15/02/2005 Pierre-Yves Chatelain Analysis of "Waiting for Godot" Anthony Malerba French 2emd Table of Contents Author

Biography .......................................... .. ................................................ ... ........................... 1 Status of the work ................. ........................................ .......... .................................. Background ...................... 3 ......................... .................................................. . .............................. 3 ................... Decor history ............. ............ .................................................. ................ ............................... ... 3 Summary of the work ...................... ................... .................................................. ......... ... ......................... ..................... 4 Analysis of characters ... ............................................... ................................ ......... ....... ......................................... 5 Godot ............ ...................................... ......................................... ...... Vladimir ......................................... ....... 5 ............ ...................................... .................................... Tarr agon ................................... ............. 5 ....................... ........................... .......................................... Pozzo ... ................................ ............. 5 ............................... ................... .................................. Lucky ................... ... 5 .......................... ............................................... ... .................................................. ...................... .5 The boy .............................................. ........................ .......................... ................. ........................ .......... ............ 5 Analysis of themes .............................................. .... .................................................. The absurd ...... 6 .... .................................... ........................................... ....... .................................. 6 The expression .................... ............ .............. .................................................. . ....................................... The friendship ............ 6 .......... ........................ .................................................. .... ..................................... ................ 6 Time .................. ............. .................................................. ............... ................................. .......... 6 The need to have the impression t o exist ............................ .................................. Personal .................... ........................... 6 Comments ................... ............................... .............................. Other Analyses .. ............................ ................. 7 ............................... ................... ................................................ ...... 8 So urces and Bibliography ........................................ ................ .................................. .................... .......... 9 Author Biography 1906 Samuel Beckett was born in a suburb of Dublin (Ireland). 1920 At 14, he bec ame a resident at the Royal Portora School, where his main interest is French. 1 923 He continued his studies in French at the University of Dublin. During this period he discovered the theater and film. He wants to become a language teacher . 1928 He left for Paris. He only stayed a few years and then off again to Irela nd for a short stint as a teacher. 1931 to 1937 he traveled a lot, now residing in France, now in England. 1938 He decided to settle permanently in Paris. He pu blished his first novel, Murphy, who won no success. 1939 The beginning of the w ar in Europe is leaving Ireland, where he is visiting his parents, because he pr efers to fight the Nazi enemy in the French resistance.

1 1942 must, however, escape into the free zone, he settled on a farm in Roussillo n Vaucluse and worked as a farmhand. During his spare time he wrote his second n ovel, Watt. 1945 At the end of the war, he returned to Paris and began to transl ate his past works. Thanks to this, the French became the language of writing an d it is up to English for translations. He began writing two new novels, but doe s not end. Then later he wrote three novels literary creators of his thought: Mo lloy, Malone Dies and The unspeakable. 1949 In its 43rd year, after a successful marriage, he wrote the play Waiting for Godot. His books began to be published thanks to the determination of his wife, Suzanne. In January 1953,€After a year of arduous rehearsals for the actors, Waiting for Godot is playing at the Theat re of Barcelona. Beckett becomes famous. 1969 The literary world gives him the N obel Prize for literature he will not go. His texts then become increasingly rar e. We hear less about him. Through the rights of Waiting for Godot, he retired t o a nursing home built on a hill in Seine-et-Marne. We find in the unspeakable w rote in 1945: With my blood I think ... With my breath I think ... The words too slow, the subject dies before the verb, the words stop too. But I speak lower, each year a little lower. Maybe. More slowly so every year a little more slowly ... He died in 1989, a few weeks after writing his literary testament Twitching. 2 Status of work Background Waiting for Godot was written 20 years after the beginning of the great depressi on (the economic crisis of the 30s, which will promote the rise of fascism and N azism let it be established that will ultimately lead to the Second World War), and the unstable context of a new peace, the values are changing. Existentialism (fluent philosopher of the 50s, mostly initiated by Sartre and Camus) causes a general awareness that life is absurd, that life has no meaning and that happine ss is an illusion . This movement originated by thoughts of Pascal, the 17th cen tury spoke of God as the only way to remedy the misery of man, broken hope by th e philosophy of Nietzsche: "God is dead". There remains then no escape. There is also the concept of Spleen later repeated by the Dada movement of the 60s: "No Future". Decor history The story takes place in an isolated road in a campaign, without any sign of dis tinction that this is the place or time. There is a tree (in the form of a man h anged by the feet). The only thing that gives us a vague idea of the historical context is the attire of the characters (bowler). Having erased any trace of tim e is voluntary, because Beckett wanted to show what happens to a man without con text. 3 Summary of the work Two tramps, Vladimir and Estragon, are on the verge of a country road near a tre e. They discuss all sorts of concerns, but forget the next moment. What makes th eir whole conversation is a huge wave of absurdity. The main, or sole thread tha t we can find is that they both know, finally, especially Vladimir, Estragon as ever forget it, they wait for Godot. Yet they know neither the reason nor the ti me of appointment. Besides, they do not know for sure what day they live. The fi rst significant event was the arrival of Pozzo trailing him Lucky, his slave he stands at the end of a rope. Lucky is carrying a basket, a folding of the mantle of his master. He obeys her every command and do nothing, but that does Pozzo c ommands him. Pozzo is installed on the folding and eat under the hungry eyes of two tramps leaving only bones and usually go to his slave, yet the advertising a nd Estragon must ask why the Lucky responds with a kick. Estragon eats them anyw

