You are on page 1of 7


L AND SYSTEMS EAP Industrial Engineering Course: Industrial Safety & Hygiene
From the industrial point of view, "Productivity" is the main objective and this
is achieved inter alia through proper application of "Safety" and "Ana lysis of
labor" and these, in turn need in their development a fundamental tool "inspect
ion" is undoubtedly the oldest technique and most commonly used to detect and co
ntrol potential accidents. 1 .- DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE We know that working condi
tions are constantly changing, in very short stacked and moving equipment and ma
terials in this rapidly changing and there are risks inherent in the industrial
process, there are also the trend in workers: - Making sure that all is well. -
Make repairs "interim tend to be permanent." - Make inadequate facilities for la
ck of knowledge. - Make changes to the equipment without authorization, reducing
the safety factors. INSPECTIONS "These are maintenance and production procedure
s that include visits to various eye industrial areas, in order to detect faulty
procedures, hazardous areas and potential risks, analyzing and evaluating these
risks, formulating corrective action and / or controlling the previous correcti
ons." Much of the progress and successes of Security should be the knowledge tha
t certain risks could and should be removed and this was possible through the pr
actice of the Inspectorate. Inspect does not mean "spying" or try to blame is a
way of knowing if all goes well and otherwise take action, since most of the thi
ngs that fail and especially accidents could be avoided by timely inspection . T
he planning, instruction, training and supervision prevent and reduce accidents,
but these actions will be more effective with adequate "safety inspection servi
ce." The inspection found dangerous situations that could be causes of accidents
, evaluates and determines corrective action in the following sequence: - "Ident
ification" - "Assessment" - "Prevention" - "Control": the risk is located specif
ically study and risk analysis. It eliminates the risk, taking corrective action
. Programming track.
An inspection planned methodically and evenly, with competent staff and systemat
ically carried out is an effective means for the "accident prevention" because m
echanical defects detected, a
environmental and behavioral, usually involving danger, for example: "The evil o
f cylinders stacked in a warehouse, resulted in an accident, causing injuries to
two workers and the deterioration of 11 cylinders. ¢ with an inspection should
be provided the danger posed by the stack and give the wrong remedy to avoid th
e accident. Inspections are also an effective means to identify sources that can
mean lost health, providing production can mean improvements in productivity, s
uch as: - Occupational diseases, injuries and traumas, abuse of alcohol. - Loss
of energy, loss of materials (theft). - Water pollution, air pollution, toxicity
. - Time lost, misused spaces, damage to property. - Tools and equipment defects
, risks of fire. 2. PROCESS OF INSPECTIONS While all inspections are important a
nd have the same objectives, these vary according to their magnitude, frequency
and scope schedule, the reference process stages is common to all inspection and
to a greater or lesser degree must be satisfied identified hazards. The process
consists of three stages: Preparation - Performance or report.
The importance of inspection and the need for the accuracy of their results and
is performed in the shortest time possible, requires adequate preparation, compr
1. Planning is to determine the type of inspection to be performed, place, date,
time, duration, likely, staff will do the inspection and personnel who must be
contacted, air, materials, facilities, machinery and equipment to inspect. 2. In
formation prior to the inspection, you must obtain adequate information about th
e area to be inspected frequently unsafe practices, accidents and injury rates,
results of previous inspections and investigations, reports, records, statistics
, cups and accidents. as needed. 3.€MATERIALS some detail should be provided wi
th everything necessary to facilitate the "inspection tour", such as diagrams an
d charts, to guide, personal protective equipment: helmets, gloves, goggles, res
pirators, etc.., Propaganda material , posters, brochures, advertisements, as we
ll as notebooks, pens, etc. 4. INSPECTION SHEET 2
Also called checklists, which should be prepared rably with all points considere
d, thus avoiding omissions, maintaining an order of priorities. To prepare such
lists can be built on the following aspects: a. Distribution of the plant. b. Ho
usekeeping. c. Handling and transport of materials. d. Protection of transmissio
n mechanisms. e. Electronic equipment, lighting. f. Tools, ladders, platforms. g
. Chains, cables, films, scaffolds. h. Noise, dust, radiation, hazardous substan
ces, fires. i. Personal protective equipment, workwear. j. Workers' attitudes to
ward safety. According to the reality of each company and the type of inspection
, must be more specific in the checklist, so if we take the point b. "Order and
cleanliness" should note the following: - Materials and articles scattered over
the floor. - Stacking, pick up and disposal of waste. - Splashes, spills, protru
ding nails. - Order, general cleaning, painting. - Oils, fats, risks of fire.
