WORKSHOP Sound Editing 7th Meeting for Christian Awareness - 07/02/2005 2 Sound Editing My name is Alison Teles Cavalcanti

, I'm 28 years old in 2004, nearly 10 years an d serve the Lord. I am the son of musician and producer Gabmar Cavalcanti Albuqu erque, well known here in the city and region to have been for over 30 years, ke yboardist of the band OgÍrio Cavalcanti, and to have worked with big names in t he secular music scene in our country. Working with music since the age of 10 wh en I made my first piano course at the Cultural Center, taught by "Aunt" Clair, wife of Pastor Herriot, the IC Catolé. Since then I have worked in all areas of audio, such as electronics technician, keyboardist, recording engineer, mixing and mastering, and producer. In 1996, rode the studio of my father, SOLO Studio, where I have had the pleasure of working with great musicians and to contribute with my knowledge to the ministry of praise from several brothers and sisters d ear. And since 2001, have served in the Christian Life Sow as pastor. But let me talk, let's get to it: All of us here have something in common: we like audio. And when I talk about audio all that it encompasses both the technical area of s ound equipment, acoustics, sound reinforcement, as to the musical, because music exists only because there is audio. But after all, what is "AUDIO"? In a very s imple definition, audio, or sound, is the variation of pressure, periodical, whi ch can be captured by our ears. If you remember well the lessons of biology, our sense of hearing is essentially formed by the eardrum (a mobile membrane) by th ree tiny bones that move from the vibrations of the eardrum (hammer, anvil and s tirrup) and Cochlear. The variations of pressure coming from the environment cau se the eardrum to vibrate, and this starts the three bones that transmit vibrati on to the cochlea, which then transforms the vibrations into nerve impulses that are carried to the brain. These pressure variations we call Sound Waves. The so und waves are produced by any object, moving around, causing disturbance in a me dium. For example: When we throw a stone into a calm lake, we noticed that waves are formed around the place where the stone fell. In the artificial wave pools, a moving wall on one side of the pool, to move forward and back, so the wonderf ul waves for tourists to see ... In these two examples, we can not hear the orig inal sound generated by these waves. We hear only the shock of the stone surface of the water, or wave breaking on the beach. Why? To understand, let's study a little on the Characteristics of Sound Waves: 1. 2. 3. 4. Intensity: The "streng th" or the volume of the wave frequency: The height, or the "tone" of the wave ( severe, medium or sharp); Duration: The time it takes for a wave disappear; Timb re: The "color" , property that distinguishes a flute from a violin, for example ; 3 In order to "hear" a wave, this must be within the range of intensity, frequen cy and duration that the human ear can detect and distinguish. In terms of inten sity, one can hear anything below 0dB, which is called "Threshold of Hearing." F urthermore, an intensity greater than approximately 120 dB causes pain in most p eople. Speaking to decibel (dB), it is a measure of relationship between two qua ntities. In the case of human hearing, 0 dB represents a sound pressure of 10-12 W/m2. Ever wonder why you can not hear an ant walking? Certainly an ant makes n oise when he walks, but the noise is below the threshold of hearing, so we can h ear directly. For you have an idea, below are some examples: EXAMPLES 30 dB silent Library, Whisper light 40 Living room, refrigerator, bedro om away from traffic 50 Traffic light, normal conversation, quiet office Air con ditioning June 60 meters away, 70 sewing machine Vacuum cleaner, hair dryer, res taurant 80 Average traffic noisy city, the garbage collector, alarm clock with 6 0 cm distance 90 Subway, motorcycle, truck traffic, lawnmower 100 Garbage truck, chain saw, pneumatic drill 120 Rock Concert in front of the speakers , Thunder 140 hunting rifle, jet plane 180 Rocket Launch

In terms of frequency, the human ear can only hear the waves that are approximat ely within the space between 20Hz and 20,000 Hz, or 20kHz. Speaking in Herz (Hz will read "Rérts") is the inverse of the time a wave takes to repeat itself, or is the inverse of the period. Remember the lessons of high school physics? The longer the period, the lower the frequency, and vice versa.€Let's do a rough ca lculation and frequency to better understand. If I remember right, wave pool at the Venice Water Park there Pernambuco, the movable wall takes about 2 seconds t o go back and forth, generating a wave. What is the period of this wave? Sure, 2 / 2. And how often? It is the inverse of the period, therefore: 1 / 2, which gi ves 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz is below the lower limit frequency which is 20Hz. Understand w hy we can not hear? Regarding the term just say that when someone arrives at you r house and the bell is off, it's easier to hear the person if she screamed inst ead of clapping, is not it? Why? Because the duration of the palm is very short, the order of milliseconds, while a good cry takes a few seconds. Of course I'm assuming the person has the vocal folds as strong as your hands ... That said, l et's get into the more practical part of this workshop. Let's look at the links that make up a sound system, noting that the quality of the final system will be determined by the weakest link in the chain: 1. 