# 2. DATA BASE FOR THE CALCULATION 2.1.

DATA ON THE CONCRETE BAEL Rules are applicable only to concrete with minimum cement is 300 kg/m3 (sec tion A 1.1). 2.1,1. resistance characteristics a) Compression • In routine cases, the mechanical point of view is defined by a concrete value characteristic required (or specified) of its compressive strengt h at 28 days of age, noted FC28 (section A2.1, a ). • The Issue 65A of the Gener al Technical Conditions of Contract [1.2] * Fixed section 77.2.3 compliance crit eria. In the general case where the number n of samples per batch is equal to 3, the following conditions must be met: k - 2,7 k-1 ≥ FC28, FC28 and ≥ 5 and ≥ 3 + FC1 FC28 FC28 if ≥ 30 MPa FC1 + 3.5 ≥ FC28 FC28 if <30 MPa with k arithmetic average of results (in MPa) FC1 smallest result (MPa) • For a different age j 28 days, we may assume (Fig. 1.2): JCF = JCF 4.76 0.83 + j j j k j + 0.95 1.40 28 ≤ 40 MPa for FC28 and JCF = for FC28> 40 MPa If j> 28 days, the value is conventionally bounded above FCJ in FC28. Values FCJ / FC28 Age of concrete in days FC28 FC28 40 MPa> 40 MPa 3 7 14 21 28 1.00 1.00 Fig. 1.2 0.414 0.662 0.855 0.946 0.706 0.870 0.952 0.984 * Numbers in brackets refer to the bibliography at the end of this document. 25 b) The traction characteristic tensile strength of concrete at j days, FTJ noted , is conventionally defined as: = 0.6 + 0.06 fti fti fci and FCJ in MPa FCJ ≤ 60MPa 2.1,2. stress-strain diagram • At the service limit state, the compressed concrete is considered as an elasti c and linear. The compressive stress of concrete in service is limited to: σbc JCF = 0.6 (Sect. A.4.5, 2) • At the ultimate limit tate of re i tance, the concrete i defined by a diagra m Stre - train on aid "Parabola-rectangle, which you can ub titute a trip chart equivalent (having ub tantially the ame area and ame center of gravity (Fig. 1.3)). with: θ θ θ = = = = γb γb =

when the expected duration of application of the combination of actions is consi dered more than 24 h 0.9 if the duration is between 1 pm and 24 is 0.85, up more than 1 h. 1.5 to 1.15 for the current solicitation solicitations accidental 1 26 2.1,3. lon itudinal deformations of concrete • Module instantaneous lon itudinal deformation (normal stress of a duration of less than 24 hours) Eij = 11000 fcj1 / 3 (MPa) • Module delayed lon itudinal def ormation (normal stress of lon duration of application) Evj = 3 fcj1 700 / 3 (M Pa) FCJ Evj Eij (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) 25 32160 10820 30 34180 11500 40 37620 12650 5 0 40520 13630 60 43060 14490 • Poisson's ratio for load calculations, Poisson's ratio is taken e ual to 0. Fo r the calculation of deformation, it is taken e ual to 0.2. 2.1,4. resistance characteristics common BAEL Rules (Chapter B1) ives, for the current buildin sites, the values of cha racteristic stren th of concrete, normally expected, the followin : Stren th in k /m3 cement FC28 (MPa) ft28 (MPa) Terms current production of concrete Classes with self Cement Manufacturin Cement monitored Classes 32.5 and 42.5 and 32.5 R 42.5 R 32.5 R 32.5 and 42.5 and 42.5 R 16 20 25 30 1.56 1.80 2.10 2.40 300 350 (1) not allowed 325,375 (1) 325 400 (1) 300 350 (1) (1) case to justify a proper investi ation. 27 2.2. DATA ON THE WELDED TRUSS 2.2,1. Data on the ultimate limit state (ULS) In calculatin the Rules BAEL welded mesh is defined by: • the uaranteed yield, denoted by himself. This is e ual to F = 500 MPa. • the simplified form of the stress-strain dia ram (Sect. A.2.2, A.4.3 and 2, 2, Fi . 1.4). γs = 1.15 with γs = 1.00 - Chart of calculation under the combinations of key actions (Fi . 1.5) ( - Theoretical curve. - Chart of calculation under the accidental action combinat ions (Fi . 1.5) The lon itudinal modulus of elasticity of steel Es is taken as 200,000 MPa (Sect . A.2.2, 1). 28 2.2,2. data on borderline of service (SLE) The Rules define BAEL 91 in their paper B2, 4 three de rees of harmfulness of cr ack widths dependin on the characteristics of a buildin compared to its enviro nment and circumstances of the element relative to the envelope of that it. Exhi bition, by B.2, 4 CRACKING LITTLE ADVERSE • Elements located in premises covered and closed. • Sidin not visible or not bein subject to specific conditions fo r the openin of cracks.• Items subject to condensation exceptionally short. Re uirements, accordin to A.4.5.3 - no special audit is re uested outside of the eneral and the condition of nonfra ilité. - In the case of deep beams (> 1 m),