A place is in order when there is no unnecessary things and when all the necessa
ry things are in place
CLEANING ORDER Workspace Impaired Needless Rate each aspect marking (x) Out of p
lace Messy Inspector Supervisor Date
1. Floors, corridors, storage space. 2. Trucks, trailers and transporters. 3. De
sks, files, sectors of the supervisors office. 4. Corners, places little used. 5
. Machines, ovens. 6. Work places, tables, benches. 7. Cabinets or containers fo
r tools, supplies. 8. Deposit or sectors of tools. 9. Banks or branches of mecha
nics. 10. Toilet rooms, toilets, sinks. 11. Personal lockers. 12. Patios. B. - S
CRAP AND WASTE (Check the conditions found) 1. They should have been removed. 2.
No containers. 3. Wrong kind of containers. 4. Unidentified scrap containers. 5
. Waste in containers of scrap metal. C. - TOOLS AND SUPPLIES (Check the conditi
ons found) 1. Inadequate to accomplish its purpose. 2. Worn, broken. 4
3. There is no place for storage. 4. Abuse and inefficient. 5. Other (specify) D
- MATERIALS (Check the conditions found) 1. Poor stacking or locked. 2. There a
re no tickets or identification. 3. Should not be stored, discarded or otherwise
disposed of in April. Abuse and inefficient. E. - ENERGY (Check all conditions
encountered in its use) Adequate Waste 1. Electricity. 2. Vapor. 3. Compressed a
ir. 4. Heat, fuel, light. 5.Other (specify) F. - one light and ventilation. Term
s of fans, blowers, hoods, accessories. 2. Light, air, ventilation inadequate. 3
. Clogged with dirt. 4. Other (specify) G. - MAINTENANCE (Check the need if nece
ssary) Major repairs Minor repairs 1. Floors, doors, walls, windows. 2. Electric
al, plumbing service, etc. 3. Machines. 4. Elevators, engines, tractors. 5. Acce
ssories of other machines. 6. Cranes, conveyors tractorizados. 7. Trucks, traile
rs. 8. Tables, platforms, benches. 9. Shelves, trays, 5
pallets. 10. Miscellaneous equipment. 11. Other (specify) H. - SECURITY (Check t
he conditions you find) 1. Danger-direct control. 2. Danger-indirect control. 3.
Unsafe. 4. Easy access to stretchers, fire extinguishers. 5. Breach of safety r
ules. 6. Lack of education 7. Other (specify)
Because of the special conditions and products that may be involved, each compan
y usually prepares his own form.