2. 3. 4. Capture Processing Pro jection Acoustics 4 5. Operator 1. Catchment It consists of microphones, pickups, all that transforms sound pressure into ele ctrical voltage, to be processed and projected onto the listeners. As the first link of the system is critical to quality. Inadequate funding will never be 'fix ed' on the other equipment. A microphone "xing-ling" absolutely will NEVER sound good reputable brands of microphones. There are several types of microphones, e ach performing a function within the catchment. The main types are: a. Moving co il microphones, magnetic, also called "Dynamic" b. Capacitor and electret microp hones, also called Electrostatic. The latter require a voltage applied to them f or that work, called "Phantom Power". In turn, there are several types of dynami c microphones, and also various types of capacitive. What will determine the typ e of microphone should I use is just what I intend to capture. Different sound s ources in different environments require different microphones. Dynamic micropho nes are generally less sensitive. This means they are not good to capture faint sounds. Already the capacitive are extremely sensitive. Dynamical not respond we ll to the whole range of frequencies that the ear perceives. Are usually poor to capture high-pitched sounds. The capacitive respond reasonably well to the whol e range of frequencies perceptible. There are other more subtle differences, but these are mainly two factors that determine the choice of one or the other. Spe aking, it seems obvious that capacitive microphones are better than the dynamic. But practice shows that this is not so. Micronones dynamic abstractions are gre at for live sound, like drums, voice, percussion, guitar and bass cubes, etc., b ecause that do not capture well as sounds that are far away from him, are less l ikely to generate feedback, the terrible "Mike." A microphone is simply any soun d is amplified and re-amplified, becoming stronger, and popping ears and speaker s if not stopped in time ... They also suffer less from other sound sources that are close source to be captured. Meanwhile, the capacitor used more often in th e studio when there is no interference from other sources and when it wants bett er quality. Another factor is the environment in which the source is inserted to be captured. If this is so loud, noisy, and you do not want to pick up these no ises, the choice will be to use the dynamic. At the catchment, we also used the "Direct Boxes" which are tailor made for equipment types and signal impedance be tween the source and the mixer / preamplifier, so that between two points is not picked up any noise (such as electromagnetic interference) and to have the best possible signal transfer without loss. 5

2. Processing Here comes the most "showy" of a sound system. And includes any equipment that c hanges the characteristic of the signal received in the previous step. This incl udes pre-amplifiers, equalizers, compressors, noise-gates, effects, crossovers, sound boards, amplifiers, etc.. Let's examine each one: a. Preamplifier: serves to amplify the level (amplitude) of a signal, so that it can be properly amplifi ed by an amplifier. Normally use with microphones, guitars, basses, etc., becaus e these are not sufficient to excite an amplifier directly. Try to connect a mic rophone directly to the amplifier, and you will see that the sound will be very quietly, not enough to be useful; Equalizer: serves to limit or alter the freque ncy response of a signal.€For example, when we pick up the bass drum, usually c ut certain frequencies (treble) and reinforce other (serious) to make the amplif ied sound of the bass drum more consistent and "beautiful." At the other extreme , when we catch the hi-hat, cut out everything but the treble. Divided into grap hic equalizers and parametric equalizers. Compressor: Used to limit the amplitud e of a signal, compressing it to nothing more than certain levels. Used in the p reacher's microphone, for example, do not let him give us scares brothers, when one prays for another stop talking from the microphone for almost swallow it. Th e compressor, if used properly, automatically increases the volume when he speak s down or away from the microphone, and also lowers automatically when it speaks loudly or near the microphone. Noise-gate: How the English name says, used to c ut noise. It's like a door that only lets through signals with levels above the standards. Effects: A number, such as generators echo (voice of diffuser), rever b, distortion, flanger, phaser, pitch shifter, etc.. Drastically change the soun d that passes through them, as in the case of mockups for guitar. Crossover: It serves to divide the signal into different frequency bands (sub bass, bass, mid and treble, for example) for each amplifier to be amplified by a different and d esigned by a different box. Sound mixer: Actually, there is a different equipmen t, but the set of all or most of the equipment shown above, joined in the same " box" to be better operated. Amplifier: Used to amplify the sound to be applied o n a corresponding speaker properly and be heard. If you use the RMS (Root Mean S quare) to define the power of an amplifier. