTRANDIFE) and in some cases specific to CON TRAN for resource assessment in the second and final instance. 58 Traffic Crime They are classified offenses described in the CTB in administrative, civil and c riminal penalties. The criminal offenses resulting from criminal action, are sub ject to general rules of the Penal Code and its processing by the Code of Crimin al Procedure. The offender, in addition to penalties imposed administratively by the transit authority shall be subjected to judicial proceedings, which, found guilty, the penalty may be to provide community service, fines, suspension of dr iving, and even detention. More frequent cases, understand the driving without a license, drunk or travel at a speed incompatible with the safe route, near scho ols, causing danger of harm, which penalty may be imprisonment from six months t o a year in addition to any filing of civil action to repair damage to third par ties. 59 RENEWAL OF PORTFOLIO NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS Article 150 of the Brazilian Traffic Code requires that any driver who does not have current defensive driving and first aid, should be submitted to them, while the National Council of Transit - CONTRAN its regulations. Through Resolution C ONTRAN No. 168 of December 14, 2004, in force from June 19, 2005 are set out in
the curriculum, workload, and how to implement the provisions of Article 150, th ere are three possible ways of compliance with the provisions of the Act: ■ Completing the course with a presence in the classroom The driver must attend a course offered by the national executive of the transit State or the Federal District (DMV), or by bodies accredited by him, forcing he rself to attend on a full 15 hours of tuition, and 10 hours on defensive driving and 5 hours on first aid. The provision of the certificate of participation wit h the frequency of attendance of 100% of the classes may be sufficient to meet t he legal requirement. ■ Realization of Distance Learning Course - Distance Learning mode (ODL) Course offered by the national executive of the transit State or the Federal Dis trict (DMV) or by specialized entities he accredited as specific regulations, du ly certified by the National Department, with the minimum requirements set out i n Annex IV of Resolution 168. 60 ■ Validation Study - self-taught form The driver can study alone, by teaching materials containing the contents of def ensive driving and first aid. Drivers who participate in distance learning cours es or to study as autodidact should undergo an examination to be conducted by th e executive body of the transit State or the Federal District (DMV), with proof of 30 questions, which required the use of the minimum 70% approval. Drivers who have already done courses in defensive driving and first aid agencies or instit utions officially recognized, they may take these courses, provided that the dri ver submit the supporting documentation. 61 Developed by
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