NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Hermilio Valdizán - HUANUCO ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIA L AND SYSTEMS EAP Industrial Engineering Course: Industrial

Safety & Hygiene SAFETY INSPECTIONS From the industrial point of view, "Productivity" is the main objective and this is achieved inter alia through proper application of "Safety" and "Ana lysis of labor" and these, in turn need in their development a fundamental tool "inspect ion" is undoubtedly the oldest technique and most commonly used to detect and co ntrol potential accidents. 1 .- DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE We know that working condi tions are constantly changing, in very short stacked and moving equipment and ma terials in this rapidly changing and there are risks inherent in the industrial process, there are also the trend in workers: - Making sure that all is well. Make repairs "interim tend to be permanent." - Make inadequate facilities for la ck of knowledge. - Make changes to the equipment without authorization, reducing the safety factors. INSPECTIONS "These are maintenance and production procedure s that include visits to various eye industrial areas, in order to detect faulty procedures, hazardous areas and potential risks, analyzing and evaluating these risks, formulating corrective action and / or controlling the previous correcti ons." Much of the progress and successes of Security should be the knowledge tha t certain risks could and should be removed and this was possible through the pr actice of the Inspectorate. Inspect does not mean "spying" or try to blame is a way of knowing if all goes well and otherwise take action, since most of the thi ngs that fail and especially accidents could be avoided by timely inspection . T he planning, instruction, training and supervision prevent and reduce accidents, but these actions will be more effective with adequate "safety inspection servi ce." The inspection found dangerous situations that could be causes of accidents , evaluates and determines corrective action in the following sequence: - "Ident ification" - "Assessment" - "Prevention" - "Control": the risk is located specif ically study and risk analysis. It eliminates the risk, taking corrective action . Programming track. An inspection planned methodically and evenly, with competent staff and systemat ically carried out is an effective means for the "accident prevention" because m echanical defects detected, a environmental and behavioral, usually involving danger, for example: "The evil o f cylinders stacked in a warehouse, resulted in an accident, causing injuries to two workers and the deterioration of 11 cylinders. ¢ with an inspection should be provided the danger posed by the stack and give the wrong remedy to avoid th e accident. Inspections are also an effective means to identify sources that can mean lost health, providing production can mean improvements in productivity, s uch as: - Occupational diseases, injuries and traumas, abuse of alcohol. - Loss of energy, loss of materials (theft). - Water pollution, air pollution, toxicity . - Time lost, misused spaces, damage to property. - Tools and equipment defects , risks of fire. 2. PROCESS OF INSPECTIONS While all inspections are important a nd have the same objectives, these vary according to their magnitude, frequency and scope schedule, the reference process stages is common to all inspection and to a greater or lesser degree must be satisfied identified hazards. The process consists of three stages: Preparation - Performance or report. 1st. PHASE: PREPARATION OF THE INSPECTION The importance of inspection and the need for the accuracy of their results and is performed in the shortest time possible, requires adequate preparation, compr ising: 1. Planning is to determine the type of inspection to be performed, place, date, time, duration, likely, staff will do the inspection and personnel who must be contacted, air, materials, facilities, machinery and equipment to inspect. 2. In formation prior to the inspection, you must obtain adequate information about th e area to be inspected frequently unsafe practices, accidents and injury rates,

