org L I V E R T D E C O U V E RT E The Challenge for the Earth © GETTY IMAGES Let soon, every bit counts! SKIING AT IONRECONNUED 'UTILIT PUBLIQUED É É É E DI TO THE EDUC AT ION TO THE EN VIRONMENT THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH The climate on the basis of life The Earth is the only known planet where life exists. Located not too close or t oo far from the Sun, its climate is more or less favorable to the development of living beings. The atmosphere is the layer of air surrounding the Earth. Its existence conditio ns of life on Earth: it contains the oxygen we breathe, protects us from meteori tes, filter the sun's ultraviolet rays very harmful DID YOU KNOW? living things, absorbs heat and stabilizes at an average temperature of 15 ° C. This machine is the complex functioning of a fragile balance. It is the changing composition of the gaseous envelope that generates Earth current climate change , rapid and brutal. The oceans cover seven tenths of the surface of the Earth. T he exchange of heat and water between the ocean and the atmosphere largely gover n the climate of the planet. The ocean moderates the temperature variations (day / night, seasons), transports heat from the equator to the poles by ocean curre nts and contributes to the cycle of water by evaporation. Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man The growth rings in trees and corals can trace the evolution of temperatures. When the snow turns to ice, it traps the gases under the effect of pressure. I ce cores taken from the poles provide information on temperatures, precipitation and atmospheric composition. They help to reconstruct the history of climate as far back as 700,000 years. 2 WA R I N G A M A H A I AT i t a d ... "Peace on earth depends on our ability to protect our living environment. " The exchanges between living systems and physical environments DO NOT CONFUSE CLIMATE AND WEATHER The climate of a geographic area is defined by the average temperatures, sunsh ine, rain, humidity, air and wind measured over longer periods. It also depends on the proximity of the oceans, terrain and altitude. All these conditions deter mine the number and variety of species able to live there. For example, under th e equatorial climate (hot and humid), life grows more easily than in the deserts . The Earth's climate has experienced a succession of cold periods and warm peri ods. The last ice age ended 12,000 years ago. The analysis of developments in th e past allows climatologists to develop climate models for the future. Meteoro logy is the study of weather and forecasting of weather. Thanks to satellites, r adiosondes and radar, meteorologists observe the atmosphere 24 hours on 24 and m ake reliable forecasts to five days for a limited area.

AMAZING BUT TRUE! If our planet were the size of an orange, the thickness of the atmosphere woul d be equivalent to a sheet of paper. Without atmosphere, it would be 100 ° C d uring the day and - 150 ° C at night to the surface of the Earth! 3 THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH Why climate change? The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon amplified by man. Since the late n ineteenth century, scientists have noted a warming trend. DO NOT CONFUSE AND OZONE LAYER OZONE Ozone is present in the atmosphere between 20 and 40 km altitude (stratosphere). It forms a thin protective layer that stops the ultraviolet rays harmful to liv ing beings. Human activities have caused a "hole" in the ozone layer. In the low er layer of the atmosphere (troposphere, less than 12 km) is the ozone that we b reathe and which is harmful to health. From pollution, it also enhances the gree nhouse effect. AMAZING BUT TRUE! 50% of CO2 emissions in France result of our lifestyle and our daily activities. The other half comes from emissions from the manufacture and transportation of products and services. Under the effect of solar radiation, the atmosphere that surrounds our planet, a cts like a blanket: it warms the Earth. It is this natural greenhouse effect whi ch limits variations in temperature at the surface of the Earth. Without it, the average temperature would be within + 15 ° C, but - 18 ° C! A portion of the su nlight coming through the atmosphere and warm the soil and oceans.€The Earth ret urns a portion of these rays in the atmosphere, but also makes itself: plants, l iving creatures, volcanoes ... are so many sources of heat, which itself dates b ack to the atmosphere. Certain gases in the atmosphere prevents heat from escapi ng into space. They are called "greenhouse gases" (GHGs). They are, Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man 4 AT C H E I N B R I A N D d i t ... "The forest above the people, the wilderness below. " DID YOU KNOW? How man increases the greenhouse effect One study suggests that a warming of 1.8 to 2 ° C between 1990 and 2050 could le ad to the removal of one quarter of all living species compared to today. heating power: water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and other gases (nitrous oxide (N20), ozone (O3) and fluorinated gases ). All these gases do not stop the heat in different ways and have different lifetimes in the atmos phere. Human activities induce emissions of these gases and thus accentuate the natural greenhouse effect. As a result, there has been 30 years an accelerated w arming of the planet that is responsible for recent climate change. THE CO 2 GAS WHICH PARTICIPATES IN GREENHOUSE Among greenhouse gases, some naturally emitted (water vapor, CO2 ...), others ar e man-made (fluorinated gases). The Earth (volcanoes, forest fires ...) and livi

