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2 Bricoficha ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS LIST OF EQUIPMENT BASICS INTERIOR INSTALLATION GROUNDING CIRCUIT BREAKER ACTION INTERIOR FIXING WIRE CUTTING AND STRIPPING WIRING SWITCH PLUGS CABLES INSTALLATI ON OF A LIGHT THE ROOM BATHROOM SAFETY MATERIAL LIST OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS VOLTMETER: digital device or not, insulating wires to measure voltage, current a nd resistance. STEEL WIRE: Allows you to pass different wires through a PVC pipe . ELECTRICITY DETECTOR: Small screwdriver allows you to detect the presence of vol tage (eg a plug). Hacksaw: The right tool for sawing metal and plastic. A metal minisierra allows serra PVC covers. LONG pliers: Choose a model with protective covers. We act to bend the ends of the cables alimentation. DRILL / SCREWDRIVER POWER: If you must cut power to get a battery operated model. MAZA AND CHISEL: T he need to make holes in the walls. Wire Strippers: These allow you to remove the insulating layer to an electric wi re without damaging the lead wires. UNIVERSAL CUTTER: Thanks to the use sheets a nd strip, always has a sharp instrument. GRINDER: The fastest machine to make sl its in a wall. Wear protective clothing and goggles. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT BASICS Current intensity: Intensity is the amount of electricity that can pass through a conductor. In the case of a constant voltage, a driver will spend more electri city according to its diameter grows. The intensity of a current expressed in am peres (A) or milliamps (mA). STRESS: Stress can be compared to water pressure. The greater the pressure, more water may be transported in the same period. A high voltage allows for better e lectrical circulate. The tension is expressed in volts (V). RESISTANCE: To transport the electricity used low-resistance materials (eg coppe r). The resistance of a conductor depends on what ngitud, their diameter and typ e of material it is composed. It is expressed in ohms (symbol:). POWER: Electricity is transformed into heat, light or movement. Therefore not al l clear bulbs in the same way and not all engines have the same power. So all el ectrical appliances are fitted with a plate indicating its power (unit of measur ement: watt (W)). Consumption: The power consumption is. We simply multiply the power (in watts or kilowatts) by the actual operating time. The consumer unit is the kilowatt hour (kWh), or consumption of one kilowatt means 1000 watts for a period of one hour . A small heater of 1500 W that runs continuously for one hour consumes 1500 wat t-hours or 1.5 kilowatt-hours (kWh). A nightlight of 17 W must work 59 hours to spend one kWh. Consumption is recorded by the electricity meter. GROUNDING ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS INSTALLATION OR SCOPE: The socket earth (ground elctrodo) diverting the flow in case someone comes into contact with a faulty device. Therefore become mandatory in the foundations of the exterior walls (minimum depth: 60 cm) a ground wire ( copper) with a diameter of at least 35 mm2.