results of previous inspections and investigations, reports, records, statistics , cups and accidents. as needed. 3.€MATERIALS some detail should be provided wi th everything necessary to facilitate the "inspection tour", such as diagrams an d charts, to guide, personal protective equipment: helmets, gloves, goggles, res pirators, etc.., Propaganda material , posters, brochures, advertisements, as we ll as notebooks, pens, etc. 4. INSPECTION SHEET 2 Also called checklists, which should be prepared rably with all points considere d, thus avoiding omissions, maintaining an order of priorities. To prepare such lists can be built on the following aspects: a. Distribution of the plant. b. Ho usekeeping. c. Handling and transport of materials. d. Protection of transmissio n mechanisms. e. Electronic equipment, lighting. f. Tools, ladders, platforms. g . Chains, cables, films, scaffolds. h. Noise, dust, radiation, hazardous substan ces, fires. i. Personal protective equipment, workwear. j. Workers' attitudes to ward safety. According to the reality of each company and the type of inspection , must be more specific in the checklist, so if we take the point b. "Order and cleanliness" should note the following: - Materials and articles scattered over the floor. - Stacking, pick up and disposal of waste. - Splashes, spills, protru ding nails. - Order, general cleaning, painting. - Oils, fats, risks of fire. A place is in order when there is no unnecessary things and when all the necessa ry things are in place 3 CHECK SHEET FOR CLEANING AND ORDER CLEANING ORDER Workspace Impaired Needless Rate each aspect marking (x) Out of p lace Messy Inspector Supervisor Date 1. Floors, corridors, storage space. 2. Trucks, trailers and transporters. 3. De sks, files, sectors of the supervisors office. 4. Corners, places little used. 5 . Machines, ovens. 6. Work places, tables, benches. 7. Cabinets or containers fo r tools, supplies. 8. Deposit or sectors of tools. 9. Banks or branches of mecha nics. 10. Toilet rooms, toilets, sinks. 11. Personal lockers. 12. Patios. B. - S CRAP AND WASTE (Check the conditions found) 1. They should have been removed. 2. No containers. 3. Wrong kind of containers. 4. Unidentified scrap containers. 5 . Waste in containers of scrap metal. C. - TOOLS AND SUPPLIES (Check the conditi ons found) 1. Inadequate to accomplish its purpose. 2. Worn, broken. 4 Greasy Dirty 3. There is no place for storage. 4. Abuse and inefficient. 5. Other (specify) D - MATERIALS (Check the conditions found) 1. Poor stacking or locked. 2. There a re no tickets or identification. 3. Should not be stored, discarded or otherwise disposed of in April. Abuse and inefficient. E. - ENERGY (Check all conditions encountered in its use) Adequate Waste 1. Electricity. 2. Vapor. 3. Compressed a ir. 4. Heat, fuel, light. 5.Other (specify) F. - one light and ventilation. Term s of fans, blowers, hoods, accessories. 2. Light, air, ventilation inadequate. 3 . Clogged with dirt. 4. Other (specify) G. - MAINTENANCE (Check the need if nece ssary) Major repairs Minor repairs 1. Floors, doors, walls, windows. 2. Electric al, plumbing service, etc. 3. Machines. 4. Elevators, engines, tractors. 5. Acce ssories of other machines. 6. Cranes, conveyors tractorizados. 7. Trucks, traile rs. 8. Tables, platforms, benches. 9. Shelves, trays, 5 Losses Replacements

pallets. 10. Miscellaneous he conditions you find) 1. Unsafe. 4. Easy access to ules. 6. Lack of education __________________ INSPECTOR

equipment. 11. Other (specify) H. - SECURITY (Check t Danger-direct control. 2. Danger-indirect control. 3. stretchers, fire extinguishers. 5. Breach of safety r 7. Other (specify)

Because of the special conditions and products that may be involved, each compan y usually prepares his own form. 6 ORDER FORM FOR INSPECTION AND CLEANING SECTION: INSPECTOR: aspects to evaluate tools should be in place should be clean by keeping must be in safe working conditions safe floors must have surfaces mu st be clean, dry and visible deposits must have CORRIDORS trash must converge to the workplace must be clean, bright, unobstructed fire extinguishers must be cl early marked and be MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT must be clean and free of material s hould not have leaks, grease,€must have their oil reserves and in good conditio n must have adequate lighting materials must be neatly stacked and arranged to b e charged with security and order must be classified and transported PATIOS shou ld be in order, clean and ventilated trash deposits must have safety devices ext inguishers, etc.. BUILDINGS Walls, ceilings, doors and windows must be reasonabl y clean without hanging materials must have adequate lighting system which must be properly maintained. Must have clean stairs with handrails and steps in good condition and lighting TOTAL SCORE COMMENTS DATE: TYPE: ASSIGNMENT OF SCORES 6 3 6 6 6 3 6 6 3 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 3 1.5 3 3 3 1.5 3 3 1.5 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 0.5 1 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 3 5 7 2 6 6 3 6 6 2 4 5 1.5 4.5 4.5 2.5 4 4 1.5 3 3.5 1.0 3.5 3.5 2 3 3 2 2 2.5 0.5 2.5 2.5 1.5 2 2 1 1 1.5 0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1 1 3 April 5 2 April 3 1.5 March 2 1 February 1 0.5 1 0.5 7 2nd. PHASE: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INSPECTION Also called tour of inspection should be carried out as was planned, please note the need to use the shortest time possible, without thereby making the inspecti on in a hurry, if so, it is preferable to the inspection of a sector in due form and should not cover the whole factory in a superficial way, to carry out an in spection please note the following: 1. SEQUENCE: When performing the inspection must be borne in mind the conditions, the order of operations and processes, in multi-storey factory is better to work down. 2. GENERAL CONDITIONS: In carrying