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 6 In the process, each of the above equipment, if required, should be well conne cted to the distress signal can be amplified properly. Otherwise the result will be disastrous. Common examples of poorly made connections: a. Connecting a keyb oard into the "mic" on the board is sound. Result: Distorted sound, and / or "hi ss" or "buzz" b. Connect a microphone in the line input of the mixer. Result: lo w sound or no sound, c. Connect the output of the table in the output effects pr ocessor, and the entry into effect of the table (back) into the effects processo r. Result: no sound. Links should always be crossed (at entry and exit from the input output); d. Connect the processor's overall effect on the output table, be tween this and the crossover / amplifier. Result: everything is processed, and t his is not good for the overall intelligibility. In other words, everything will be "rolled up". Should not be done unless you know exactly what you're doing; A nother problem that occurs frequently is the abuse of equipment. Audio equipment should be used in order to change the minimum characteristics of the audio trea ty. Moreover, they do not make miracles. I've heard saying that technicians can transform a guitar nylon strings on steel strings just "stirring" in the equaliz er from the table ... In fact the maximum he is able to make the sound of this g

uitar in a mellow sound extremely annoying, or worse, can even burn the tweeters of the boxes! Moreover, the equalizer is the main feature ill-used in sound sys tems I have seen. In 99% of these cases where there is a sound system, it is pla ced on a curve "smiling," that classic, with enhanced bass and treble and the mi ds cut. This is terrible, because well-designed systems have NEVER equalizers! T hese serve to improve or correct the frequency response of a sound system, so th at this system reproduces ALL equivalently desirable frequencies. If a system ha s deficiencies in the treble, the equalizer will be used to enhance this range o f frequencies UNTIL the system to play as well as the others. Likewise, if you m ean too, cuts off the equalizer so that they are in the same range as the others . This is clearly what the word "equalizer" means: to make equal, equivalent. An unpleasant effect that produce equalizers is that they introduce a phase shift in the signals that pass through it, and this results in phase cancellations tha t deplete the sound. The worst is that, because of phase cancellation, the trend is "mexermos" even more in equalizer, causing more cancellations and further wo rsening the sound! Speaking of amplifiers, although this is the equipment that c auses less problems for the misuse, several problems still occur. One day, visit ing a church, I saw a horrible scene: a totally distorted sound and with enough noise.€I looked at the equipment and saw TWO amplifiers. I thought it was one f or the sound of freight and one for the return. What was my surprise when, quest ioning the pastor, 7 it said that the output of an amplifier was connected at the entrance of anoth er because he thought that the power of two would be added ... Three problems. F irst, the output of the first amplifier (very low impedance) connected to the in put of other (high impedance) can not work satisfactorily, can not properly tran sfer the power generated, which can cause burning of the output circuit, and sec ond, the other amplifier receives a very strong signal at its input, which can c ause burning of input circuit. Third, because of the high level in the second en try, all sorts of noise is amplified by this excessively. 