SECTION: INSPECTOR: aspects to evaluate tools should be in place should be clean
by keeping must be in safe working conditions safe floors must have surfaces mu
st be clean, dry and visible deposits must have CORRIDORS trash must converge to
the workplace must be clean, bright, unobstructed fire extinguishers must be cl
early marked and be MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT must be clean and free of material s
hould not have leaks, grease,€must have their oil reserves and in good conditio
n must have adequate lighting materials must be neatly stacked and arranged to b
e charged with security and order must be classified and transported PATIOS shou
ld be in order, clean and ventilated trash deposits must have safety devices ext
inguishers, etc.. BUILDINGS Walls, ceilings, doors and windows must be reasonabl
y clean without hanging materials must have adequate lighting system which must
be properly maintained. Must have clean stairs with handrails and steps in good
6 6 6 3 6 6 3 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 3 1.5 3 3 3 1.5 3 3 1.5 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 0.5
1 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5
3 5 7 2 6 6 3 6 6
2 4 5 1.5 4.5 4.5 2.5 4 4
1.5 3 3.5 1.0 3.5 3.5 2 3 3
2 2 2.5 0.5 2.5 2.5 1.5 2 2
1 1 1.5 0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1 1
3 April 5
2 April 3
1.5 March 2
1 February 1
0.5 1 0.5
Also called tour of inspection should be carried out as was planned, please note
the need to use the shortest time possible, without thereby making the inspecti
on in a hurry, if so, it is preferable to the inspection of a sector in due form
and should not cover the whole factory in a superficial way, to carry out an in
spection please note the following: 1. SEQUENCE: When performing the inspection
must be borne in mind the conditions, the order of operations and processes, in
multi-storey factory is better to work down. 2. GENERAL CONDITIONS: In carrying
out the inspection, please note the general conditions of the factory, such as:
a. DISTRIBUTION OF THE PLANT: Doors and windows, floors, corridors, stairs. b. T
RANSPORTATION: Automotive, cranes, hoists, conveyors, elevators. c. ELECTRICITY:
Lighting, appliances, panels, transformers, fuses. d. MATERIALS: toxic substanc
es, explosives, acids, alkalis, packaging. e. GUARDS: Fixed, mobile, alarm syste
ms, speakers, lights. f. PRESSURE EQUIPMENT: Boilers, compressors, cylinders of
gas. g. SAFETY EQUIPMENT: Personal Protective Equipment, First Aid. h. ATMOSPHER
IC CONDITIONS: Fumes, vapors, dust, mist, radiation. 3. WORKING PROCEDURES: Obse
rve workers and do their work, identifying faulty procedures and formulate corre
ctive actions, and providing answers to questions like: Do you use defective too
ls or equipment, or as unsafe? "They operate machines, tools at unsafe speeds? "
Repairing, adjusting, oiling equipment and / or machinery in motion? Are safety
devices, use their protective equipment? 4. Critical parts: In all machinery, eq
uipment, operations and industrial processes, there essential parts, which carry
a high risk, a potential danger, and the cables of an elevator, a fan belt of a
car, chain a conveyor, control equipment, guards, electrical controls, temperat
ure and radiation burners in a furnace, safety valves, alarms, etc. they are all
critical parts that must function properly, that is for sure. But due to the us
e, effort, vibration, corrosion and other factors may fail, bringing with accide
nts and interruptions
operations and therefore must be regularly inspected, being a supervisor's respo
nsibility. Identify the critical parts in the areas of work, priorities and timi
ng of these parts is very valuable and in its determination, please note the fol
lowing: - Experience of fault to each party is particularly critical. - If the p
art fails, what is the probability of an accident. - How quickly may fail the pa
rt. - Facilities and time available when the part fails. Inspections of critical
parts, determine the conditions under which they are (worn, loose, flammable, e
longated, soft, cracked, etc..) And provide remedies, requires specific expertis
e, a situation, that to be kept in mind. To monitor and maintain Further informa
tion can be made "record cards of critical parts" of each section and even as ne
eds may be several cards for each computer that involve critical parts informati
on can be cast as a supervisor for Registration information and control. HAZARDS
CLASSIFICATION: They consist in setting priorities, so that the most significan
t risk should take precedence in the process of correction. This classification
should describe the potential seriousness of the injury and possible damage€as
follows: CLASS "A" are dangerous for a condition or faulty procedures, with the
potential for injury Total Partial Disability (ITP) or permanent partial disabil
ity (IPP) with loss of equipment or considerable material. Example: A worker cle
aning a semi-tank, without prior evacuation of gases, the lack of receipt of a m
ower. CLASS "B" Dangers of acts or conditions with potential injury Temporary To