out the inspection, please note the general conditions of the factory, such as: a. DISTRIBUTION OF THE PLANT: Doors and windows, floors, corridors, stairs. b. T RANSPORTATION: Automotive, cranes, hoists, conveyors, elevators. c. ELECTRICITY: Lighting, appliances, panels, transformers, fuses. d. MATERIALS: toxic substanc es, explosives, acids, alkalis, packaging. e. GUARDS: Fixed, mobile, alarm syste ms, speakers, lights. f. PRESSURE EQUIPMENT: Boilers, compressors, cylinders of gas. g. SAFETY EQUIPMENT: Personal Protective Equipment, First Aid. h. ATMOSPHER IC CONDITIONS: Fumes, vapors, dust, mist, radiation. 3. WORKING PROCEDURES: Obse rve workers and do their work, identifying faulty procedures and formulate corre ctive actions, and providing answers to questions like: Do you use defective too ls or equipment, or as unsafe? "They operate machines, tools at unsafe speeds? " Repairing, adjusting, oiling equipment and / or machinery in motion? Are safety devices, use their protective equipment? 4. Critical parts: In all machinery, eq uipment, operations and industrial processes, there essential parts, which carry a high risk, a potential danger, and the cables of an elevator, a fan belt of a car, chain a conveyor, control equipment, guards, electrical controls, temperat ure and radiation burners in a furnace, safety valves, alarms, etc. they are all critical parts that must function properly, that is for sure. But due to the us e, effort, vibration, corrosion and other factors may fail, bringing with accide nts and interruptions 8 operations and therefore must be regularly inspected, being a supervisor's respo nsibility. Identify the critical parts in the areas of work, priorities and timi ng of these parts is very valuable and in its determination, please note the fol lowing: - Experience of fault to each party is particularly critical. - If the p art fails, what is the probability of an accident. - How quickly may fail the pa rt. - Facilities and time available when the part fails. Inspections of critical parts, determine the conditions under which they are (worn, loose, flammable, e longated, soft, cracked, etc..) And provide remedies, requires specific expertis e, a situation, that to be kept in mind. To monitor and maintain Further informa tion can be made "record cards of critical parts" of each section and even as ne eds may be several cards for each computer that involve critical parts informati on can be cast as a supervisor for Registration information and control. HAZARDS CLASSIFICATION: They consist in setting priorities, so that the most significan t risk should take precedence in the process of correction. This classification should describe the potential seriousness of the injury and possible damage€as follows: CLASS "A" are dangerous for a condition or faulty procedures, with the potential for injury Total Partial Disability (ITP) or permanent partial disabil ity (IPP) with loss of equipment or considerable material. Example: A worker cle aning a semi-tank, without prior evacuation of gases, the lack of receipt of a m ower. CLASS "B" Dangers of acts or conditions with potential injury Temporary To tal Disability (ITT) illness or minor property damage. Example: A well slippery stairs with a broken step, split-level floors, acid vapors in a laboratory. CLAS S "C" Hazard acts or conditions with the potential for minor injury first aid an d minor damage. Example: The lack of lenses when handling a solution with low cc caustic soda. Hazard classification, supporting actions to eliminate the risks and encourages them to take prompt action to correct the most serious hazards. M aybe some new supervisor, for drawing their attention to small things to abuse t his system, but higher-level supervisors and experience, able to assess properly . 5. RECOMMENDATIONS: a. Find the risks, less obvious things. 9 b. Discover and locate each risk clearly. c. Find the root causes of deficiencie s and eliminate the risk as soon as possible ms. d. Thoroughly review all places , clear and safe to ask for information, take notes and score situations. e. Avo id distracting the staff and stop production. f. Facilitate a meeting with the S upervisors at the end of the inspection, to hear their views and answer your que stions.

