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transformation Construction of the Republic and the dif ficult progress of democracy France in the World Expo 1889 and the tower Eiffel Pasteur and Marie Curie Victor Hugo, Jules Ferry Act prohibiting the employment of children under 8 years: 1841 Universal suffrage: 1848 The public school free and compulsory: 1882 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION What the Industrial Revolution? The phrase "industrial revolution" was first use d around 1830 by French observers to try to define the situation in England, as their eyes turned by the steam engine of Watt that our country by the revolution of 1789. Today, also known as "off", "take-off" to describe a global phenomenon , begun in the eighteenth century in England and still in progress. The concept of technological system has been developed by historians and economists to highl ight the interdependence of technical processes (materials, energy, power) and i nnovation constitute the industrial revolution. Three systems will follow in the nineteenth century: - The conventional system that relies on hydropower to swea t and wood use - The modern system involving iron, coal and steam, which the rai lway is the main illustration - The contemporary system that combines electricit y, the combustion engine and organic chemistry (which creates new materials from carbon compounds). The industrial revolution, which is accelerating and not bre ak, is defined by continuous growth, interrupted by crises, and a propensity to innovate. It causes the formation of a new mode of production and the establishm ent of a scientific organization of work, line work. The industrial revolution, the triumph of capitalism. It is an economic system characterized by the accumul ation of capital (land, money) and is also the reinvestment of capital (â hoardi ng). It is also fair competition between businesses and free enterprise (indepen dent of product to market). It is the pursuit of profit. Conditions The Industrial Revolution is explained by the convergence of several factors for the phenomenon of take-off phenomenon: - Progress in agriculture is a prerequisite to the industrial revolution. It requires less labor through the development of mechanization. In addition, the standard of living improves, you can buy textiles and agricultural equipment where DVPT of the textile industry a nd metallurgy. Then follows a phase of mass consumption in the 20s in the USA in the 60s in France - Breakthrough technology, development of machinery, rapidly increasing production. This is the era of the factory, the factory. - The railwa y is a revolution in transportation: it is a real engine of growth. For orders g ain, it improves the economy and puts the industrial revolution in orbit. It car ries a lot + + much faster and much - much. It requires other means of transport to modernize before falling as it should. Thus the traditional Skippers disappe ars. This prepares the internationalization of the economy. A new category of wo rkers is, railroad workers, whose number is multiplied by 10 between 1830 and 19 14. - Rural-urban migration: one is forced to leave the country (less work + deb t), there is attracted to cities - population related to Boost Medical progress: decline in mortality, see the demographic transition - Workforce numerous so ch eap: if there was off, because the MO was abundant and could be used (overused) is the top black takeoff. - Workforce semi-skilled: it was formed by the domesti c system, manufacturing system at home. At the time you ordered the wool weavers to weave the winter evenings - Revolution bank: banks specializing in banks of deposit, such as Credit Lyonnais created in 1863, Societe Generale created in 18 64, and industrial loans are spreading. Attention is ready if the report and fav orable economic conditions. - Application of the colonial pact: the colonies hav e the right to trade with their mother. Canada, French colony, became a British colony in 1963.ÂThe migration abroad are only certain times of labor is more sc arce and demand higher: higher wages or technological France and Europe England is the cradle of the industrial revolution that will into a dominant country: Technical progress in weaving "flying shuttle" by J. Kay, it returns automatical ly after the loom. - Technical progress in spinning especially "Spinning Jenny" Hargreaves, 8 pins operating simultaneously and then 400 with the Water Jenny "w