tal Disability (ITT) illness or minor property damage. Example: A well slippery
stairs with a broken step, split-level floors, acid vapors in a laboratory. CLAS
S "C" Hazard acts or conditions with the potential for minor injury first aid an
d minor damage. Example: The lack of lenses when handling a solution with low cc
caustic soda. Hazard classification, supporting actions to eliminate the risks
and encourages them to take prompt action to correct the most serious hazards. M
aybe some new supervisor, for drawing their attention to small things to abuse t
his system, but higher-level supervisors and experience, able to assess properly
. 5. RECOMMENDATIONS: a. Find the risks, less obvious things. 9
b. Discover and locate each risk clearly. c. Find the root causes of deficiencie
s and eliminate the risk as soon as possible ms. d. Thoroughly review all places
, clear and safe to ask for information, take notes and score situations. e. Avo
id distracting the staff and stop production. f. Facilitate a meeting with the S
upervisors at the end of the inspection, to hear their views and answer your que
Once the inspection, the inspector must present the conclusions reached, this is
important as the conclusions themselves, because unless you initiate immediate
corrective action, time and effort have been infertile. This makes the inspector
should take the time to analyze your notes and organize a report, to decide wha
t to include, to generalize, underline, add some detail, vivid, and to reach con
clusions and make recommendations. The preparation of the report requires skill
and careful work, must be clearly defined, based on fact and its recommendations
compelling, logical and supportable. Should take into account the views and nee
ds of those it will affect the outcomes of the report. People who have accompani
ed us on the inspection, the report should be read and listen to your input, if
necessary changing our conclusions and recommendations to practical results and
more effective in industrial work. 1. RECOMMENDATIONS: a. Encode all critical po
ints. b. Write down all the things that have been corrected since the last inspe
ction £ enumerated and followed by its hazard classification and coding symbols
. c. Prepare a form for frequent inspections. 2. CONTROL: The control of the cor
rective measures, it is vitally important because to the extent that compliance
with the inspection to be effective. Should be given a reasonable time for imple
mentation of these actions and then monitor compliance and report to CSHI, to in
dicate the appropriate sanctions, if necessary. TYPES OF INSPECTIONS: In industr
ial work through the experience, it has been the refinement of various technique
s for effective inspection, with certain differences in time to be realized, to
their preparation and frequency, but equal in its uniformity and its objectives,
inspections can be grouped into four types: 1. CONTINUOUS INSPECTIONS: These ar
e those that are performed regularly at short intervals of time (day shift), con
ducted by plant personnel, Director or Safety Engineer or Safety Commissions. Th
us we have: Inspections of "housekeeping", "personal protective equipment", "con
trol systems", the preparation of these inspections
is brief, they quickly discover the advantage of changes in the operations and r
isks, taking corrective action promptly. 2. SPECIAL INSPECTIONS: As its name imp
lies, are made in situations of particular importance for the company, so when a
n accident has happened magnitude, fires, explosions, all accidents involving lo
ss of life, also when you start a campaign safety, when implementing new working
methods, new installations, process changes, etc., preparation, evaluation and
conclusions must be very thoroughly and carefully. These inspections are often c
arried out by officials from the state for non-business specialists,€(Constitut
ing single-visit surveys), but always involves the responsibility for the safety
of the industrial center. 3. Periodic inspections or preventive maintenance: in
spections are in response to a program of preventive maintenance of equipment, m
achinery, installations. Are made at set intervals of time (month, week, semeste
r) are rably very carefully prepared and well: Inspections of "Boilers and Compr
essors", "machine guards," transmissions, gear "," fire prevention " , "drivers,
power systems." In these inspections, personnel, detects potential failures, pr
edicting its occurrence, making repairs and changes required to avoid the accide
nt. 4. ONLY VISIT INSPECTIONS: These are usually made only once in an appreciabl
e period of time (one year). By inspectors are outside the company, Cia Engineer
s. Insurance or a government official or an expert whose advice was sought. Its
main purpose is to evaluate the safety performance of the company and submit the
results to the address for an application of more efficient security, so the ev
aluator must reach the right conclusions and should be presented in an appropria
te manner, allowing prompt and adequate corrective action. Such inspections are