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• Element expo ed to conden ation. CRACKING CRACKING VERY ADVER E ADVER E • Item expo ed to the weather. • Element alternately ubmerged and emergent fr e hwater. • element expo ed to aggre ive environment ( altwater or marine atmo phere, v ery pure water, ga or corro ive oil , etc. ..) • Element to provide a ealing (1). (1) except tho e belonging to the work 4], ca ing [7.3 bi ], etc. .. 29 TRE LIMIT OF LATTICE σ y harmful (FTP) ODA IN MPa in ca e of cracking harmful (FP) or ver for which pecial rule apply: tank [1.

Concrete f c28 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Ø ≤ 5.5 250 250 250 250 250 253 264 27 5 285 FP Ø ≥ 6 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 ≤ 257 ° 5.5 200 200 200 200 200 202 211 220 228 F.T.P. Ø ≥ 6 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 206 f T28 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.0 Note: For the on of T are clo e t to the wall: diameter ≥ 6 mm in ca e of detr imental cracking (all except T 10 me h) diameter ≥ 8 mm in ca e of cracking ver y damaging (lattice T ≥ 50) 30

3 cm * Wall are uitable for indoor and enclo ed unexpo ed to conden ation. * Value ca n be reduced to 2 cm if FC28> 40 MPa. b) minimum di tance nece ary for re i tan ce to fire (Fig. 1.9):

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The coating of each wire i at lea t equal to it reater than the following value (BAEL A.7.1): • d to alt pray or alt pray. • expo ed to aggre er wall or not, may be ubject to adver e action n, conden ation or in contact with liquid. 5cm

diameter. Moreover c mu t be g tructure in the ea or expo e ive atmo phere . witched upp (Example: upper deck), to rai

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2.3. CONCRETE A OCIATION-WELDED TRU 2.3,1. coating a) General ca e (Fig. 1.8):

reinforcin the skin at 3 cm 2 per meter of wall perpendicular to their directio n (T ≥ 35) - ∅ ≥ 6 mm frames and more close to the walls (only the panel 10 does not fit ST). Section S is placed near a wall. - Σ ≤ σ given by the table - a fter. - Reinforcement of kin potential, ee above. - For board and ail of th ickne h ≤ 40 cm, the pacing of the frame of the ame heet hould check E or e ≤ min (25 cm 2 h). - ∅ ≥ 8 mm for the plate are clo e t to the wall (only t he ign , T 50, T 50 C, T 60, T 65 C, therefore, agree, the ection i to be placed near a wall) - σ ≤ σ given by the table - after - ection "fitting kin" po ible ( ee above) increa ed to 5 cm 2 / m ( T 50 or T 50 C) - For boa rd and ail of thickne h ≤ 40 cm, the pacing of reinforcement of the ame heet hould check E or e ≤ min (20 cm, 1.5 h).