hich multiplies the capacity of spinning. - Progress Energy Sources: Until the 1 8th century Hydraulic forces, wind, water, muscle, then exploitation of coal: th e coal replaced charcoal Beginning of the use of oil 1859 White Coal: Electricit y in the 1820s puddling While in England, everything is created in France, the call market is much weake r: There is no middle class: the people is divided between rich and poor, see the m iserable. In France, there is no shortage of MO Until 1850, the campaigns are ov erloaded wars do not help especially with the England-France blockade which prev ented Napoleon British goods to enter. France is not competitive. The mentality of the men of the 18th century mean they are not entrepreneurs. There is no entr epreneurial spirit: we must invest in land, in the solid. It is a protectionist war premium. Second, attempts at liberalization will fail because when the borde rs open, the French products are far behind the English products. This does not substantiate the investment is equivalent to the risk of being ruined. At that t ime, bankrupts are disgraced and deprived of the right to vote. Protoindustriels aspects: Maintaining traditional energy sources. There is no shortage of wood s toves are still working with charcoal; delay in mines: there are no mechanical p ercutage, picks in hand. Until the end of the 18th, we see live the domestic sys tem and the factory system. The industrial revolution is but the weaving is stil l at home. Same for metallurgy, is the city of Thiers cutlery. THERE dispersion in manufacturing: some build, burn ... The other railroad experienced its greate st expansion under the Second Empire: 1852-1870. It helps my concentration in th e industry 1860-1880. The first industrial revolution, that of coal, the steam engine, railway and met allurgy, is between 1840 and 1860. The second industrial revolution, that of ele ctricity and the automobile, for the period 1896-1913. Industry news tip, such a s the automotive and aeronautical and aluminum, allowing France to address the t wentieth century with a balanced economy. With regard to Germany, is much more e co DVPT impÃ©tieux: - It is disadvantaged by its division (39 states). It was no t until 1833 for the customs union. - It will start its industrial revolution in the coal and steel, textiles jumping. - The industry focuses very quickly, in u nion cartel konzern, concentration of capital - Europe's biggest aps England in the late 19th century. The U.S. took advantage of the technical capital of Engla nd - Skilled Migrant - MO rare - Employers must choose between increasing wages and technical progress: devpts rapid technological era in the 1840s - In the lat e 19th century, it is the economy Rooselvelt championship. Then follow the south of Belgium, northern Italy, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Russia is a special case. The industrialization of Japan was the result of a political decision, it is the era of Medji: - Over-exploitation of the agricultural by high taxes and heavy c harges for nobles who will turn into capitalist class - On-industrial exploitati on of abundant MO - Operation very early capital: through taxes, businesses star ted up by the state sounds assigned to large families (family trust: Zai Batsu). New French Geography There is a clear selection. Until the 18th, all the indust rial areas will not grow. In the 19th century: For the steel industry: The North , Le Creusot and St Etienne For textiles: Rouen, Lille, Roubaix and Mulhouse. Th e south is very fast in deindustrialization.ÂThe Caen-Monpellier: separates Fra nce: Northern France and Eastern Highly urbanized industrialized Today, Britain is at the forefront. The socio-cultural way of life evolves. Entrepreneurs will see their clients, scientists meet in congress, the first tourists to visit the
spas and resorts. The number of passengers is growing very quickly and it goes i n France from 9 million in 1845 to 250,000,000 in 1885. New forms of marketing a re growing. Department stores including Le Bon MarchÃ© in Paris founded in 1852 remains the symbol appears and the wind catalogs is fierce competition for shopp ing and peddling. The railroad changes the urban fabric with the appearance of n ew stations near the active and populous neighborhoods. The advent of the indust rial age upsets the French company developing the working class and strengthenin g the power of the bourgeoisie by the contribution of the middle classes. The ni neteenth century also witnessed the democratization of culture through the devel opment of the press, the introduction of compulsory education for children under 12 years, placing in the public service of a culture centered on nation buildin g around the legacy of 1789. Finally, the nineteenth century is rich in artistic and Paris appears as the world capital of art. The romantic revolution dominate d the first half of this century. First elitist romanticism espousing the people after 1830 (see Liberty Leading the People by Delacroix). In the second half of the century, other trends in art after another: Realism (Courbet), Impressionis m (Manet, Renoir, Degas, Monet ...) and Cubism (Picasso, Braque) to the edge of the twentieth century France West and South-West Rural Less Less equipped econom ically dynamic