Basic Electronics Tutorial San Salvador de Jujuy Argentina Republic :: Basic Electronics - Introduction In principle I suppose that your

knowledge i s little or no electronics, and these will be your first contact with this world . It will not be difficult ...!!!, only need a few components, learning to ident ify them, see the appropriate way to connect them and give them a good profit, b ut I must admit that the most important is to have a little ingenuity, then neur ons will awaken. One more thing ... Your questions and inquiries may be differen t to mine, so we'll see how we are rid of the finally receive the warmest welcom e. We begin ...??? Basic Electronics Tutorial :: General Index First contacts symbols and components breadboard or plate test Test circuits LED's and diodes Potentiometers and photocells electrolytic capaci tors Transistors NPN and PNP Integrated Circuit NE555 SCR's and relays data Colo ur code for resistors Capacitors Ceramic - Code Reading Union Resistance (serial , parallel and mixed union) Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Electronics Basic - Lesson 1 Symbols and Components. This for a start, obviously not all the symbols and the components that exist but which we are interested to initiate us into the subjec t. Here, a brief description ... According ...!!! although it seems a joke, that you will go far if you just star t it in this, from now on each symbol is accompanied by the actual appearance of the component. Switch No description needed, however learn to use ...!. Another accessory transformer. Only a coil of copper, for now, we keep that allo ws us to reduce tension in our case from 220 Volt to 5V, 12V, 24V, etc. LED (Light Emitting Diode), there are red, green, blue, yellow, including infrar ed, laser and others. Its terminals are the anode (long terminal) and cathode (t erminal short). Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits Like Diode LED's terminals are the anode and cathode (the latter identified with a band on one side), unlike the LED's they do not emit light. Resistors, resistors have a certain resistance to electrical flow, their values are given in ohms, according to a color code. Potentiometers are variable resistors inside it have a hint of charcoal and a cu rsor that runs. According to the cursor position of the resistance value of this component change. Also called LDR photocell. A photocell is a light sensitive resistor that affect s it. A more light less resistance, greater resistance to low light. Ceramic Capacitor These are small components that can store electrical charges, their value is in picofarads or nanofaradios, according to an established code d oes not distinguish its terminals so that no matter which side they connect.

These electrolytic capacitor or capacitors store more energy than before, so it must be based on the polarity of its terminals. The shorter the negative. or, yo u can identify it by the sign on the body of component. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits Transistors do I say ...! Basically a transistor can control a large current fro m a very small. very common in audio amplifiers. In general are the type NPN and PNP, which is there, do not despair that your questions will be clarified soon, its terminals are: Collector, Base and Emitter. SCR 106 or ICT are electronic keys, and are activated by a positive pulse at ter minal G. very common in alarm systems. Their terminals are anode, cathode and tr igger. Integrated Circuits (IC) Integrated Circuit (IC) contains within it a wide range of miniature components. According to the IC. concerned have different function s or applications may be amplifiers, counters, multiplexers, encoders, flip-flop , etc.. Their terminals are counted in the opposite direction turning clockwise taking a point of reference. Relay is basically a power device, has an electro-magnet which acts as an interm ediary to activate a switch, the latter being totally independent of the electro magnet. What a list does not ...? There will be more components in this tutorial, for no w only these ... Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Electronics Basic - Lesson 2 Essential tools. It does not really need too, anyway I'll show you a couple of t hem. One of the tool will use full-time plate tests, also known as breadboard,€ it enables you to insert almost all components provided that the terminals will not damage the holes in the same, otherwise you will not be helpful, but there i s a solution for everything, you can solder a thin wire terminals copper very th ick, as in the SCR, potentiometers, switches, buttons, and others. And here it is ... as far as possible get your thin cables for connecting bridge s are those that are most suited to the holes in the plate or in a variety of co lors, you can get 24 threads 10, 8 and well ... electricity in the houses you co uld advise. This is what is inside. horizontal lines are those that can be used to identify connections to the positive and negative, look at the image above these lines ar e marked, with respect to the vertical, any terminal to connect a line of these will be linked together. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits Another tool you will need is a battery (9 volt those are good), or a pair of dr y cell batteries suffice, anyway you can build your own power would be good to g et a multimeter or tester multitester, as want to call it, it will be very usefu l to know the status of a component, whether it is fit or not, to see the flaws in your circuits, measure voltages, resistances, etc. That's it ... Now we are o n the first practice ... Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits

:: Electronics Basic - Lesson 3 First contacts. Before I want to clarify something ... In all of these practices I will assume that the electric current flows from the positive (+) to negative (-). Although the reverse is true, ok ...? Perfect ...!!!, now continue ... LED's. The first circuit will be to see how light a LED, remember what their ter minals, the longest (anode) points to the (+), short (cathode) to negative (-), if for some reason the terminals are equal or did you get a circuit in use, you can identify the cathode by a small cut on the head of the component. R1 is a re sistance of 220 ohms which offers some protection for the LED, you can use other more valuable to see what happens. Mounted on the test board, you should get something like that ... Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits You know ...?, forgot to clarify what the resistance, they have a color code tha t identifies its value, to view only login here ... DIODES. Diodes allow current to flow in one direction only. A diode as an LED ne eds to be properly polarized. The cathode is indicated by a band around the body of the component. Since there are others we can use all the above circuit as a diode tester (and incidentally we arming our own tools). According to the graph correctly the diode conducts and LED lights, not if you reverse the diode. Its main application is in the power supplies. Certainly the one used here, is a common diode type 1N4004, try another, such as 1N4148. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Basic Electronics - Lesson 4 Variable resistance. Potentiometers ... They are found in almost every electroni c device, an example is the volume control of audio equipment. In this circuit w e will use it to control LED brightness. However, the ends A and B of the potentiometer are indistinct as the resistance between them is constant and in our circuit is 100 k, while the resistance betwe en any point and the cursor C depends on the position of the latter, but maximum resistance is 100 k. If you use the contacts A and C, turn the shaft clockwise, the resistance will increase between these two points. Try using B and C. I pro pose a small challenge ... try to build a circuit with two LED's so that by turn ing the potentiometer cursor light intensity increased by one, while decreasing the other. You ...??? Photocell or LDR ... Very common in cameras, what they do is through the appropriate circuit to disable the flash when sufficient light. I n this example, fully functional if you cover all or part of the photocell surfa ce you will see changes in the brightness of the LED. A further incident light, the lower its resistance, the greater the current flow and Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits higher LED brightness. There is no distinction between its terminals. To get it go to any house and ask electronics or LDR photocell and choose the size you like. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits

:: Basic Electronics - Lesson 5 Capacitors. As you may have noticed, I will refer to ceramic capacitors for now since they store very little energy anyway more on that later. Capacitors or ele ctrolytic capacitors. They store more energy than before, that it must respect t he polarity of its terminals. The shorter the terminal negative. What happens if I take it out of a circuit into disuse?. Easy ..., will be identifiable by the sign in the component body, you see the manufacturers thought of everything. Let 's ride the next race ... Connect the power and see what happens ... all right, nothing happens, just turn on the LED. I'll explain briefly. The current from the battery flows through R1 to the node, where it is R2 and capacitor C1. Here begins charging the capacito r, once charged, LED lights, you ask for is it ...?, I unplug the power and get the answer. If all goes well, the LED will stay on for a while thanks to the ene rgy stored in the capacitor, as it is depleted the brightness of the LED decreas es. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits Consider this a little more detail the charge on the capacitor depends on its st orage capacity (given in microfarads), on the other side ... that charge is depl eted through R2 or the download time depends also on R2. This is how we arrived at the time known circuits RC (resistor-capacitor) Conclusion: the energy stored depends on the value of C1, the time it loads of R1 and the time when this ener gy is depleted C.R2 product . To interpret better, change the values of R1, R2, C1 and then see the changes ... Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Basic Electronics - Lesson 6 Transistors. The transistors have applications in many circuits, are usually use d in signal amplification processes (which we shall now see) and also in switchi ng circuits with them we will dedicate a special place. These components come in two types, the NPN and PNP, will not go into detail regarding the name and you can tell the difference in circuit implementation, but I want to clarify somethi ng ... Its terminals ...!!! Each transistor has a different layout, depending on the type concerned and the occurrences of the manufacturer, so you need a manua l for identification. One very good is found in (of the hand of i ts creator ...!!!). Executable in a DOS window, missed ...!!! requires no instal lation, just unzip it and run IC.exe ... Continue ... let us see how these two t ransistors in amplifier ... NPN transistor. In this exercise you can use one of the two transistors are shown in the table below, both are NPN type with their r espective terminals available. The circuit will discuss the following ... Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits When S1 shares reach a certain amount of current to the base of the transistor, this will control the amount of current flowing from collector to emitter, which can be seen in the brightness of the LED's. This is the famous process of ampli fication. As you can imagine, the higher the base current increased collector cu rrent. Try changing R2. PNP transistors ... Here we will use one of the two tran sistors that are in the table below. In these transistors, to achieve the same effect as above, your base should be s lightly negative. Note that in this scheme both as the source LED's were reverse d.

Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits Again the base current controls the collector current to produce the amplificati on effect. Be thinking why do you need if the previous ...?, I just is not as we ll. In many cases you will need to make a gain and only have a small negative si gnal. By then, here is the solution. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Basic Electronics - Lesson 7 Integrated Circuits (IC). This begins to get interesting ... Schemes usually do not reflect the true disposition of the pins or terminals, so to know which is t he first and last notes the following graph As you can see the built in question is a 555, or NE555. This is a timer (TIMER) , comuntente used as a pulse generator, and the frequency of these can vary from one pulse per second up to 1 million pulses per second, surprising right?. Well , let's see what happens here;€Since we need to see the effect of the circuit a s usual we put a LED and a resistor R3 connected to pin 3 of 555 (IC1), which is precisely the output pin. Observe the polarity of the LED source with respect to ..., you may have noticed that the only way to turn it on is that the pin 3 of IC1 is negative. And it wi ll ... see the square wave pulse output ..., where up is (+) or 1, and the LED i s off. When you're down will be (-) or 0, then the LED will light. According to the LED output light Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits alternately. Let the other components, R1, R2 and C1 form a network of time. The capacitor C1 is charged through R1 and R2, 555 across the finish looking forwar d to it, and when he achieved as reflected in its output terminal (pin 3), and h ere is the pulse that produces the discharge of capacitor. Now ... we're ready f or the next batch to generate the second pulse. Let's see what we can make modif ications to the circuit. In this scheme scored points A and B, there you can connect a small speaker (suc h as PC), now changes C1 by a ceramic capacitor (the one you have at hand, eithe r is fine), sandwiched between a 100k potentiometer R2 and pin 6. If you do this you will get a sound generator. Another thing you can do is add another resista nce equal to R3 and LED-between points B and the negative pole of the source, bu t reversed, and you'll get something like a light, clear ... If an LED is red an d one green. In short, there are many changes you can make and the results are v ery striking. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Basic Electronics - Lesson 8 Switching Circuits. O ICT SCR 106. Switching devices are solid (ie not mechanica l) and its anode and cathode terminals are Trigger, distributed according to the following table. The SCR is an electronic key that is activated when a small positive voltage app lied to gate G (trigger). Do not think so faithfully in everything I say, riding the circuit and try it. What is interesting here is that once fired the SCR, this will lead to a permane

