Solar Energy Installation FotoVivo elements. Lighting Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics.

University of Jaén 1 Lighting: Electronic Ballasts and its application to Photovoltaic Solar Energy I nstallations * * * * * * Introduction Types of Lamps TF Power Operation AC, DC e lectronic ballasts. Analysis Types experimental electronic ballasts Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 2 Bibliography: • Aguilar, JD, Almonacid, G, Martin, J; Martimez, JL "electronic b allasts." Spanish Journal of Electronics. September 1996, pp 6673. • Aguilar, J. D and alt. "Types of electronic ballasts for photovoltaic systems" Industrial Te chnical Rev. No. 218 pp 68-78 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 3 Currently it is estimated that a significant portion of global energy consumptio n in each country (between 8% and 20% depending on your geographic location, dev elopment, social structure and productivity, etc..) Is used for lighting. Turning on a fluorescent lamp From alternating signal A continuous signal from Widely used in photovoltaic Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 4 Notions of Lighting Basic Definitions: i Light: electromagnetic wave phenomena in nature, an energy that can move from one point to another without material support. i Luminous flux: It is the magnitude that we measured the amount of light or power of light radiation. It is measured in lumens (lm). i Luminous Efficiency: The degree of use we get f rom the energy consumed in converting electrical energy into light. It is expres sed in lm / W (lumens cast between watts consumed). i half-life and life span: T he average life of a light source is defined as the number of hours they can wor k in certain installation conditions. Manufacturers of lamps life measured by es timating the period when they maintain their light output over 80% of the nomina l i Strobe effect: Impact of alternating current, the current passes through zer o twice per period (100 times per second 50Hz networks), in those brief moments the light intensity decreases almost to zero, causing a flashing eye fatigue inc reases and produces the sensation of moving bodies smaller than real movement. Strobe Effect Figure 3.1. With strobe effect. (Courtesy of Philips). a) Lamp current operating at 50Hz ... b) Luminous flux running at 50Hz .. Figure 3.2. No stroboscopic effect. (Courtesy of Philips) .. a) Lamp current fun

ctioning in HF b) Luminous flux function in HF Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 6 LIGHT SOURCES Õ termorradiación emission produced by excitation of atoms to molecules using th e thermal. Increases with temperature. Example: incandescent lamps. Õ electrorra diación excitation of atoms or molecules as a result of collisions with electron s or ions accelerated by an electric field. The kinetic energy of the incident p article is transformed into radiant energy. Example: discharge lamps. Õ fotorrad iación excitation of atoms or molecules by absorption of incident radiation whos e photons have a proper power. Example: fluorescent lamps. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 7 TYPES OF LAMPS Incandescence. F Halogen Incandescent. Fluorescent. F Compact Fluorescent Lamps. Integrated. Electronic. Not integrated. Mercury Vapor High Pressure. Sodium Vap or High Pressure. Metal Halide. Low Sodium Vapor pressure. F Bulbs High Intensity Discharge (HID) F induction lamps. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 8 Incandescent LAMPS FEATURES: Luminous efficiency: 10 to 20 lm / W Average life: 2000 hours. Operati on: termorradiación. On: Instant. Iconexión / Inrégimen: 1.0 Incandescent Lamps Halogen Lamps The light emission is produced by heating, producing a current through a filamen t (tungsten carbide), contained in a glass ampoule containing inert gas at a pre ssure slightly below atmospheric. The halogen incandescent bring about the follo wing advantages: luminous flux constant throughout life. Excellent color ren dition. The compact dimensions allow the construction of small lights. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics.€University of Jaén 9 Incandescent LAMPS MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A LAMP • Ampulla • Cap • Strand • Gas fil ling • Support Strand Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. 10 University of Jaén FLUORESCENT LAMPS The diameter and length of the tube is variable depending on the power. Presents an impedance to current flow decreases as this increases, so that can n ot be connected directly to the mains without a mechanism that controls the curr ent flowing through it. This device, called a ballast or ballast. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén 11 FLUORESCENT LAMPS FEATURES: F Luminous efficiency: 30-80 lm / W. F Shelf Life: 7500 Hours. F On: 1 seconds. F Iconexión / Inrégimen: 2. Advantages: • Less Consumption. • Longer Life. Disadvantages: • Increased size.

• Greater weight require another installation. • Increased cost. Compact lamps. 12 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department of Electronics. University of Jaén FLUORESCENT LAMPS Compact lamps built into the base components that require a fluorescent tube. Integrated Compact Lamp Electronic compact lamp Integrated Compact Lamp not FEATURES: • Consumption up to 5 times less than incandescent. • average length o f 8 times longer than incandescent. • Start instantly with a luminous flux impor tant. • No need for balancing power, cos φ ≈ 0.95. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 13

Needed as well as luorescent ballasts or ballast or your on Its evolution and application are due to three main reasons: J High luminous e iciency. J provide a light source compact. J Long li e and lumen maintenance than luorescents, wh ich reduces replacement costs and maintenance. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 14 DISCHARGE LAMPS MERCURY VAPOR LAMPS (V.M) Its operation is based on the same principle as luorescent lamps. The minimum v oltage or its power and its operation is 198V. Turning o the lamp re-ignition is not allowed. FEATURES: L Light output: 60 lm / W. L Average li e span: 15000-16000 hours. L P ower: 4 or 5 minutes. L Iconexión / Inrégimen: 1.6 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 15 DISCHARGE LAMPS Vapor lamp high pressure sodium (HPS) voltages on the order o 2-5 KV Provided b y starters. They have a characteristic intensity o current - positive arc volta ge. The li e o these lamps is a ected by changes in network (less than ± 5% o the rated voltage o the ballast). FEATURES: L Light output: 120-130 lm / W. L Average li e span: 14000-15000 hours. L Power: 6 or 7 minutes. L Iconexión / Inr égimen: 1.2 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 16 DISCHARGE LAMPS METALCO Halides Constitution similar to Mercury Vapor. To light a starter is needed to provide p eak voltages between 0.8 and 5 KV. For the restart is needed or 10-20 minutes w ith peak voltages above 25 KV. FEATURES: L Light output: 95 lm / W. L Average li e span: 6000-7000 hours. L Pow

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCHARGE LAMPS Negative impedance presented to the passage o

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

electrical current.