3rd. STAGE: THE REPORT Once the inspection, the inspector must present the conclusions reached, this is important as the conclusions themselves, because unless you initiate immediate corrective action, time and effort have been infertile. This makes the inspector should take the time to analyze your notes and organize a report, to decide wha t to include, to generalize, underline, add some detail, vivid, and to reach con clusions and make recommendations. The preparation of the report requires skill and careful work, must be clearly defined, based on fact and its recommendations compelling, logical and supportable. Should take into account the views and nee ds of those it will affect the outcomes of the report. People who have accompani ed us on the inspection, the report should be read and listen to your input, if necessary changing our conclusions and recommendations to practical results and more effective in industrial work. 1. RECOMMENDATIONS: a. Encode all critical po ints. b. Write down all the things that have been corrected since the last inspe ction £ enumerated and followed by its hazard classification and coding symbols . c. Prepare a form for frequent inspections. 2. CONTROL: The control of the cor rective measures, it is vitally important because to the extent that compliance with the inspection to be effective. Should be given a reasonable time for imple mentation of these actions and then monitor compliance and report to CSHI, to in dicate the appropriate sanctions, if necessary. TYPES OF INSPECTIONS: In industr ial work through the experience, it has been the refinement of various technique s for effective inspection, with certain differences in time to be realized, to their preparation and frequency, but equal in its uniformity and its objectives, inspections can be grouped into four types: 1. CONTINUOUS INSPECTIONS: These ar e those that are performed regularly at short intervals of time (day shift), con ducted by plant personnel, Director or Safety Engineer or Safety Commissions. Th us we have: Inspections of "housekeeping", "personal protective equipment", "con trol systems", the preparation of these inspections 10 is brief, they quickly discover the advantage of changes in the operations and r isks, taking corrective action promptly. 2. SPECIAL INSPECTIONS: As its name imp lies, are made in situations of particular importance for the company, so when a n accident has happened magnitude, fires, explosions, all accidents involving lo ss of life, also when you start a campaign safety, when implementing new working methods, new installations, process changes, etc., preparation, evaluation and conclusions must be very thoroughly and carefully. These inspections are often c arried out by officials from the state for non-business specialists,€(Constitut ing single-visit surveys), but always involves the responsibility for the safety of the industrial center. 3. Periodic inspections or preventive maintenance: in spections are in response to a program of preventive maintenance of equipment, m achinery, installations. Are made at set intervals of time (month, week, semeste r) are rably very carefully prepared and well: Inspections of "Boilers and Compr essors", "machine guards," transmissions, gear "," fire prevention " , "drivers, power systems." In these inspections, personnel, detects potential failures, pr edicting its occurrence, making repairs and changes required to avoid the accide nt. 4. ONLY VISIT INSPECTIONS: These are usually made only once in an appreciabl e period of time (one year). By inspectors are outside the company, Cia Engineer s. Insurance or a government official or an expert whose advice was sought. Its main purpose is to evaluate the safety performance of the company and submit the results to the address for an application of more efficient security, so the ev aluator must reach the right conclusions and should be presented in an appropria te manner, allowing prompt and adequate corrective action. Such inspections are the most complete and therefore requires advance preparation and planning of wor k, if the company is large, it should make a quick visit before the inspection a nd possibly in company with the production staff and / or security. After the in spection and to be performed by the expert must be present: a. INFORMATION: In a ddition to information normally required for inspection: - The type of industry, category and magnitude. - The organizational structure and policies of the comp

