Lisete Scienza heat exchanger s are devices that perform the heat exchange between two fluids, usually separat ed by a solid wall, through the mechanisms of conduction and convection. CLASSIF ICATION FOR USE Cooler  cools a fluid through water or air. Refrigerator  cool s a fluid at temperatures below those obtained when using water. As refrigerants are commonly employs ammonia and freon. Condenser  cools the steam until its p artial or total condensation. Heater  heats a fluid process, often through wate r vapor. Reboiler  a term particularly used for the vaporizer that works attach ed to the bottom of fractionation towers, reevaporating the waste accumulated t here. Evaporator  are used to concentrate a solution by vaporization of water. Beyond the vaporization of water occurs and any other fluid unit called a vapori zer. Exchanger  although this term is used for almost all equipment exchange is best applied to cases in which the two effects, a cooling fluid and heating the other, are desired in the process. CLASSIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION Recuperative: fluids are separated by an intermediate wall, which represents the true surface heat transfer. Ex: tubular exchangers. Regenerative: its operation is characterized by the inner surfaces (heating elem ent), which are alternately exposed to the two fluids, ie, the hot fluid transfe rs heat to the heating element to flow through it, get cold, the heat stored in the thermal element is then transferred to the cold fluid when it flows to the e quipment. Ex: Ljungstron (thermal rotating wheel). 1 Diagram of the regenerative heat exchanger Basket items Operation: A hot gas flows over the surface of metal components, increasing its temperature. As the rotor turns, at about 1 rpm, heated components move into the cold gas stream, increasing its temperature. The rotary heat exchangers are pro duced in various sizes, depending on the application, but can be up to 20 meters in diameter, weighing over 800 tons. Different elements are specifically design ed for fuel or specific applications, with performance reflecting a compromise b etween resistance to erosion or soot and efficiency of heat transfer. To move la rge quantities of gas or air, the rotary regenerative heat exchangers are an ext remely efficient and compact. The reason is that both surfaces of each plate ele ment is used both to heat transfer, to rotate through both the gas side as the a ir heat exchanger. 2 CLASSIFICATION FOR THE FILE TRANSFER Exchangers direct contact  the transfer of heat occurs between two immiscible fluids, such as a gas and a liquid coming in to direct contact. Eg cooling towers. Exchangers indirect contact  no mixing of two fluids. The hot and cold fluids a re separated by a surface heat exchange. Eg multitubular heat exchanger. 3 CLASSIFICATION Compacting ratio of the heat transfer area on one side of the exc hanger and the volume of equipment can be used as a measure of the compactness o f the exchanger. A heat exchanger with a density of surface area on one side, la rger than 700m2/m3 is classified arbitrarily as compact heat exchanger. Ex: heat exchanger plates. 4
HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE OF DOUBLE combine the flow in a tube with a flow void. The a rrangement of parallel streams will be both fluids seep into the same direction, and countercurrent to dispose the fluid in opposite directions. How to have an area of heat transfer considerably limited, are employed only in cases where a moderate or low heat exchange is required. Cold fluid, hot fluid t1, T2, T2 <T1 Hot fluid T1 x dx cold fluid, t2 t2> t1 L 5 The increased application of double tube type heat exchangers is the exchange of sensible heat  heating or cooling  where the area of heat exchange is not req uired untrapassa 20 m2. Its main advantage is the ease of pipe fittings to and e ase of cleaning. They also allow a good control of fluid distribution on both si des. Its main disadvantage is its high cost per unit area of heat exchange. Exch angers multitubular constitiuem design standard for most services. The main adva ntages are the low cost per unit area of heat exchange and gande variety of size s and types available.The main disadvantage is its relative inflexibility in co nstructive, ie it is practically impossible to change in one piece ready. The mu ltitubular construction is the most important in the process industry, and, the refore, the most studied. Plate exchangers are used in services where corrosion, cleaning and sterilization are problems. The geometric arrangement of the plate s allows high heat transfer coefficients, resistance