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1cm (ab olute minimum) The following table li t , by categorie of book and po t the rule (Chapter VI I DTU "Concrete Fire [1.8]), the minimum di tance u eful u compatible with dura tion of criteria required to fire: 31 F (hour ) * Tie u (cm) Load-bearing wall of teel ca e where the percentage of teel included in the calculation 0.5 2.5 April 1 1.5 5.5 2 6.5 NA 2.5 8 eptember 3

4 • 1 January 1 2 1.5 • • 3 2 • 4 3 • • 5 3.75 6 4.5 • 7 6 • Beam - ail (for bending teel only) and full lab Floor plate F * - duration of the requirement criteria firewall or fire re i tance • Value are not given by imple rule (to be determined by the calculation). • • 2 M w = 0 + Me + Me 2Mo M w ≥ 1.5 2M0 0.50 linear interpolation for 0 < Mw + Me <0.50 2M0

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Note: Behaviour of welded wire me h hot ADET • The coefficient of weakening of the mechanical characteri tic of teel a a function of temperature, φs, is de ined by a table in section 3.21 o DTU - Fire [1.8]. • The values assigned to pe nalize wire mesh led the ADETS to per orm in 1981 a series o tests, depending o n the methodology or other steels, and at the same laboratory that is to say IR SID (Institute Search the French Steel). The results o these tests are shown in the table below: welded mesh ADETS (steel FeE500) tests in 1981

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6 8 10 12 mean Testing at 20 ° C. Re 632 592 512 604 585 Rm 713 667 595 645 655 Re 550 558 445 530 521 Testing at 300 ° C 0.87 0.94 0.87 re 0.88 0.89 Rm 678 625 595 637 634 rm 0.95 0. 94 1.00 0.99 0Re 97 340 290 310 341 320 Testing at 500 ° C 0.54 0.49 0.61 0.56 st 0.55 Rm 412 353 372 384 380 0.58 0.53 0.63 0.60 RM 0.58 R e - yield 0.2% (MPa) re = R e (θ) R e (20 C) (Φ = s) , Rm = resistance (MPa) rm = R m (θ) R m (20 C) We note that these values are somewhat different from those of steel bars HA (0. 85 to 0.54 to 300 ° C, 500 °) C 32 2.3,2. Terms of folding a) Minimum diameter of mandrel bending Subject to compliance with the re uiremen t of non-crushing of concrete provisions for sealing knots indicated below, the minimum diameter cores bending of TS are those indicated in the table below afte r (see [1.2], Art. 62.3). Minimum diameter of mandrel bending D (mm) caliper anc hors and executives Elbows (change of direction of the wire) b) cases encountere d in practice (see [1.2], Art. 62.4) 1) Steel cutting inside ( ig. 1.10) D in ac cordance with paragraph a above E ≥ 0.65 D + 2 t ∅ Nominal diameter of wire (mm) 5 - 5.5 30 50 6 30 70 7-8 40 70 9 - 10 50 100 150 12 60,100,200 14 90,150,200 16,100,150,250 or otherwise provide a chuck notched 2) Steel cross outside ( ig. 1.11) D according to paragraph a above E ≥ 0.50 D + 2 ∅ or otherwise adopt ∅ D ≥ 20 33 c) Status of non-crushing of concrete (Article 6.1.252 A) • Condition for foldin g over a single or bunk son: In what follows, r denotes either: - the radius of curvature of the axis a thread belonging to a single panel - is the radius of cu rvature of the internal thread (most curved) in the case of superimposed panels, supposedly bent around the same center of curvature ∅ D + r = 2 where D is the diameter mandrel bending wire ∅ considered and its diameter. The condition to sa tisfy is: ∅ ≥ r 0, 2 1 + ∅ st

ig. 1.10

ig. 1.11

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with 1 + 2n 3 σ f cj

(1.6 The condition of non-cru hing of concrete i verified, (1) It i ea y to ee that a king λ = 0.8 (1 + ∅ 2n + 1) st 3 the minimum radius of curvature has adopted is given by: ∅ r = min 125 - τ su (k 0.4 - 0.5) (s resses in MPa) f cj - known τ λ In this examp e λ = 1.45; found ∅ r Rmin = 5.33 or = 32 mm and Dmin = 58 mm. min 34 Son of two cases be onging to two we ded mesh pane s fo ded in the same section (around a common center) Case of a thread be onging to a sing e piece of fo ded wire mesh Ø r 10 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 5 .4 5 9 .6 0 Ø