 

 

 

er: 2 minutes. L Iconexión / Inrégimen: 1.3 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o 17 DISCHARGE LAMPS SODIUM LAMPS LOW VAPOR PRESSURE (VSBP) Sensitive to voltage variations in luencing their electrical characteristics and bright. Time to restart the order o minutes depending on the cooling that allo ws the lamp. FEATURES: L Light output: 180 lm / W. L Average li e span: 10000 hours. L On: 7 to 12 minutes. L Iconexión / Inrégimen: 0.95 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o 18 INDUCTION LAMPS The lighting is based: • electromagnetic induction. • The discharge into the gas . This system comprises: electronic circuits (high- requency generator). A anten na (coupling strength). The induction lamp (no ilaments or electrodes). Li etim e 60,000 hours. The electronic circuit: Ü Eliminates licker. Ü Turning the lamp immediately. Ü produces all its low rom the irst moment. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 19 SUMMARY TABLE Type o lamp li e (hours) Luminous e iciency (lm / W) 10-20 30-80 60 120-130 95 180 encnedido time to reach the instantaneous 4-5 minutes 1 seconds 2 minutes 6 -7 minutes 7-12 minutes Iconexión / Inrégimen Fluorescent Incandescent 2000 7500 1.0 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.3 0.95 15000Mercurio Vapor Lamps 14000V.SAP 16 000 15 000 10 000 Lamps Metal Halide VSB P 6000-7000 Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o 20 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT Devices (ballasts or ballasts, capacitors and starters) that need the lamps or ignition and normal operation. BALLAST reactors or Features: • It limits and regulates the lamp current. • Provides the proper volt age and current • boot. The ballast or ballast must ensure: @ Good regulation ag ainst variations in supply voltage. @ Under warming. @ Operation without noise. @ Limitation o harmonic components in line currents and lamp. @ Moderate losses themselves to achieve a good overall per ormance. @ Dimensions appropriate. @ E nsure maximum lamp li e. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 21 START OF A FLUORESCENT LAMP Electronics. University o Jaén Electronics. University o Jaén Electronics. University o Jaén

 

 

         

 

 

 

 

 

           

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filament-Calentamientpo - Element to provide or a short period o time, a volta ge ignition voltage to start the download. -Stabilizing element o the current. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 22 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT CHOKE AND STARTER 1. Glass ampoule illed with neon. 2. Fixed contact nickel. 3. Moving contact bi metal. 4. Condenser. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o 23 ELECTRONIC BALLAST Electronic ballast Compact unit that replaces all the components associated with each lamp. Drawback o electronic ballasts compared to electromagnetic: J Energy savings (2 5 to 30%). J Low dissipation and longer lamp li e (50%). J Best per ormance. J Best visual com ort. J accepted voltage. J incorporate harmonic ilters that are not introdu ced into the network. J They have automatic disconnection circuits against ault y lamps or depleted. J Allows wide range o supply voltage. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 24 BLOCK DIAGRAM Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 25 ELECTRONIC BALLAST Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 26 ELECTRONIC BALLAST • S1 and S2 are semiconductors. Voltage high requency square wave between 1 and 2. • Fuse. (Protection contracortocircuito). Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 27 ELECTRONIC BALLAST The inlet ilter is responsible or: Limiting the harmonic distortion. Limit ation o radio requency inter erence. Protection o electronic components ro m the peaks o the mains. I you do not light a lamp, the electronic circuit disconnects the ballast. This property o ers the ollowing advantages: A ter the automatic shutdown, syste m losses are only 1W. There are no unnecessary inter erence as a result o rep eated attempts to ignite. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o 28 Electronics. University o Jaén Electronics. University o Jaén

 

 

 

             

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

   

 

 

 

ELECTRONIC BALLAST STARTING overcurrent COMPARATIVE TEST MERCURY VAPOR LAMP 125W Conventional ballast, shock 1400 1200 CURRENT (mA) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Electronic ballast TIME (sec) In the boot process and until the lights reach stability overcurrent occur in th e network to values that can reach 1.5 times the rated ⇒ sized problems recruiti ng drivers and power. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 29 ELECTRONIC BALLAST In both igures shows the current in the lamp Conventional ballast with a power actor o Electronic ballast with a power actor o 30

0.87.

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Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén ELECTRONIC BALLAST Luminous lux Operating Frequency Between 18 and 50 kHz The voltage has a requency o 28 kHz in normal operation. The choice o this r equency should be: to be above the 10KHz to get the most luminous lux. To be ou t o audibility limit o human hearing (above 18KHz).€Ä At requencies well abov e 50kHz is rising losses in errite coils and transistors. To inter erence by el ectromagnetic radiation is magni ied by the increased requency. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. University o Jaén 31 ELECTRONIC BALLAST Luminous lux Maximum Flow T. = 25 º C ambient The luminaires itted with high requency ballasts produce less heat due to lowe r power consumption o the system. The luminous lux o luorescent lamps depend s on the temperature. Juan D. Aguilar, F. Garrido. Department o Electronics. 32 University o Jaén