to deposits and ease of cle aning. The main disadvantage is the limitation of the moderate range of pressure drop and high capacity requirement témbicas similar on both sides. These exchan gers have calculation methods which are generally owned by companies that manufa cture this equipment and are inclusive of possession of methods that optimize th e Equipment to a particular service. EVALUATION, SELECTION AND DESIGN OF A HEAT EXCHANGER The evaluation of a system is to determine the flow of heat transfer and temperature distribution under cer tain operating conditions (type of fluid, mass flows and temperatures of entry d efined), providing bases for : a) establishing changes in operating conditions t o optimize the existing process, b) determining when an existing unit should be cleaned, inspected changed or exchanged, c) select a new device that performs a new task. The selection of new equipment is usually made by considering standard ized units by manufacturers, in situations where the working conditions permit. In situations in which the standard units do not meet adequately the demands of the system, it is necessary to design modifications to a standard unit or provid e specifications for the construction of a heat exchanger to measure for the pro cess in question. The purpose of a thermal design is to determine the area requi red for heat exchange to a specific heat flux transferred between two fluids wit h specific flow rates and temperatures. Mechanical and economic criteria must be considered. 6 PROFILE OF TEMPERATURES IN HEAT EXCHANGERS CONDESA CONDENSER / EVAPORATOR CONDENSERS CONDESA / HEATER Boiling point T1 Condensation temperature T t1 Temperature condensation temperature t1
t2 T1 t1 Temperature T t1 t2 ΔT = constant x = distance through the exchanger x = distance through the exchanger EVAPORATOR / COOLER evaporation temperature t T1 T2 Temperature T1 T2 t x = distance through the exchanger EXCHANGER HEAT FLOW PARALLEL T1 Heat exchanger countercurrent flow T1 dT dt T2 T1 t1 t1 = distance x through the exchanger T2 t2 t2 T2 T2 T1 t1 x t1 = distance through the exchanger t2 Temperature Temperature t2 7 Topics Heat Transfer Three principles are fundamental in analyzing the processes of heat transfer: (a) Second Law of Thermodynamics: it provides the definitive conclusion that heat moves toward the temperature down. (2) Principle of Dimensi onal Continuity: Requires that all equations are dimensionally consistent. (3) E quation of State: provide information in the form of equations, tables or charts on the thermodynamic properties in any state. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF HEAT TRAN SFER individual coefficient h = convective heat transfer ratio (film) U = overal l coefficient of heat transfer fouling factor = Rd LMTD = logarithmic mean tempe rature difference caloric temperature Tc = Tw = wall temperature of NTU or equiv alent diameter = NUT = Number of Global Transfer Coefficient Heat Transfer R =
Thermal Resistance Current R = 1 and Ai + 1 + hi kan A0 h0 + Thermal Resistance of the material + Thermal Resistance of current Ai, A0 = areas of internal and external surface An = crosssectional area and th ickness of the pipe = R = resistance to heat transfer p / tube clean U0 = 1 (D0 R 1 1 = A0 (A0 Ai) (1 hi) + (A0 An) (k) + 1 h0 Ui = 1 Ai 1 = DD + R 1 [1] D ln ( 0) + (i) (1) hi Di D0 h0 (2k) i Coef. heat transfer based on the inner surface U0 = D) (1) + [1] D0 ln (0) + 1 2k Di Di hi h0 Coef. transf erênciade of heat based o n the external surface "If the wall thickness is small and the thermal conductivity of the tube is high , in the absence of fouling, the above equation can be simplified as: Ui = January 1 +1 hi h0 'Whereas tubes with inlay on both surfaces: 8 R = R = total resistance to heat transfer considering the buildup Rdo, Rdi = resista nce due to fouling on external and internal tube, respectively. Rd and Rd 0 1 1 + + + + i Ai Ai kan hi h0 A0 A0 Ud = ( D0 D) (1) + (0 hi Di Di Di = UC 1 D) Rd + i [0 hio hio × h0 + h0 2k ] Ln ( D0
Di ) + 0 + 1 Rd h0 Rd = Uc  Uc Ud Ud × hi = hio 1 1 = i + Rd + Rd Uc Ud 0 Uc, Ud = coef. global heat transfer when the tube is clean and when the tube is with inlay, respectively. Calculation of Coefficients of Film • For Laminar flow: Hi Di κ v Di Di Cpμ 1 3 μ μ w = 1.86 γ κ L
0, 14 • For Turbulent Flow: Hi Di κ Di v 0.8 Cpμ μ 0, 14 μ w = viscosity of the fluid at the temperature of wall κ = thermal conductivity of the fluid μ = viscosity of the fluid in the heat transfer Cp = specific heat L = len th of tube properties of fluids can be obtained usin the avera e temperature of fluid in the exchan er when: 1  The viscosity at lo wer temperature is low (~ 5 cP) 2  The temperature is moderate ( ~ 100 º F) and the temperature difference is low (~ 75 ° F). For many fluids the relation ( μ w 13 = 0.027 γ κ