ng things (respiration and decomposition) produce CO2. But his presence in the a tmosphere is amplified by human burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil) and forests for its activities. Thus, since 1850, the beginning of the industri al revolution, the CO2 has increased by 30%, amplifying the natural greenhouse e ffect. 5 THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH Why climate change? The natural carbon cycle refers to the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere , oceans, continents and living things are composed. He is disturbed by human ac tivities. DID YOU KNOW? CO2 is not the only gas involved in climate change. Methane (CH4) from a share o f the decomposition of living organisms and organic waste and also produced by h uman activities (landfills, agriculture and livestock), is the second greenhouse gas emissions. It has a warming potential 21 times greater than CO2. Since the beginning of the industrial era (1850), the burning of fossil fuels (o il, coal, gas), deforestation and agricultural practices have increased producti on of CO2. It adds to the CO2 emitted naturally by respiration and decomposition of living, volcanic eruptions or forest fires, etc.. A portion of atmospheric CO2 is absorbed by aquatic and terrestrial plants (phot osynthesis), another is picked up by the ocean. But because of human activities, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere are increasing too quickly for oceans and f orests, "well" natural carbon, may regulate this development. The greenhouse eff ect and may be accentuated even more if these "carbon sinks" are coming to an ov erflow collection. It is urgent to reduce our CO2 emissions! AMAZING BUT TRUE! In the atmosphere, the lifetime of some greenhouse gases may reach several thous ands of years. They accumulate and amplify their effects. 6 Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man C H E F E S T L AT E d i t ... "This is not the man who wove the web of life: there is only one thread. Whateve r he does to the web, he does to himself. " Natural carbon cycle and human impact Exchange due to the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation (1990s) CARBON SINKS Combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation Carbon is present in the composition of solids (eg coal, living, etc..), Liquids (eg oil) and gas (eg CO2 or methane). Man seeks to reduce the amount of carbon that passes through the cycle by imprisoning. The CO2 absorbed by the ocean is t ransformed or dissolved in its waters. This power absorption is reduced when the water warms. If this phenomenon is growing, the power capture will diminish or even reverse to become an issuer of an additional share of CO2. Trees sequester carbon as they grow, by making their organic matter. The fate of this carbon wil

l depend on the use of forests. The tree burned immediately reject CO2, whereas one which will be used in construction will do to the disappearance of the build ings.€It was only 40-1 000 years that the carbon in the tree that died naturally returns to the atmosphere. The trees that are "carbon sinks" temporary. Scienti sts seek to understand better the role of forests and oceans as "carbon sinks". 7 THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH Indicators of climate change The 0.6 ° C of global average temperature since 1900 affects biodiversity and po ses the question of its adaptability to rapid change and abrupt climate. The climate is the main factor of species distribution, drives his modified anim als and plants to move to feed and reproduce. Some invade new areas, while other s disappear. Various changes in the twentieth century exceeds the natural variab ility of the climate system such as: • In Europe, the chickadees to lack DID YOU KNOW? AMAZING BUT TRUE! food, the larva of a moth (moth foggy), they're big, hatched earlier because the springs are softer. But the leaves of oak favored by these insects have not yet grown. The caterpillars are starving and exhausted tits foraging for food; • Th e vine is a Mediterranean plant whose farm boundary moves north, already, it pro duces wine in the Netherlands and could produce champagne in the south of Englan d • Rising sea level of 10-20 cm, which is an average annual rate of 1 to 2 mm; • The increase of 5 to 10% of continental precipitation in the northern hemisphe re and reduced rainfall in the subtropics (10 ° N to 30 ° N) already naturally d ry; • The regression of 40% of the thickness and 10% of the area of Arctic sea i ce since 1950. Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man 5 ° C only separate us from an ice age. 1 ° C increase in our room does not comp are with a similar increase in the average temperature at Earth's surface. Coral reefs are found in tropical and subtropical waters. A sudden increase of a few degrees of water temperature prevents their growth and results in addition to the disruption of the association algae-animal cells that forms the coral. Th is bleaching and coral death. 8 Seneca said ... "It's a soul that needs to change, not climate. " Climate change and its interactions with other global issues ESTIMATES AND RISK The predicted climate change poses to humans many threats including: massive d isplacement of populations due to the increase in 9-88 cm of sea level with the risk of flooding or submergence, Bangladesh, the atolls in the Pacific or the Ca margue; health risk with the development of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and parasites (malaria, yellow fever, etc..) due to a change in their breeding; reduction of security of supply water with increased drought and the changing water cycle; accentuate the greenhouse effect with the thawing of permanently frozen ground in cold regions causing the emission of methane reduction snow cover in mid-mountain resorts and the need for economic transformation. Confront ing natural hazards exacerbated by human pressure, but the best way for local pe ople is to preserve ecosystems: forests prevent landslides during heavy rains an d flooding wetlands limit ...