3. Projection The third link in the chain is the part referring to the speaker system, which u ltimately transform the electric power generated by power amplifiers in acoustic s. Some types of boxes are: a. "Full Range": Cases that respond reasonably flat at all audible frequencies. They are mainly used in small systems and residentia l sound, since they are more expensive and inefficient. A special kind of boxes are boxes Full Range of Reference, where it requires the greatest possible accur acy in the reproduction of various frequencies. This type of box is commonly use d in recording studios, and are quite expensive. PA boxes: Boxes do not have fla t response, but are tuned into a specific frequency in order to make more effici ent reproduction. In other words, these cases "speak louder" than the Full Range at the expense of quality. They are used in large systems, in the hundreds or t housands of Watts RMS. In these systems, the quality loss is not noticeable beca use of other factors involved, such as acoustics and air absorption. So ultimate ly, if used boxes Full Range, plus the cost very high, would not have the same e fficiency of those, impairing intelligibility. In this category also are boxes d evoted to a particular type of instrument / sound source, such as "cubes" of gui tar and bass, who will have an even more reduced. b. The placement of the boxes in the room is also very important. In general, we sh ould observe the following: a. Boxes of sub bass / bass should be placed in the corners of the wall if possible, if not, should always be placed on the floor, a s close as possible to the corners. b. Boxes mid / treble, due to the directivit y should be placed higher and pointing to the audience. If the room behave, you can use the system called "Fly PA", where the boxes are suspended by steel cable s attached firmly to the ceiling, and are aimed towards the middle of the audien ce. Give excellent results when well designed.

8 4. Acoustics This element is important for our study. The acoustics of a room can be defined as the characteristic that it has to reflect, diffuse, absorb and transmit sound waves generated inside. a. Reflection: The sound wave, crashing into a smooth, hard, rebounds like a bal l. Produces the ECO; b. Broadcast: If the wave chocarse against a hard surface, but irregularly, like a stone wall for example, it will suffer multiple reflections in all directions . Produces reverberation. c. Transmission: When the wave hits a surface and some of it appears on the othe r hand, to a lesser degree. d. Absorption: When the wave reaches the surface and does not return, or returns and low, this phenomenon occurs. She is absorbed by the material where it focus es. 9 When analyzing the acoustic behavior of a room, usually all these phenomena occu r. In fact, a living "dead" as we call a room where these phenomena do not occur , it resembles the outdoors. Does not sound pleasant. A well-designed room shoul d provide these phenomena and use them to make the hearing in her nice. When an engineer or architect designs a house, or any room where it will be mounted soun d system, he should pay attention to these phenomena, which would decrease a lot and the headaches that will certainly begin to appear after the room ready. If this is done, spending the acoustic treatment would be significantly smaller. Th e acoustic treatment comprises the placement of absorbers and diffusers to compl ete a well designed room, or trying to fix a bad acoustics. Unfortunately, in mo st cases, the acoustics in our churches is never remembered, or it is delivered to the "Engineers Achômetros. Should not be so because the acoustics is a scien ce, and as such, must be performed by competent professionals.€Lack of knowledg e in this area invariably leads to spending money foolishly, with unsatisfactory results. 5. Operator We come finally to the human component of the system, which I believe is the mos t important. Bad players can ruin an excellent system, rendering it useless, whi le good operators can draw a median equipment everything he can give, compensati ng for their weaknesses. Just can not do miracles. Errors occur in any area wher e a human being put his fingers. When I started working in a particular church i n the area of sound, I noticed something interesting. That church had returns th at were very close to the musicians, because of the limited space. The singers l ike to handle your microphones. Sometimes, someone forgot that it was a return t o the front, and lowered the hand holding the microphone, pointing him to return . Result: one whistle unbearable inside the church. Immediately, all the people looked back with looks of disapproval for the poor operator, in which case I was ... At the other extreme we have the lack of preparation of the vast majority o f our operators. It is true that schools do not have audio in our region, but it is curious how many churches send their most dedicated workers for a seminar, b ut leave their audio players learn from their mistakes or, worse, or learn anyth ing ... The operation of audio is really a ministry in our day, because if not d one properly, will undermine all the good functioning of the whole meeting. The operator of audio Minister praise along with the worship team, leads the worship with the head; preaches the Word along with the preacher, he participates in an