ince 5.45 <6.33

n number of welded me h panel bent around the ame center di tance of the fir t center to the neare t wall tre σ behind the curve, under the ultimate tre (Fig. 1.12) for T , in the ca e Anchorage defined in Figure 1.15: σ r = 500 - τ SU k - 4 -2) (MPa) wi h ∅: SU τ of ul ima e bond s ress ( able 2.3.4) k ra i o s / ∅ ( see values in he same able) As σ depend on r / ∅, ju t from a give n mandrel bending and verify u ing the chart below that the econd member of the above inequality lead to a value lower than that which we tarted (a) Example: The ca e of two uperimpo ed panel , on of 6 mm diameter bent with the ame ce nter of curvature, the more bent on a mandrel of D = 70 mm. It i a umed that t he end of the wire i perpendicular to 10 mm from the neare t wall (embedding ab olute minimum), with about 50 mm, which po ition the center of curvature: ∅ t = 10 +50 = 66 mm wall next two ∅ D + 70 + 6 r In the e condition : r = = = 38 = 6.33 mm, where February 2 ∅ ∅ 6 = 0.091 t = 66 Furthermore, for FC28 = 25 MPa, the table on page 37 give τSU = 2.84 MPa and k = 44. We deduce from he formul a above: σ = 500 to 2.84 (1.6 x 44-4 x 6.33 to 2) = 378 MPa and r = 5.45 σ = 1 5.1 The graph in Figure 1.12 re ult in ∅ FCJ

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st 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .2 0 .1 = 2 / 3 9 8 .4 0 7 .8 0 7 .2 0 8 7 6 .6 0 6 March 2 May 4 May 1 .1 6 May 4 FCJ Oσ 5 10 6.00 6.25 6.62 7.14 7.69 8.33 9.03 15 f cj 35 • Bending of an entire panel - Loop In game where a full panel of wire me h i curved or if a frame FeE500 haped loop, the radiu of curvature r mu t ati fy (Fig. 1.13): ∅ ≥ r 175 n 1 + 2 + b 1 ∅ FCJ 2n (FCJ in MPa) 3 n = number of panel on, b = width of the element in que tion. ∅ r found in the form above or below the chart mu t be multiplied by σ / 500. If the de ign tre of teel i ignificantly le than 500 MPa, the value of The ca e of two welded me h panel f welded me h panel 36 2.3,3. anchor tandard panel ADET (BAEL Art. A.6.2, 1) The Rule tipulate that BAEL on con tituting a wire me h with high adhe ion ar e anchored individually or weld whichever i more favorable. The table below h ow , however, that the anchorage ealing law i cheaper than the anchor with two older for on di tribution (required length 2E) or three older for carrying on (required length 3) a) Anchor The traight "right ealing length i given, according to the pecified characteri tic trength of concrete by the following table: FC28 (MPa) τsu (MPa) 25 2.84 44 30 3.24 39 40 4.05 31 50 4 86 26 60 22 5 .67 folded in the ame ection of a ingle ca e o

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20 25 30

∅ * s = 125 = k * τ su f he heore ical formula is: s = ∅ ⋅ τ su e 4 A callus wi hou descending aua = s ⋅ A provided When provided in sec ion A sec ion or anchor should be provided is grea er han he calcula ed Acal sec ion, you can ake a leng h of anchor under 10 ∅. b) Anch ored o he curva ure erms of folding, see 2.3,2. • For a normal hook, in he a bsence of more precise calcula ion, he hread is considered fully anchored from he sec ion loca ed a a dis ance a = 0.4 s ou side of he plane angen ial o he hook (Fig. 1.15), leading he following values: FC28 (MPa) has 25 18 30 15 40 12 50 10 60 10 / ∅ • An anchor curve is defined by: - he diame er D of he bending mandrel where he wire diame er ∅ is formed (Table 2.3,2 a i le of his chap er) - he cen ral angle θ - λ ∅ = ength of its The right back prob em that usua y arises is: kn owing the ength avai ab e to accommodate an anchor said curve (anchoring tota to be assured beyond a point A fig.1.14), which give the ength λ ∅ right back t o the anchor curve is equiva ent to a norma hook anchorage ength 0.4s (s, sea ing ength right, Tab e 2.3,3 tit e. a of this chapter) 37 Fig 1.14 Fig 1.15 Ø The formu a for λ is: λ = a 60.5 1 say s -B diameter D A O Ø say