9 THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH A collective mobilization: some benchmarks Following the alarm raised in the 1970s by the scientific community, all countri es of the world has accepted the principle of an international response. THE SCALE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND FRANCE DID YOU KNOW? A European emits 20 times more CO2 than African and an inhabitant of the Unite d States, 40 times more. To ensure a stable climate and the emergence of devel oping countries, it would divide the world's CO2 emissions by 2 and those of ind ustrialized countries in four by 2050 (see diagram). According to the Internat ional Energy Agency (IEA), global demand for energy will increase 60% by 2030 if the emergency is not transformed into action. Emissions of CO2 per capita (Tonnes) June 2000: adoption by the European Union's European Climate Change Programme (ECCP), which aims at a reduction of 8% of GHG emissions between the base year ( 1990) 2008-2012. This program is based on guidelines, especially in the areas of energy, industry, transport and buildings. The France aims to stabilize in 20 08-2012 GHG emissions to 1990 levels. In January 2000, it adopted the National P rogramme to Fight against climate change (PNLCC) based on hundreds of measures o n all emitting sectors. His Climate Plan (2004) provides a division by 4 of the GHG emissions for 2050. 10 Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man J O N E C E C U LY RT I L i s t ... "We are destroying destroying the planet, we realize and respect it. " It was set up in 1988 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) and is its first report in 1990 which mobilized active states in the world. • At the Earth Summit in Rio (1992), is adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed by 188 States. It recognizes two principles: t hat of stabilizing the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere and that of a dif ferentiated responsibility between developed and developing countries. • In 1997 , 158 States adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which provides 5% of overall GHG reduct ion compared to 1990, 2008-2012, establishes the obligations of numerical result s for industrialized countries and create for them the principle of exchange of tons CO2 equivalent. Since the ratification of this Protocol by Russia in 2004, has reached the threshold of the signatory States, which has allowed its entry i nto force 16 February 2005 although a few countries, including the United States , China and Australia, still refuse to sign. 26 19 GHG emitting activities in France in 2004 AMAZING BUT TRUE!

The International Air Transport responsible each year for 600 million tonnes of CO2 is not included in the Kyoto agreement, not knowing who his charge programmi ng: the country of departure? that finish line? or countries overflown? 11 THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH The The gy, THE need to act now extent of climate change is such that we must reduce our consumption of ener at once, together, wherever we are and what is our business. ROAD TO KYOTO ... from vehicles were up 20%. This reflect their car every day and only 4 out of 1 the increase in the number of cars and advances that make cleaner vehicles.

Between 1990 and 1998, overall emissions s the fact that 78% of French people use 0 trips are less than 2 km. In addition, traffic cancels profits by technological

Sources and share of CO2 emissions in 2002 of French households (15.5 tons / hou sehold) 12 Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man T-NS ANTOINEDESAIN EXUP RY adit ... "The future is not enough to predict, but to make it possible. " n 2002, a French emitted an average of 6 tons of CO2 per year. To ensure that th e climate is more upsetting, it is necessary to divide by 4 our CO2 emissions by 2050. At the individual level, a gesture toward the environment is not absurd, since it will be multiplied by hundreds, thousands ... What do first? On energy because its use is nearly half of our emissions of greenhouse gas emissions. How to act? By combining three tracks: reducing waste, consumption and the rational use of renewable energy. Where to act? At home, at school, at work, in business , leisure or commerce. In what areas? Mainly transportation, heating, procuremen t and waste. What specifically? Sorting the waste, use public transportation, or ganic produce and consume, save water, electricity, promote renewable energy, sh opping are all reflective of actions to move towards sustainable development. En ergy not consumed need not be produced and saved energy is a contribution to red ucing greenhouse gas emissions. E DID YOU KNOW? In France, household energy consumption has almost tripled between 1960 and 20 00! The manufacture of a flat screen computer requires 350 kg carbon equivalen t, or even 5 000-6 000 kWh of energy (not just electric), equivalent to 600 lite rs of oil.€ GHG emissions in grams carbon equivalent per kg diet: fruits and ve getables = 150; chicken = 850; calf = 11 120. Examples of recycling: 27 plasti c bottles = 1 fleece pullover and 670 aluminum cans = 1 bicycle. AMAZING BUT TRUE! A fruit, imported out of season, for transportation consumes 10-20 times more oil than the same fruit produced locally and purchased in season. The share of GHG emissions related to food, from production to our plates, amounts to 30.5% of French emissions in 2001. 15 billion plastic bags from petrochemicals are d istributed each year in France, 500 per second!