y meeting. Have you thought about it? Remember these verses from God's Word: 10 Romans 10:17 17 So then faith comes by hearing and hearing by the word of God. Romans 10:13-15 13 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be s aved. 14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they hear without a preacher? and how shall they hear without a preacher? 15 And how can they preach unless they be sent? Hebrews 2:1-3 1 For this reason , it is important that we cling with more firmness, after hearing the truth, tha t we never deviate from them. 2 If, therefore, became sure word spoken by angels , and every transgression or disobedience received a just punishment, 3 how shal l we escape if we neglect so great salvation? Which, having been announced by th e Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard; Do you hear depend on faith and correct understanding of the Word of Truth. And listening is directly related to our ministry! It is glorious to know that! Hence the importance that leaders sh ould give the ministry audio, and its members. The church should invest in their preservation, so they can fulfill their duties with excellence. A good trader d oes not operate only part of processing, but it will also act on other links - C apture, projection and acoustics - to extract from your system as efficiently as possible, remembering that it always depends on the weakest link in the chain. A good trader is not what "draws" the sound louder, but that "strip" the sound m ore pleasant. In fact, a good operator will not be noticed by the lay congregati on on the subject, because people just want to hear exactly what is being played / sung / spoken in church. And listen and hear does not mean loud. A good opera tor will know how to make the voice of the preacher above all, intelligible. A r everb is excellent to "soften" the voice of the singers, but sucks for preaching , because after all we are not cavemen to join a cult inside a! Another bad thin g to understanding the message are microphones without protective foam. Particul arly I think a martyrdom hear a preacher boomed the environment every time you s peak any word containing the letter "p" ... A simple foam, which costs a measly 4 real, solves the problem. A good operator will know how to balance and let int elligible all the instruments / voices of the worship team, so that the message is sung perfectly understood. To this should be familiar with the group's musica l style and the instruments / voices that compose it. If the characteristic is p laying forró, should know how to balance dance. If rock, congregational worship , pagoda, etc, the same thing. In this regard, I have seen serious problems in o ur churches. I've seen musicians almost quarrel with operators in the full perio d of praise, because the operator forgot to increase the volume of his instrumen t when he would do a solo. As much as the operator has his fault, singers and mu sicians must remember to 11 who are playing / ministering.€Does someone who fights with nearly one for y our instrument to appear is really ministering to God? Certainly not. Likewise, an operator who does not care certainly is not taking seriously their ministry, and also affects the function of praise. We have a clear warning in the Word hit s those who do God's Work relaxed: Jeremiah 48:10 a - Cursed is he who does the work of Jehovah relaxed! A good operator will know how to value his ministry, pr eparing both technically and spiritually better to exercise it. It is a grave mi stake to neglect one and overvalue others. As science, the audio needs to be stu died. As ministry needs to be done in the anointing of the Spirit. This sounds p aradoxical, but true. If you do not think you should study to operate the sound of your church, try to change your mind, and fast! An operator is much more than someone who connects the wire and presses the button to turn on the equipment! Learn, read, ask, complain if necessary, but never let the knowledge side. If yo

u think you should not pray and seek the face of the Lord to operate the sound o f your church, try to change your mind, and fast! Or you have intimacy with thei r Lord, and He will not listen when you steer to improve the sound when necessar y. No operator sound is better than the Holy Spirit, because he is omnipresent a nd omniscient, and omnipotent! So try to be guided by Him every time you press t he mute or tamper with the volume of the channels of your desk! I leave my email so you can communicate with me: There are many excellent sites specializing in audio. Among them I would highlight the following: - Great site for us, technicians churches. - site of the magazine Audio, Music and Technology. Secular magazine that is sta ndard in the audio area of Brazil. - Site of Backstage maga zine of the same caliber as the previous one. / group / somi grejas and / group / audio_evangelicos - mailing lists audio technicians who serve the Lord, facing the transaction in the churches. I am pa rt of both, and registration is free. - Site Audiolist thr ead, probably the greatest source of information about audio in the Brazilian In ternet. Biiiig a hug, and the peace of the Lord! His brother, Alisson Teles Cava lcanti 12 Sources consulted: Apostila "Course in Sound Editing" of Petronius Braga. Site h ttp:// Mailing Lists Audio Evangelical Churches and Soun d