SWITCH ON EARTH: The ends of copper wire connected to a terminal. The resistance of the ground can not exceed 100 ohms, but you have to use galvanized poles dri ven into the ground. A ground switch (iobligatorio!) To measure the resistance o f the earth. RENEWAL In this case just enter the ground floor galvanized poles. In this way you get a resistance of 100 ohms scattering maximum. The connection of the post and ground switch is made by insulated copper conductor (yellow-gree n) at least 16 mm2. EQUIPOTENTIAL CONNECTION: Even a proper grounding does not prevent the current p assing through conductor elements outside the electrical installation: metal par ts of the building structure, aluminum chassis, steel profiles, ... This is why we use a bonding . It connects to each other and the earth all accessible conduc tive parts of the gas pipes, water and heating. There are also additional equipo tential among other things in the bathroom (see r1ubrica on this topic.) INTERIOR INSTALLATION ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TERMINAL BOX: The electricity enters the house through a power cable that reache s the terminal box.€Here is the main circuit breaker. The main switch to cut th e tension of the entire plant. Access to this box is reserved for the power comp any. DISTRIBUTION PANEL: This panel is the central point emerging from all electrical circuits are coupled and where the various circuit breakers. Ny change or exten sion of this part of the installation must be carried out by a recognized instal ler. There are also fitted panels and cables. GROUPS: The power supply to your house is composed of various circuits. If probl ems arise, the voltage is cut in just one part of the house. Failures often aris e from a network overload or short circuit. Overload occurs when demand for elec tricity is too much and levied. The short circuit occurs when the resistance bet ween two points of different potential is zero (and therefore the current is unl imited). Point to which group they belong plugs, lamps, etc.. To this end, short enough to turn the power of each circuit. INTERIOR ACTION ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS LIGHTING: The amount of current that can pass through the conductor depends on i ts diameter. Sufficient for lighting cables with a diameter of 1.5 mm2. Try to h ave at least one light source per room. Install additional lighting the kitchen on the counter. PLUGS: Try to have outlets in every room of the house so you can use your applia nces in every room. Limit the number of circuit 8. For plugs use a driver with a diameter of 2.5 mm2. Do not install outlets and lights in one circuit. GREAT POWER MACHINES: The fridge and freezer are powered by separate circuits (2 .5 mm2 in diameter) consisting of a single plug. Thus in case of default of anot her device the freezer will remain alimentado.Utilice 4 mm2 cables for the washe r and 6 mm2 for the kitchen. CIRCUIT BREAKER ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS CALCULATIONS: The voltage required to power the appliances is 220 V. If not vary , the required power to the circuit but can vary from 60 watts for a bulb to ove r 2 kilowatts for a washing machine. The maximum capacity of a circuit breaker d epends on the value of 2200 W (= 220 x 10) to 10 A, etc. For circuits that requi re low-power just a circuit breaker 10 A circuit for high power circuit breakers install more powerful. SIZING ITEMS: You must respect the size attributed to th e protection of each circuit in order to avoid any risk of overload without the

breaker is activated. This can be detected by a calibration factor, also may be a modular circuit breaker that mounts on the rail. FUSE: As you reach the maximum allowable intensity for a fuse (also is indicated by different colors), it melts and must be changed. It is preferable to change the old fuses 6, 10 and 15 A for the new 6, 10 and 16 A. AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT BREAKER: This type of circuit breaker is provided with a butto n or a lever that changes the position "off duty" in the case of an overload or short circuit. To regenerate enough power to reset the lever to its original pos ition. First remedy the cause of the damage or remove the faulty device. DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUIT: This type of circuit breaker is mounted with the box. Cut the power to detect a current above 300 mA in the circuit of the earth. For secu rity reasons can also mount 30 mA differential circuit breakers for bedrooms and bathroom. ELECTRICAL WIRING INSTALLATIONS FASIC DRIVER AND NEUTRAL: For current flow requires two threads: the phasic ('ro und') and neutral ("return"). Between the two threads there is a difference of p ower. As both threads come into contact (open circuit switch action), electricit y flows. EARTH: The earth is a vital security: in case of accidental contact of a person with power, it is diverted through the ground to the grounding electrode. Theref ore electrical appliances placed in a damp room or operating with water must be connected to earth. STAGE: The phasic cable can be brown or black. The rigid conductor of the fixed installation is usually brown while the flexible cable that connects to a switch lamp is usually black. COLORS: Safety is a major concern as far as electricity is concerned. So everywh ere you use a standard color code.€Since it was amended in 1970 is better to kn ow both versions (see below). When installing an electric circuit, always observ e these codes. For lamps phasic cut the thread up to the switch and allow the ne utral without interruption until the lamp. If you change the lamp cables will al ways live! ELECTRICAL WIRING INSTALLATIONS CASES: The conductors connecting the distribution box with circuit delivery poin ts must be protected. So to pass through the walls are stuffed in PVC or corruga ted plastic flex sleeves. They tend to gather in groups of 5 (or 3 2.5 mm2 and 1 .5 mm2 2). Elbows can bend an iron tubes for bending, but it is much easier to use special elbows whose limbs can enter the tubes. In the case of long tubes using a steel wire passing drivers. STEEL WIRE FOR PASSING THE DRIVER: A driver circuit (drive) is stripped over 10 cm. Y is attached to steel wire. The other bare wires along about 4 cm. are tied to the first. Work at two: one pushes while the other strip. Try to always on a bout 10 cm. Cable (reserve). Derivatives: Make referrals by boxes (built-in bathrooms) with different diamete rs concentric plugs on the sides. Cut the opening with the diameter of PVC pipe. In the box are the terminals.