ay. Pozzo then smokes his pipe while chatting with them. He orders Lucky to danc e and think. It was at that time that Lucky begins a long monologue even more in coherent than the rest of the text that ends with a scrum. Pozzo is difficult to leave and follows Lucky as if it were a horse. With that, comes a boy, messenge r of Mr. Godot, who announced their timidly that Godot will not come until the n ext day. End of Act The second act takes place in the same scene even if the cha racters in doubt. It opens with Vladimir sings. The conversation takes place as the previous day, incoherent waiting for Godot. Tarragon found his shoes in the place where he had placed the day before but pretends they are not his. The wait continues. Pozzo and Lucky return. This time, the first is blind, the second si lent. The rope is shorter this time. When stops Lucky, Pozzo goes on, stumbles a nd falls. He begins to call for help. Vladimir and Estragon discuss, and debate from time to time on aiding non Pozzo who can not stand. They finally decide to help. Discussions on the peak time and time Pozzo and Lucky eventually leave. Th e boy from the day that says this is the first time he comes,€tells them that G odot will not come. Even exchange of words with the child the previous day, exce pt that Estragon sleeps. The child runs away. Vladimir and Estragon are alone, t hey seek a way to hang himself. Finding none, they decided to bring a rope the n ext day, just like the previous day. They decide to leave, but do not move. Curt ain falls. 4 Analysis of characters Godot It is never seen throughout the book, Vladimir and Estragon speak without stoppi ng and waiting in the conviction that he will come, but it does not come. We kno w almost nothing about him except that he has a white beard and he beats the boy 's brother. This would qualify brutal. In a way, we could say that Godot is what everyone expects and that never comes. It represents the hope of changing somet hing every day that keeps repeating. Beckett himself said not knowing who he is. However, it seems to be the "silver bullet" or the "last hope" for our two vagr ants, or at least something that would put an end to their situation: The words in this work have multiple meanings for the name of Godot we can find some as: G odillot: Shoe, God (English): The Savior, Goder (Italian): Squirting Vladimir Vladimir is optimistic and patient, he insists more qu'Estragon to wait. He read the Bible and it made some allusions. It is like one who thinks the duo. Brain. Tarragon Tarragon is much more impulsive, he has mood swings and is very pessimistic. He still thinks of suicide and not a great memory. It has almost animal instincts, it would be the body, in tandem with Vladimir. These two characters are a couple of friends so used to each other that it is only through death that they will s eparate. Pozzo He is vain. His physical influence of a document to another. He wakes up being b lind and lost his name. It is in Act II a couple totally interdependent with Luc ky, his slave, whereas in Act I he was the undisputed master. Pozzo Well meaning in Italian, which may want to define Pozzo like the back of humanity. Lucky Pozzo's slave. It is totally submissive and insulted by his "master". He seems i ncapable of thinking but when Pozzo commands him to think and it makes him put o n his hat, it delivers a stream of incoherent words, as if emptied of all that l ives. Lucky meaning "Lucky" in English proves the absurdity of the book called a s "Lucky" the slave who takes orders at any cost as well as beating, known as "p ig" and that everything must be belongs to Pozzo.