the most complete and therefore requires advance preparation and planning of wor
k, if the company is large, it should make a quick visit before the inspection a
nd possibly in company with the production staff and / or security. After the in
spection and to be performed by the expert must be present: a. INFORMATION: In a
ddition to information normally required for inspection: - The type of industry,
category and magnitude. - The organizational structure and policies of the comp
any and its principal officers. - The implementation and results of safety. b. T
HE SCOPE OF THE INSPECTION: You must define what we understand the inspection, i
nspection routes and the identification of hazards. 11
c. INITIAL INTERVIEW: The "interest" on the security of the chief executive of t
he company is of vital importance, therefore this element must be assessed to so
me intangible way, and if necessary stimulate, to obtain a higher degree of inte
rest, without which, inspection and more thorough assessment and recommendations
would be more sensible of little practical value in the interest of safety, so
it is appropriate one "initial visit" the chief executive officer and where poss
ible be accompanied by the executive responsible for the security in the company
and show the need for security valuation in a convincing manner, be taken into
account: - "The purpose of visit: If you have been called by the staff, get a th
orough explanation of what is desired, giving the importance for their views. -
"Information security expertise" should be examined with the executive cups of a
ccidents, causes greater air accident, costs, statistics, records, noting the de
sirability of this, and together they select the major accidents that require st
udied and investigated later. - "Exposing the role of inspection, which include
routes, order, type of inspection, equipment, machinery, processes and operation
s to be inspected, persons to accompany the inspector, with personal contact to
be taken, as well as date, time and time probably required. - "Evaluation Meetin
g": It is in this interview, let set a meeting at the conclusion of the inspecti
on, to evaluate the findings in the inspection tour and take the findings, ident
ifying the people who participate in this meeting and doing this that necessary
after this meeting, exchanging ideas with the chief executive. d. THE TOUR OF IN
SPECTION: is to run the investigation as described in an inspection process of t
aking this further: - It is appropriate that the chief executive accompany the i
nspection at least in the beginning or at some stage of implementation. - should
focus on if possible in accidents that were previously selected for investigati
on. - Favourable conditions should be objects of positive feedback but without e
xaggeration and unsafe conditions should be indicated by way of suggestion the c
hief executive. - Recommendations should be practical and useful. e. REPORT: Aft
er the tour of inspection must be completed within the previously established se
ssion to evaluate the results and with the contributions and different points of
view€Specialist organize a "report" with the conclusions reached by adding the
ir own comments and recommendations that his experience indicated in each case.
The survey conducted by a specialist from outside the enterprise, has the advant
age of new approaches, without prejudice and backed by the reputation of the con
sultant and the administration of the company tends to give much attention to it
s recommendations. In preparing the report will present the guidelines given ear
lier in the process of inspection.
BENEFITS OF INSPECTIONS: 1. Allow timely know workplace hazards and take correct
ive action more effective. 2. Keeps informed the Company address the existing ri
sks and corrective actions, providing assistance when necessary. 3. Makes it pos
sible to have a uniform information, identifying needs and priority prevention i
n addressing the risks. 4. Develops in people, positive attitudes towards securi
ty, maintaining the interest in preventing accidents. 5. The benefits are shared
between employer and employee, allowing better industrial relations. 6. Allows
determination of the areas, operations, methods that require training of personn
1. LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE: What is the probability that a low accident happen
because of this danger? 2. LIKELIHOOD OF GRAVITY l What is the likely severity o
f the injury and least damage if an accident occurs? 3. COST CONTROL What is the
recommended control cost? Under 4. DEGREE OF CONTROL What is the degree of cont
rol would be achieved At least with this cost? Moderate High
More serious
Middle East
High High
Example of Inspector General that allows an immediate assessment
April 3 BUILDINGS Order Unsafe Conditions Unsafe Acts and Unsafe Acts cleaning M
ACHINES Other Unsafe Conditions Order and cleanliness Other Unsafe Conditions Un
safe Acts EQUIPMENT Order and cleanliness Other Unsafe Conditions Unsafe Acts TO
OLS Order and cleanliness Other NOTE: Any additional information please write on
the back of the blade