ELECTRICAL WIRING FIXING PLANTS METHODS: For reasons of aesthetics tubes and junction boxes are often hidden in the walls, floors or ceilings in cracks open with a hammer or a grinder. These c racks become filled with cement to (try to avoid getting cement tubes). PATH OF TUBES: Once hidden in the walls, the pipes are no longer visible under t he paint or wallpaper. Therefore it is dangerous to make holes in the wall. Ther efore it is recommended to follow a defined path for the placement of the tubes (see picture), r draw a sketch or take a photo. EXTERNAL TUBES: Tubes on walls should be fixed by clamps every 30 cm. case of a horizontal pipe, and every 45 cm. case of a vertical tube. If you use your elbow s, place a clamp to a maximum distance of 10 cm. each of their limbs (As for the boxes, plugs and switches). FLEXIBLE CABLES: Apart from the rigid conductors in conduit flexible cables are different drivers grouped in a flexible sheathing: VVB, VTLB, VTMB ... These cables can be installed both inside and on top of a wa ll and are ideal for double walls. See "trajector a tube." Socket: Socket sten also former special plastic that can contain the wires and w here. It is easy to place outlets and switches. These sockets are pasted on the wall or simply attach with screws. They offer a quick and aesthetics. CUTTING AND STRIPPING CABLES ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS CUTTER: First you must open longitudinally flexible sheath surrounding the drive rs or in the case of a double cable crushed, separating the two conductors. Used for this purpose a universal cutter or electrician. Wire Strippers: The of "V" very keen to An adjusting nut to and released as the mouth of a stripper is provided with an opening in the form release the insulating layer protecting the driver himself. adjust the opening to the diameter of the cable. Pliers cut insulating layer without damaging the conductor.

DPELAR WIRES: Once cut the insulating layer, it can slide along the copper wire. Do not strip more than 1 cm. This is easy using automatic wire strippers and pl iers that are set to this distance. THREAD: Thread copper wire tightly so they do not form over a compact cable easy to introduce into the terminal. May also need to flex their limbs with a long p liers to facilitate their introduction into the contacts. INSULATION: A driver is damaged insulating sleeve which presents a danger. Shoul d be replaced. This may occur either with rigid conductors in a flexible tube an d wired. In this case repair the insulating sleeve with adhesive tape. PLUGS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS VISIBLE PLUGS / unit: electrical circuits feeding the outlets across the junctio n boxes and switches. Plugs can be visible and placed on top of the wall or rece ssed. In the latter case you should first make the necessary holes in the wall. CONNECTION: Connect the yellow and green earth ground to terminal marked with ha bitual.€The phasic wire connects to the terminal marked with a 'P', the remaini ng neutral wire to the terminal. SETTING: The left and right edge of the metal frame of the plug there are two nu ts to keep everything in place in the box. If necessary, release some of these n uts, put everything back in the box and tighten the nuts. Place below the top.