Boy Messenger for Godot, no character except the quote. 5 Analysis of themes Absurdity The book leads to nothing, it is soaked absurd from beginning to end, there is n o reason for the characters and there is no sense. Vladimir and Estragon waiting for Godot throughout the book, from their arrival until their departure that th is is the first day (first act) or the next (second act). But Godot never comes. Expression All conversations conducted by Vladimir or Estragon have neither head nor tail, he does not speak to past an idea or a thought, but perhaps just to feel alive d espite their lack of friends, family and work . When Lucky is his monologue, the words are just aligned, but mean nothing. Principle break (seriously not seriou s, mundane unusual) Intrusion brutal learned words and obscene words or slang. T he silence is almost as important as the words that they have enjoyed the power to communicate. When all is lost, there is the Word. It stands all alone at the borders of nothingness, the ultimate evidence of human presence and, if it ever stopped, then n ^ would really nothing. The characters speak to conquer the void and not to communicate something. Friendship Friendship is seen in many ways in the book. Vladimir and Estragon are still tog ether. Eventually, they said that they hang themselves or, or they separate, nev er to be seen, but even they can not find a way to hang them stay together. Time Time is disturbed, or it does not pass, or it passes at once. For example, when the sun sets and the moon rises at the end of both acts. There is no timeline. N obody really remembers the day, apart from Vladimir. The way in which ways can n ot take place, the leaves of the tree growing in one day, waking up blind Pozzo and Lucky dumb. The time of silence, if they are played in real time of silence, make the play endless.€There is no real time passes and yet the characters are waiting for that time passes for Godot comes. The absurdity. The need to have the impression to exist Vladimir Estragon said: "There is always something, eh Didi, to give the impress ion to exist" 6 Personal comments I found this work very interesting. Primarily because the author himself has lef t nothing to write. When he wrote it, he knew nothing about the stage, he had no idea and it did not go. It's a dog story that nobody will ever know the how and why the author included. "I do not know about this piece that happens to read i t carefully. I do not know in what spirit I have written. I do not know more abo ut the characters than what they say, what ' they do, what happens to them. From their appearance I have indicated the little I have foreseen. The bowlers for e xample. I do not know who Godot is. I do not even know, definitely not, 's there . And I do not know if they believe it or not, both ahead (...).. Any attempt to find all this a broader and higher, I am unable to see interest. " Samuel Becke tt, letter to Michel Polac, January 1952 The book could therefore, at the base, be interesting. The main theme is the absurdity, is very clearly depicted, alrea dy, the way Samuel Beckett described the back of his book. I had never read a bo ok which, while being completely absurd in itself, calls into question several t

hemes such as selfishness (Pozzo coming out of chicken legs to the other three c haracters by not offering them hungry than bone when he has finished eating), th e need for power (Pozzo Lucky by dragging a rope around his neck and tells him e verything he needs to do and it obeys without objection), the power of friendshi p (Estragon and Vladimir remain united despite their living conditions and their desire to terminate). The conversations of this book does not carry mostly far. The two characters, Estragon and Vladimir, speaking just to pass the time. Thei r speech is totally incoherent. But yet when you look closely their conversation s there is a fatalistic humor but I found it very entertaining. The book inspire d me from the start, what motivated me to continue and enjoy. That said, I think if one has a bad image from the first pages, the content can be very boring and monotonous. This book seemed very philosophical. Everything revolves around, th ere is nothing consistent. It was therefore difficult to get out of this analysi s is for the characters that the author himself does not know, or themes. 7 Other Analyses Here are some excerpts of analysis found on the web that seems interested in put ting me in this matter. "Easy to answer the question makes sense, because there' s no sense just because everything is absurd. The same approach which is to ask why it is absurd is absurd, since everything is done to show that man has no mea ns to respond and that his despair is that it raises questions about the why of things. The essence of the absurdity that can not be explained. The absurd c ' i s incomprehensible. "" There is something absurd in human life: waiting for Godo t is hope that this will change and yet be totally clear on the fact that this h ope is absurd. The play touches everyone share this background printing on the m eaning of life. "" There are several ideas in this piece feature of this system of philosophy: The more you think you have to think more. The more I know, the m ore I know I do not know. "Vicious Circle tragic turns ridiculous. " "The human situation is absurd because it does not live in the present, in the here and now , he projects all the time its future, he waits and sees life so litigious and t herefore he leaves itself. Lucky repeat "not anticipate". " "There is a disconne ct between the will and deed," it goes "Estragon again, but he does not. Even th e crucial what we were born out of our will." "The fundamental experience : that of a consciousness caught between the impossibility of knowing anything about t he existence and the impossibility of not existing "Whoever finds this book is n ot hollow or uninteresting then able to read really, he just laminated without t aking the time to decipher all the corners. In fact I think this book is full of symbols and hidden meanings. There are a reflection of humanity (master / slave with Pozzo and Lucky and almost animal with Estragon and Vladimir), that of God or the hope (Godot, god,€little god). The teacher who refuses to watch goes bl ind, the slave who wants to protest becomes mute. Death becomes insignificant in boredom which leads them, this being that never ends and only one string missin g. And what about the bit where we compare the human heart to watch? " 8 Sources and bibliography Several sources inspired me for the abstract, biography and other analysis: www. evene.fr www.samuelbeckett.it/ www.samuel-bechett.net http://serieslitteraires.o rg www.philagora.net 9