μ μw) DH vρ can be assumed as unity. Additional Equations  Fluid flow
v DH γ = μ v = ρA ω 4 A → P → flo ing area etted perimeter Re <2100: Laminar flo Re> 104: Turbulent Flo 2100 <Re <104: Transition bet een t o regimes v = average velocity of flo (m / s) 9 ω • γ = kinematic viscosity = μ ρ (m2 / s) μ = dynamic viscosity ( ty (k /m3) = Mass ate (k / s) fo the inne tube: => μ = γ ρ Re i = Di v γ = ω ω Di Di = A i Di μ π 2 4 ⇒ ω = ρ A v μ • For the fluid flowin in the annular space:
/ ms) ρ = densi
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Re = DH = hyd aulic diamete
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Re o = From ω ω (D 2  D1) = 4ω 2 2 (D  D1) μ π (D 2 + D1) 2 When μ μπ 4 D1 = outside diamete of the inne tube D2 = inside diamete of the oute tube ( shell) fo fluid flow the equivalent diamete (De) is iven by De = D2  D1 Exam les: 1) Ai at 27 º C and 1 atm with a mass flow ate of 0.8 K /m2s will be hea ted in a CT bitubula , with tube diamete s co es ondin to 3 and 5 cm and 2.5 m in len th. Wate heated to 98 ° C is inside the tube at a ate of 0.01 k / s. The coefficient of convective heat t ansfe to the ai that see s into the annul a a ea can be conside ed equal to 138 W/m2 º C. To estimate the ove all ave a e coefficient of heat t ansfe fo this a lication, dis e a din the effects of foulin and esistance of the tube mate ial. P o e ties of wate : ρ = 961 k /m3 0,294.106 m2/sk = γ = 0.68 W / m º C c = 4.21 kJ / k º C Conside μ / μw = 1. 0 2) determine the overall transfer coefficient external heat (Udo) of a steel t ube with internal diameter (Di) of 2.5 cm and outer diameter (Do) of 3.34 cm, a material of thermal conductivity of 54 W / m ° C. Some properties are considered as follows: hi = 1800 W/m2 º C ho = 1250 W/m2 º C Rdi Rdo = = 0,00018 m2 ° C / W Determine which would be the clear lobal coefficient (UC). 10 CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS METHOD OF EFFECTIVENESS ε = qc qc max qcmax = maximum flow rat of h at transf r will b ch ck d wh n th outl t t mp ratur of th fluid has a low r h at capacity (C), C Cp = ω, is equal to the inl et temperature of another fluid. The maximum possible flo of heat transfer for both thermal flo s (parallel, counter) can be expressed as follo s: qc max = Cmi n (T1 input  input t1) C min = minimum flo of heat capacity in absolute value (ω min Cp ) T2 T1 t1 t2 T2 T1 t1 t2 Number of Transfer Units (NTU, NUT, N): represents an index of the size of the e xchanger. In the design of a heat exchanger is necessary to establish conditions that result in moderate values of NTU, so as not to overestimate or undersized equipment. NTU = The U C min U = overall coefficient of heat transfer medium As = surface heat exchange capac ity C min = minimum temperature Thus, the efficiency of heat transfer can also b e expressed by: ε = C min ΔTb qc = qc min max min C (T1 input  input t1) ε =
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ΔTb min T1 input  input t1 ΔTbmin = absolute value of the difference in fluid temperature associated with m inimal thermal capacity. The usefulness of the analysis through efficiency in as sessing the performance of heat exchangers is important when: 1  They are the u nknown fluid temperatures at the exit, 2  In situations where you know the temp erature of input and output of fluids, and unknown heat capacity; 11 3  Analysis of a heat exchanger that was tested in a given condition but that w ill be used under different specification. The equations of efficiency can also be written in terms of NTU: Parallel Yield: 1  exp  NTU C min 1 + Cmax ε = Cmin + 1 Cmax ε = C
Cond ns r / vaporator: Cq / Cf = 0 => ε = 1  NTU To Cq / Cf = 1 => (Also valid for cross flow). 1 + NTU NTU ε = Cq Cf = h at capacity of th hot fluid and cold fluid, r sp ctiv ly. Exampl s: 3 ) Fr on 12 to 20 º C, flowing in inn r tub of a h at xchang r bitubular at a rat of 0.265 kg / s, will b h at d by wat r at 98 º C, which s ps into th an nular ar a with a rat of 0.035 kg / s. Th xchang r is mad of copp r tub s of thin thickn ss, 2 and 3 cm in diam t r and 3 m in l ngth. Wh r as co f. Global h at transf r is about 534 W/m2 º C, stimat th total h at transf r rat (qc). cp (fr on) = 0.907 kJ / kg º C cp (wat r) = 4.21 kJ / kg º C) Consid r a parall l arrang m nt b) Consid r arrang m nt in count r 4) A h at xchang r op rating in count r with a th rmal xchang ar a of 12, 5 m2, to cool oil (cp = 2000 J / kg º C) using wat r (cp = 4.21 kJ / kg ° C) as cooling fluid. Th oil nt rs at 100 º C to 2 kg / s whil th wat r nt rs at 20 ° C with a rat of 0.48 kg / s. Th co f. Global h at transf r is 400 W/m2 º C. Calculat th outl t t mp ratur of th oil and th total rat of h at transf r. METHOD OF LMTD LMTD's approach is v ry conv ni nt in t rms of d sign. En rgy balanc ar : • For th fluid tub : qc = wi CPI (T1  T2) Cp i = w i qc T1  T2 12 • In th fluid sh ll: qc = Cpo wo (t2  t1) qc = U. Air s LMTD w o = Cp qc t 2  t1 H at transf r quation:
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Count rcurr nt Flow in: 1  xp  NTU 1  C max C min n  min C max C max
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1 NTU  C
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LMTD = ΔTq  ΔT ΔT f ln (q ΔT f) IF A => countercurrent flow LMTD = (T1  t 2)  (T2  t1) Tt ln (1 2) T2  t1 T1 The fluid T2 fluid B t2 t1 Terminal cold Terminal hot CASE B => current flow in parallel T2 T1 t1 t2 Terminal Terminal hot cold LMTD = (T1  t1)  (T2  t 2) ln (T1  t1) T2  t 2 As = q U x LMTD As (heat exchange) = π D L
Examples of using the LMTD method for exchangers bitubulares: 5) A heat exchange r double pipe is used to cool 55 lb / min of oil with specific heat of 0,525 Btu / lb ° F to 122 º F to 104 º F. The coolant enters the heat exchanger to 68 ° F and leaves at 77 º F. The coef. overall average heat transfer is 88 º F. Btu/hf t2 Determine the area of heat exchange (As) for the arrangement in parallel and in counter. 13 6) A heat exchanger double pipe is used to heat 10 kg / s of water, 15 º C to 33 º C. The fluid heating with thermal capacity of 25 kW / C enters the exchanger at 75 º C. The coef. Global transf. Heat is 1570 W/m2 º C. Determine the area of heat exchange for the operation in countercurrent and parallel flow. (Cp water = 4.21 kJ / kg ° C). Considering the diameter of the inner tube of 2 cm and a le ngth of 4 m, determine the number of tubes that would be required to perform the service. CASES IN NEED OF A FIX LMTD For example exchangers shell and tube: A heat exchanger shell and tubes heat wat er 1:2 at 15 ° C flowing at a rate of 0.796 kg / s. The heating fluid is an oil (cp = 2.5 kJ / kg º C) entering the tubes of this exchanger to 80 ° C and leaves at 35 º C at a rate weight of 0.4 kg / s. Determine the area of the exchanger i
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When a multi ass exchan e o e ates o c oss flow, the LMTD should be co ected by a facto (Ft) since we no lon e have a sin le di ection of flow ( a allel o counte cu ent) Then: ΔTefetiva = Ft x LMTD
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f the coef. overall average heat transfer for this system is 300 W/m2 º C. Examples for cross flow heat exchangers: A cross flow heat exchanger without mixing, will be used to heat 2.5 kg / s of a ir (cp = 1.01 kJ / kg º C) 15 ° C to 30 º C. The heating fluid is water, which c omes in tubes at 55 ° C. Since the overall average coefficient of heat transfer equal to 300 W/m2 º C, determine the surface area needed for the water temperatu re at the outlet of the exchanger is equal to 24 º C. 14 Examples of using the LMTD method for shelltube heat exchangers: 1) A steam condenser shell and tube 1:1, with tubes of outer diameter of 2.5 cm, a vapor condenses at 54 ° C. The cooling water enters the tubes at 18 ° C with a rate of 0.7 kg / s and leaves at 36 º C.The coefficient of heat transfer over all (based on the external surface of the tubes) is 3509 W/m2 º C. Determine the length of the tubes and the amount of heat involved in the process using the me thod and the effectiveness of the LMTD method. (Cpágua = 4.17 kJ / kg º C) Equat ions: qc max = Cmin (T1 input  input t1) NTU = ε = Th U C min qc = qc max (T1 input  input t1) ΔTb min P / capacitors => Cq / Cf = 0 => ε = 1  NTU 2) K ros n to 43,800 lb / hr with 42 º API l aks in th hull of a multitubular h at xchang r. This fluid nt rs th xchang r at 390 ° F and is cool d to 200 º F for 149,000 lb / hr of crud oil with 34 API, from a r s rvoir at 100 ° F a nd is h at d to 170 º F insid th xchang r. Th quipm nt is a 1:2 xchang r t ub s 13 BWG OD 1in. Th r lations (ho / φs) and (hio / φt) are known and equal t o 135 and 169 º F Btu/h t2 respectively. Determine: a) The real change in the te mperature exchanger (ΔTreal) ΔTreal LMTD = Ft x b) Temperature caloric fluids ho t or cold (Tc and tc) ΔTf ΔTq Figure 17 (it uses the largest kc) Fc tc = t1 + (t2  t1) Tc = T2 + Fc (T1  T2) (T1  T2) => kc (t2  t1) => kc c) The temperature of wall (tw) tω ho = t + c hio φs φs hio φt
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+ Ho (Tc  tc) or ω t = Tc φt φs hio φt + Ho (Tc  tc) 15