13 THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH Let soon, every little bit counts Since its inception in 1990, the Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Humanity 's mission is to change individual and collective behavior to preserve our plane t in a sustainable development perspective. Encourage everyone to commit to redu cing its environmental impact by performing simple and practical in everyday lif e, such is the vocation of his new campaign: "Earth Challenge". AND COMMITMENT TO MEETING THE CHALLENGE FOR THE EARTH Get involved on everyday gestures Calculate your impact on the Earth Learn about climate change Sign Pact to Explore Earth Ambassadors Challenge Nicolas Hulot Foundation is an apolitical and non religious NGO. Elle participe à la diffusion des connaissances sur l’état écologique de notre planète et met e n œuvre tous les moyens à sa disposition pour convaincre le plus grand nombre de la nécessité de passer à l’acte afin de freiner l’impact des activités humaines . Only French foundation of public utility dedicated to environmental education, it aims to train youth and adults to respect for nature and environmental citiz ens gestures. The Foundation supports local initiatives for the environment. Its activities revolve around three major themes: water, biodiversity and eco-citiz enship. Fondation Nicolas Hulot for Nature and Man L www.defipourlaterre.org Encourage your family to engage 14 Gandhi said ... "Be yourself the change you want in the world. " MOBILIZATION FOR THE NATIONAL LAND Fondation Nicolas Hulot and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management) join forces to launch an operation in May 2005 as a national mobilization, the "Earth Challenge", to rally the French for the protection of the planet. This Ch allenge encourages all French to engage individually or collectively, to reduce its environmental impact by performing simple and concrete everyday. The challen ge is to mobilize the largest number so that all these commitments add up and em body a collective scale. The call to action must come from civil society as a wh ole. Around Nicolas Hulot, many celebrities have worked as ambassadors of the "C hallenge Earth. 10 THE FIRST GESTURE FOR THE EARTH I sort my waste and avoid unnecessary packaging I prefer environmentally friendl y products (eco-labels, écorecharges ...) and I avoid disposable products switch off electrical appliances instead of leaving them on standby I select devices e nergy efficient (low consumption lamps, appliances Class A) I prefer a quick sho wer bath I do not overheat my home and I isolated the best I install a solar wat er heater or wood heating at home I uses the least drive to work, I do short tri ps on foot and I drive slower smoothly μ For my travels, I prefer to take the tr ain

LEARN MORE: WWW.DEFIPOURLATERRE.ORG 15 6, rue de l Est 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt • www.fnh.org • Tel: 01 41 22 10 70 • Fax: 01 41 22 October 1999 • fnh@fnh.org © GEORGES BOSIO / 107 STUDIOS Let soon, every bit counts! " with the support of founding partners 100% RECYCLED PAPER • DO NOT THROW ON THE STREET L Earth has gone wrong. The man has a growing influence on the conditions of life and its own evolution. The future of humanity is compromised. It is high time th at awareness translates into action, individual and collective. Together, we mus t build a society reconcile the demands of today and the needs of tomorrow. This is an unprecedented challenge, a unique opportunity to restore meaning to progr ess while developing new forms of solidarity,€with future generations and all li ving beings. What we eat, the means of transportation we use, how we really are ... all these are pressures on the environment depend on each of us. Know and take into accou nt mean more respect for others, more health for all, a nature more beautiful. I n the environmental field, no individual action is ridiculous. Every bit counts. Multiplied across a country, they help reduce the impacts of human activities o n the planet. Adopt the right thing and join us to meet all the Earth Challenge! Nicolas Hulot Partner Program



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