# Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics Ignition Switch Sound Operational Amplifier Operational Amplifier is a general purpose linear

device w hich is capable of handling signal from f = 0 Hz up to a frequency defined by th e manufacturer, also has limits of signal range from the order of nV, to about d ozens volt (specification also defined by the manufacturer). The operational amp lifiers are characterized by a differential input and a very high gain, usually greater than 105 equivalent to 100dB. The operational amplifier (AO) is a high g ain amplifier directly coupled, which in general is powered by positive and nega tive sources, which will allow for excursions both above and below ground (or re ference point to be considered) . Based configuration inverter circuits and diff erential non-inverting amplifier AO A third configuration known as the different ial amplifier is a combination of the two previous configurations. Although base d in the other two circuits, the differential amplifier has unique characteristi cs. This circuit, shown in Figure 4, is applied in both signal input terminals, and uses the natural differential amplification of the operational amplifier. Figure 4 1 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics To understand the circuit, first consider the two input signals separately and t hen combined. As always Vd = 0 and the input current at the terminals is zero. R emember that Vd = V (+) - V (-) ==> V (-) = V (+) The output voltage due to the call V1 V01 and as V (-) = V (+) The output voltage due to V1 (assuming V2 = 0), counts: And the output due to V2 (assuming V1 = 0) will, using the equation of the gain for the inverter circuit, V02 And since, applying the theorem of superposition the output voltage V0 = V01 + V 02 and making equals R3 R4 R1 and R2 equals then: therefore conclude to express in terms of profit: 2 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics Application made This switch made with an operational amplifier activates a relay when the user p ats near the microphone. The relay contacts can be used to control virtually any

electrical or electronic equipment a possible application of this circuit is as a sensor for a burglar alarm system. Operation Amplified Operation rectification or ion signal No microphone Output Stage Relay Microphone: The microphone is an electroacoustic transducer. Its function is to transform (translate) vibration due to acoustic pressure exerted on the capsule by the sound waves into electrical energy or record sound from any place or item for this project will use a unidirectional dynamic microphone with a frequency response of 80-12500 Hz, the microphone signal usually has a very low level, the order of 1 mV peak to peak. 3 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics Operational Amplifier, Output Amendment of the Sign, Stage It is therefore necessary to use a high gain amplifier to raise the level of the signal to a usable value of a few volts peak to peak. The amplified signal is a pplied to a simple rectifier circuit. This provides an output signal positive DC is roughly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal. The isolated outp ut circuit drives a relay through a stage that provides relatively high current needed to excite the relay. Under resting conditions, the output voltage of the isolated circuit is too low to activate the feed stage and the latter relay rema ins energized. However, if the entrance is a strong enough signal, the final sta ge and close the relay contacts. A relay is a switch operated by an electromagne t. Although it is a component of old concept, has its advantages. One is that th eir contacts can be used to control almost any device powered with direct curren t or alternating current without significant voltage drop. It also features tota l isolation between the field circuit and the controlled device. This avoids man y limitations that can be used as contacts and allows the equipment to be used w ith a total security to control a device powered by the network. 4 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics Circuit Description The circuit diagram of the sound-activated switch shown in Fig. As amplifier use s a low noise operational amplifier,ÂIC1, which may be an LM741 or CA3140E conf igured as an inverter. The resistors R1 and R4 sets the voltage gain and input i mpedance of the circuit a few times already kilohm 4700, respectively. This conf

iguration works well with low impedance dynamic microphones as used in this case (impedance of 600 ohms). Objectively, the microphone audio quality is not impor tant in this case, a microphone so the cheapest is the best choice. Output Operational Amplifier Stage Stage Rectification The lack of response at high frequencies does not significantly reduce the sensi tivity of the circuit. The output of IC1 to apply, to the stage of rectification , through C3, a simple half-wave rectifier circuit using diodes D1 and D2 in a s tandard configuration. These diodes can be germanium or silicon but drive fast ( 1N4448), which improves the sensitivity of the circuit. The capacitor C4 is the isolated and its value determines the decay time of the circuit. The value speci fied in the list of components provides a decay time of 1 second, more than enou gh to ensure that no de-energises the relay during the brief pauses that occur d uring a 5 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics normal speech. On the other hand, is short enough to prevent the relay stays ene rgized too long after the user has stopped talking or clapping. If you prefer a shorter decay time, the value of C5 may be reduced to 22 microfarads. Increasing the value of C4 can get a longer decay time, but this would also increase the a ttack time to an unacceptable degree. The relatively low input impedance of IC1 helps to maintain a short attack time, so that the unit responds quickly when th e user starts to speak, but inevitably take some time for C5 is loaded. Output S tage The transistor Q1 is the one that feeds the relay switch and works as a com mon emitter, diode D3 is the major protection against reverse voltage generated by cutting the flow of the relay coil. Even in a low impedance circuit, this pow er surge could damage the semiconductor circuit. The relay can be any type of 12 V. having a coil of 300 ohms or more, plus the appropriate contacts for the des ired application. The current consumption at rest of the circuit is about 6 mA, but the release is energized, this value increases to 30 mA. The circuit can ope rate correctly with a 9 volt power supply, reducing the cost of food, but this w ould only be possible if the relay used to function safely with a coil voltage o f 7.5 volts, which seems to met almost all 12-volt relays. LIST OF ELEMENTS 6 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics 7 Electronic Engineering

UMG Analogue Electronics 8 Electronic Engineering UMG Analogue Electronics Printed circuit Vista in the real circuit 9