INSURANCE FOR CHILDREN: The children play with the plugs. Remember it safe and c hoose models whose holes are covered by a swivel plate which is due to turn arou nd to access the plug or insurance models with close called "clips." Derivatives: The new housing boxes are used derivac ion in an old building somet imes difficult to find a box. The easiest way is to derive the power plug does n ot exist if the circuit has more than eight outlets and if the wire has a diamet er of 2.5 mm2. SWITCHES ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS UNIPOLAR SWITCH: This has two terminals between which establishes whether or not a contact. The phasic wire is connected to the terminal marked with a "P" or a red dot. The other terminal is connected to the bulb with a black wire that exte nds the phase. The neutral wire to the bulb running continuously. BIPOLAR SWITCH : In the case of bipolar switch both phasic and neutral wire is interrupted. The respective positions of the blue and brown are not important. There are four te rminals two of which are marked by a 'P'. Try to make the black while the prolon ged phase. DOUBLE SWITCH: This is a switch with two keys by which two light bulb s can be handled separately. The stage is connected to the born and 'P' of a key , in turn connected to terminal neighbor. The extension of this common phase end where the bulb and two wires from the neutral conductor. AC POWER SWITCH: This system can handle a bulb from two switches located for example in the top and nf erior of stairs. The switches are provided each of 4 terminals. The terminals ar e identical in the two switches must be interconnected. LAMP INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS CHANDELIER: To hang a ceiling lamp will need a piece of suspension (plastic plat e with three holes). Thread the lamp cord through the cap and then through two h oles in the plate of suspension. CONNECTION: An emerging wires from the ceiling or lamp with a power strip. In th is way the connections are cut. The wires should be secured with a nut. Finally slide the cover over the connection. O LAMP AAPLIQUE TECH0: When the power cables out of the wall or roof can be appl ied or set the ceiling light. Attach with screws the wires to the terminals of t he socket. Fluorescent Lamp: Pull the strings of the supply into the opening provided throu gh the ceiling. Set in the ceiling mounting plate. Connect the wires d ue to the terminal of the lamp: brown for the phase, blue for neutral, green / yellow for earth. Place the fluorescent tube and cap. USUAL STRESS: The stress in the home network is 220 V, but using very low voltag es (12 V) is imposed for security reasons (among other things) ringtones, entry phones, intercoms and halogen lighting. BATHROOM ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS EQUIPOTENTIAL CONNECTION: The metallic elements such as the bathtub, shower, wat er pipes radiators, water heater and eventually the metal of the door jambs must be connected to each other and the earth. This additional bonding is required. DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUIT: A circuit breaker with a sensitivity of 30 mA is required for each wet room and laundry dryers and dishwashers. Regularly check your funci onam ent pushing the test button and then start it again. VOLUMES OF SAFETY: The bathroom is divided into different zones or 'volumes' abo

ut the tub: the amount of protection packaging volume and outer volume. The only electrical installations authorized in the first two volumes are powered by 12 volts. ENVOLTORlO VOLUME (VOLUME 1): The volume of the bath to a height of 2.25 m. (Thi s is called volume envelope) is prohibited the installation of lights or sockets . The only exceptions allowed are low voltage and water heaters set on the wall. Volumes 2 and 3: In volume 2 (volume protection) that co corresponds to an area of 60 cm.€around the tub is allowed to install lights mechanically protected. I n the rest of the bathroom can be installed sockets, switches or fixtures if the y are protected from water splashes. SAFETY TIPS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS CUT THE CURRENT: Even with the custom of making electricity works never forget t he first cut the power, at least the circuit that will work. If necessary, do no t hesitate to turn the main breaker. TOOLS (POWER): Of course the dangers of electricity has to do with driving. Ther efore you should limit the risks Zando useful tools with protective covers. iNO use in any metal tools with handles not isolated! Use only double insulated powe r tools. FUSING: If a fuse has blown not ever try to fix it through a copper wire or othe r conductor, but throw it away and replace it with another of equal value. CONEXlà NES: When a two-wire, do not connect simply trickles of copper, use a powe r strip: just avoid the risks due to lack of insulation, poor connections or acc idents.