nt (if the current enters the anode is continuing), to disable only removes the power supply, connect it again and be ready for another shot. Change the value o f R2 to learn the limits of sensitivity of the SCR .. The Relay. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits I'll tell you something ... Any circuit that allows you to build and light a LED also lets you turn any household appliance, like a lamp for example, and that i s exactly what we do now, in the graph have a 5 terminal relay ... B1 and B2 are the supply terminals of the coil when current is flowing through t hem on the relay changing position and its internal switch terminal C is connect ed to the terminal NA. Lets see a circuit implementation ... The signal you give at the entrance by the end (+) ran through R1 to the base of Q1 is a NPN transistor and this will drive triggering the relay D1 is to compen sate for the induction of the coil, maintaining the transistor R2 in court when no signal for any input, its value is equal to 2.7 k R1 or may be of 2k2 if Q1 i s of type BC548 and BC337, the relay must be used according to circuit power in this 12V case, you can use a 6V and then feed the circuit with 6V. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits To connect the lamp to the circuit do as follows ... Now we will combine the circuits seen so far ... Remember the scheme ...?, 555 p oints A and B. ..?, Well, connect the input of the relay scheme at these points (A to (+) and B then connects to (-)), the outline of the lamp to the relay, che ck that everything is in order and feed the circuit ... sorpresaaaaa ...!!! we h ave built a psychedelic light, enjoy it: o)) Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits :: Basic Electronics - Color Code for Resistors The resistor value can be identified by the colors of the four bands that surrou nd the component, one of them is called tolerance, is something comooooo ... man ufacturing error, this band can be gold or silver, I will use the gold. The ques tion is. How do I read the other three ...? We describe an example Consider the value of this resistor; The first band is the first digit and brown = 1, the second digit is the second black = 0 and the third is the number of ze ros red = two zeros. Then its value will be: 1000 or 1 kilo ohm or 1k, if you ha ve one million, would be a Mega or 1M. "Easy does not ...?.€That is, to a 70 oh m resistor colors should be purple, black and black. was ...?. There are cases w hich need a resistor of a given value and not have it, the solution is to combin e or merge resistors of other values to obtain so we are looking for more detail s check out this guide. Basic Electronics Tutorial - Switching Circuits Sheet to Cuete Basic Electronics Tutorial - Ceramic Capacitors :: Basic Electronics - Ceramic Capacitors Code values for Ceramic Capacitors) In some cases the value is given by three nu mbers ... Number = 1, numeral 1 capacity. 2nd number = 2 numeral capacity. 3rd n umber = multiplier (number of zeros) The specification is done in picofarads. Ex

ample: 104 = 100,000 = 100,000 = 100 picofarads or nanofarads b) In other cases is given by two numbers and a capital letter. As before, the v alue is given in picofarads Example: 47J = 47pF, 220pF 220M = To convert a value to another, you can be guided by the following table ... Basic Electronics Tutorial - Ceramic Capacitors CONVERSION OF UNITS nanofarad To convert picofarads picofarads nanofarad microfa rad microfarad microfarad microfarad in nanofarad nanofarad picofarads picofarad s Multiply by 0,001 0,000,001 0,001 1,000 1,000 1,000,000 file: / / / C / ero-pic/ebasica/eb_rcomb.html

:: Basic Electronics - Resistor Combination The union's resistance can be done in two ways, either in a circuit in series or in parallel. Here are some examples ... Resistors in Series ... In a series circuit the resistors are placed one after t he other so that the current must flow first through one of them to get to the n ext, this implies that the value of total circuit resistance is the sum of all . Resistors in Parallel ... In a parallel circuit resistors are placed as shown in the following graphic, so the electrical current strength reaches all at once, although the intensity of the current is increased by the lower value resistor. In this case the total circuit resistance can be obtained using the equation sho wn in the graphic ... Tours ... file: / / / C / ero-pic/ebasica/eb_rcomb.html

There are cases that combine resistors in series and in parallel at the same tim e, these are called tours, and for the total value of the resistance is resolved by separating them in tights. Observe the following circuit ... We start with the simplest circuits and solve R 1-2, which represents the total resistance between R1 and R2, as they are in parallel ... 1 / R 1-2 = 1/R1 + 1/r2 At the moment we settled R1 and R2 and the circuit is as we see below ... Combining the previous result with R3 and taking into account that this is a ser ies circuit ... R 1-2-3 = R 1-2 + R3 and the circuit we are left with smaller, something like that ... file: / / / C / ero-pic/ebasica/eb_rcomb.html

Again we have a series circuit between R4 and R5, then ... R 4-5 = R4 + R5 4-5. So that the deleted and replaced by R You may have noticed that each time the mesh of our circuit is reduced, it happe ns to be an easy way to solve it in steps, with practice do not need because you can solve it mentally. But let's go ... now solve the circuit in parallel to ob tain R 1 ... 5 1 / R 1 ... 5 = 1 / R 1-2-3 + 1 / R 4-5 Finally we got the circuit easier for all and a series circuit which gives the t otal resistance ... file: / / / C / ero-pic/ebasica/eb_rcomb.html

and the final calculation would be as follows ... Rt = R 1 ... 5 + R6 This was a collation of any situation that you may submit, is not really anythin g wrong ...???.