any and its principal officers. - The implementation and results of safety. b. T HE SCOPE OF THE INSPECTION: You must define what we understand the inspection, i nspection routes and the identification of hazards. 11 c. INITIAL INTERVIEW: The "interest" on the security of the chief executive of t he company is of vital importance, therefore this element must be assessed to so me intangible way, and if necessary stimulate, to obtain a higher degree of inte rest, without which, inspection and more thorough assessment and recommendations would be more sensible of little practical value in the interest of safety, so it is appropriate one "initial visit" the chief executive officer and where poss ible be accompanied by the executive responsible for the security in the company and show the need for security valuation in a convincing manner, be taken into account: - "The purpose of visit: If you have been called by the staff, get a th orough explanation of what is desired, giving the importance for their views. "Information security expertise" should be examined with the executive cups of a ccidents, causes greater air accident, costs, statistics, records, noting the de sirability of this, and together they select the major accidents that require st udied and investigated later. - "Exposing the role of inspection, which include routes, order, type of inspection, equipment, machinery, processes and operation s to be inspected, persons to accompany the inspector, with personal contact to be taken, as well as date, time and time probably required. - "Evaluation Meetin g": It is in this interview, let set a meeting at the conclusion of the inspecti on, to evaluate the findings in the inspection tour and take the findings, ident ifying the people who participate in this meeting and doing this that necessary after this meeting, exchanging ideas with the chief executive. d. THE TOUR OF IN SPECTION: is to run the investigation as described in an inspection process of t aking this further: - It is appropriate that the chief executive accompany the i nspection at least in the beginning or at some stage of implementation. - should focus on if possible in accidents that were previously selected for investigati on. - Favourable conditions should be objects of positive feedback but without e xaggeration and unsafe conditions should be indicated by way of suggestion the c hief executive. - Recommendations should be practical and useful. e. REPORT: Aft er the tour of inspection must be completed within the previously established se ssion to evaluate the results and with the contributions and different points of view€Specialist organize a "report" with the conclusions reached by adding the ir own comments and recommendations that his experience indicated in each case. The survey conducted by a specialist from outside the enterprise, has the advant age of new approaches, without prejudice and backed by the reputation of the con sultant and the administration of the company tends to give much attention to it s recommendations. In preparing the report will present the guidelines given ear lier in the process of inspection. 12 BENEFITS OF INSPECTIONS: 1. Allow timely know workplace hazards and take correct ive action more effective. 2. Keeps informed the Company address the existing ri sks and corrective actions, providing assistance when necessary. 3. Makes it pos sible to have a uniform information, identifying needs and priority prevention i n addressing the risks. 4. Develops in people, positive attitudes towards securi ty, maintaining the interest in preventing accidents. 5. The benefits are shared between employer and employee, allowing better industrial relations. 6. Allows determination of the areas, operations, methods that require training of personn el. GUIDANCE FOR THE DECISION POINTS IN THE CONTROL OF HAZARDS 1. LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE: What is the probability that a low accident happen because of this danger? 2. LIKELIHOOD OF GRAVITY l What is the likely severity o f the injury and least damage if an accident occurs? 3. COST CONTROL What is the recommended control cost? Under 4. DEGREE OF CONTROL What is the degree of cont rol would be achieved At least with this cost? Moderate High

More serious Catastrophic Middle East High High 13 Example of Inspector General that allows an immediate assessment GENERAL FORMAT FOR INSPECTIONS SECTION: ASPECTS OF EVALUATION COMMITTEE: February 1 QUALIFYING DATE: June 5 OBS ERVATION April 3 BUILDINGS Order Unsafe Conditions ACHINES Other Unsafe Conditions Order and safe Acts EQUIPMENT Order and cleanliness OLS Order and cleanliness Other NOTE: Any the back of the blade 14 Unsafe Acts and Unsafe Acts cleaning M cleanliness Other Unsafe Conditions Un Other Unsafe Conditions Unsafe Acts TO additional information please write on