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The coefficients a and b depend on the type of anchor and wire diameter, and are given for standard pane s by the fo owing: b = 5.5 mm for ∅ 26.7 14.1 11.1 9.0 6 33.6 17.9 14.1 29.1 15.5 12.2 7.1 7 6.1 8 5.4 9 25.8 13.6 10.7 32.1 17.1 13.4 6, 8

a 0.28 0.53 0.39 0.43 θ = θ = 120 ° 90 ° No e: For bars HA radi ional shaped on ∅ D = 10, ake he ra ios given for he ∅ 7. Applica ion o example 4.5,6 Chap er 3 "Sole" (page 147): The reinforcemen consis s of wo la ices ST 25 and ST 20, s acked in parallel. • welded mesh ST 25: ∅ 7 in each direc ion, sealing leng h rules: s ∅ = 44 = 30.8 cm - Meaning 'b' " say = 0.26 m = 26 cm. For a righ angles: a = 0.53, b = 6.1: λ = 0.53 26 60.5 1 - 6.1 30.8 = 1.76 = 5 = ∅ 35 mm we do not retain va ue ess than 5, where - meaning "a '" say = 0.11 m = 11 cm where a return to square: λ = 0.53 11 60.5 1 - - 6.1 30.8 = 17. 4 hence X7 = 17.4 = 122 mm to 130 mm round • we ded mesh ST 20: ∅ 6 in one direction: s = 44 = 26.4 cm ∅, ∅ 7 in the other. 38 They inc ude: - meaning 'b', with - meaning 'a', "with say say = 26 cm s = 26.4 cm: you can keep a right anchor of son ∅ 6. = 11 cm and ∅ 7 in this direction. The ca cu ation gives λ = 17.4 or λ ∅ = 122 mm to 130 mm round formed into frames, pins or brackets, are provided by curvature by minimum radiu s and if the return rights of ength at east equa to - 5 ∅ for an ang e of 180 ° - 10 ∅ for an ang e of 135 ° - ∅ 15 for an ang e of 90 ° c) Recoveries

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Type Anchor Hook Hook norma θ = 180 θ = 135 °

"45 °" hook "60 °" Back to square

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• The end anchorages (See tab e on page 33) The junction of two of the same diameter ∅ son, whose axes are separated by C1, is ensured if they over ap on a ength at east equa to (Fig. 1. 16): has r = has + C1 if C1> 5 if C1 ≤ ∅ 5 ∅ ∅ r = has 45 ° C1 with a = ength of anchor (S in genera for a right anchor) ∅ r Fig. 1.16 39 LENGTH OF RECOVERY IN CM Recovery Son ongitudina (string) For standard pane s according to the ength of sea ing aw given according to th e characteristic strength of concrete Recovery Son transverse (weft) FC28 (MPa) 25 d D mm PAF PAF ® R ® C ® ST 10 ST 20 ST 25 ® ® 30 ∅ 39 18 18 21 23 27 23 27 31 35 23 27 27 27 31 35 35 ∅ 34

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15 15 19 20 24 20 24 27 31 20 24 24 24 27 31 40 ∅ 31 14 14 17 19 22 19 22 25 28 19 22 22 22 25 28 45 ∅ 28 13 13 15 17 20 17 20 22 25 17 20 20 20 22 25 50 ∅ 26 12 12 14 16 18 16 18 21 23 16 18 18 18 21 23 55 ∅ 24 11 11 13 14 17 14 17 19 22 14 17 17 17 19 22 60 ∅ 22 10 10 12 13 15 13 15 18 20 13 15 15 15 18 20 ∅ 44 20 20 24 27 31 27 31 35 40 27 31 31 31 35 40 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 6 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 8 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 20 20 24 31 31 31 31 35 35 27 31 31 31 35 40 18 18 21 27 27 27 27 31 31 23 27 27 27 31 35 15 15 19 24 24 24 24 27 27 20 24 24 24 27 31 14 14 17 22 22 22 22 25 25 19 22 22 22 25 28 13 13 15 20 20 20 20 22 22 17 20 20 20 22 25 12 12 14 18 18 18 18 21 21 16 18 18 18 21 23 11 11 13 17 17 17 17 19 19 14 17 17 17 19 22 10 10 12 15 15 15 15 18 18 13 15 15 15 18 20 ST 30 ST 35 ® ® ® ST 50 ST 60 ® TS 15 C 25 C ® T ® CS ® ST 25 ST 40 ST 50 C ® C ® C ® T 65 40