Part 1-theoretical The single-phase induction motor The internal structure of a single phase induction motor is the

same as that of a three phase machine with the difference that the stator consists of a winding and not three. The magnetic field created by a coil-phase field is a non-rotatin g and pulsating like the one created by three-phase coils. A pulsating field can be decomposed into two rotating fields moving in opposite directions. Each rota ting field tending to cause the machine in the same direction as him. When the r otor is stopped, the torque created by each of the rotating fields is of equal v alue. Thus, the engine can start. To start such an engine, so it must be run or use a device attached. Once the engine started, and brought to its rated speed, the motor has a slip close to 0 for a rotating fields, and 2 for the second. The torque created by the first field is greater than the torque created by the opp osite direction, the engine continues to run. The single phase induction motors have characteristics (torque / power density, efficiency, power factor, etc..) L ower than their counterparts multiphase. These machines are still used in motor and usually limited to a few kilowatts of power. Starting devices: When fed with single phase induction motor requires a starter system. Different solutions all ow differentiation of these engines. In this case we have used: - An auxiliary w inding in series with a start capacitor, with a possible cutoff centrifugal swit ch: This type of motor can generally provide greater starting torque. They are f ound in washing machines and power tools in the average power (> 1500 W). - In c ase the capacitor and start winding are connected to the power source, providing the starting torque and determining the direction of rotation. Simply reverse t he auxiliary winding for the motor rotates in the opposite direction. - Usually, once the engine started at a certain speed, a centrifugal switch opens the circ uit of the winding and starting capacitor. Purpose of the experiment: Studies in single phase induction motor capacitor squirrel cage diagram detailing the conn ection The measuring instruments are needed: A voltmeter (to measure the voltage V) An ammeter (for measured current I) A meter (for measuring the power P) Allure curves Role of the dynamo of the machinery brake braking and then change the speed in b oth directions so it can also increase the speed areas: - Electric traction (inc luding Eurostar) - Marine propulsion - Machine tools - Lifts - Winches - Pumps Household Benefits: - Their main advantage is that they are adapted to the shap e of energy distribution among individuals - A Broad use of this machine - Vary the speed to the rated speed - Its cost / power is the lowest - Associated with PWM inverters, induction motors of high power can operate at variable speed in a large domain (the latest high speed train, tram in Strasbourg, ...). - It is po ssible to change the number of pole pairs and thus speed. Cons: - It does not st art by itself - The capacitor should not oppose any resistance to the passage of alternating current, otherwise it will heat. Moreover, if a capacitor hot when it is switched on, you can be sure it is defective. Similarly, a capacitor, whic h has inflated or sank died. - These machines are still used in motor and genera lly limited to a few kilowatts of power. - The single-phase machines have poor y ields (sliding rotating field in the opposite direction of rotation, which impli es the existence of large eddy currents). - The use of this type of engine is pr evented by very high power (P> 10 MW) as the reactive power consumption is a han dicap Conclusion phase asynchronous motor is used in low power was causing probl ems in the performance Besides, he does not start by itself, it needs one thing led to (or hand RC ....) It is less used than the three-phase 2 - Practice: In notes I, N, P, V at the time of outbreak of the centrifugal switch are three tests done: I (A) N (rpm) P (w) V (v) U (v) February 1100 32,120 300 1.38 900 30

114 300 1 800 8 84 150 Note: Power Meter: P = x 2 Ammeter reading = reading x I 0.A voltmeter reading V = x 3 Charging the machine through the dynamo-brake and identifies the parameters I, N , P, VI (A) N (rpm) P (w) V (v) Γ () 1.7 0 20 660 1600 1.8 1590 30 660 0.25 1.9 1580 40 660 0.75 And these values we can calculate S, Q, cos φ by using the equations Q = (S2-P2) 1 / 2 S = VI cos φ = P / S S (w) Q () cos φ (rad) 1.7 1600 20 1.8 1590 30 09.01 1580 40 Γ = I = Q = N =

Cos φ =

2 - practical part: *- Test empty: It drives the alternator at constant speed o 1500 rpm with a mot or drive. the rotor is supplied with a DC power supply must not exceed 5 / 4 o its nominal value is 1.25 x IN = 1.5 x1.5 = 1.8 At this current is aiit varied to obtain the maximum rated value is checked that the value o women does not ex ceed 1.25 1.25 x rated voltage VN = 1.25 x 380 = 475 V VN / phase = 475 / (3) ½ = 274 V .24 And here the values: E (v) 2.34 55.5 75 91,106,120 133 E (v) 144 156 165 174 177 183 198 J (A) 0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 J (A) 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 *- Short circuit test: It drives the alternator at constant speed o t increases the excitation current Ie the nominal value 0 to 1.8 1500 rpm, i

The stator current does not exceed 0.23 x 1.25 = 0.28 A short circuit is the pha se o the machine and take the measures I sc = (Ie) Icc (mA) 280 250 230 200 1 80 160 Icc (mA) 140 100 75 50 25 0 Ie (A) 0.86 0.81 0.72 0.68 0.6 0.52 Ie (A) 0. 46 0.32 0.26 0.18 0.14 0 Coupling the alternator to the network: P (w) V (v) I (A) Γ () N (rpm) 50,270 60 ,270 0 1500 0.14 0.15 0.25 0.17 0.5 1500 100 270 1500 120 270 0.19 0.75 140 1500 270 0.22 January 1500 1500 0.24 1.25 η = Pu / pa = [(3) ½ V I cos φ] / C m Ω s 2-part t eoretical General in ormation about t e sync ronous mac ines sync ronous type account or a signi icant s are o electromec anical energy converters and cover a very wide power range stretc ing rom a ew μW, up approximately 1GW. Traditionally, ig

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(P) (P) (P) (P) (P)

power remains t e preserve o t e production o electricity. In motor operation , owever, t e installed power rarely exceed a ew tens o MW. T e sync ronous m otor powered variable speed most power ul known to date, wit a capacity o 100 MW as been developed or a NASA wind tunnel (Figure 1c). Figure 1a: industrial motor kilowatts permanent magnet qq Figure 1b: naval propulsion demonstrator permanent magnet 1.8 MW Figure 1c: sync ronous motor rotor 100 MW (600 rpm) Historically, t e irst permanent magnets ave been used in t e early 19t centu ry. From very modest per ormance in t eir in ancy, t e progress or over a centu ry ave contributed to t e development o mac ines magnets. T e use o permanent magnets is now almost routine or power below 10 kW and are now spreading to i g power (beyond t e MW). Beyond t e cost o using magnets is o ten pro ibitive (about 150 euros / kg or Nd / FB). Only a ew very speci ic applications, suc as naval propulsion, w ere space constraints are major considering t e use o ma gnets or ig power (4.5 MW at 120 rpm.) Purpose o manipulation: sync ronous m ac ines Studied p ase or bot types o operation: motor and generator detailed diagram o t e connection-load test: S ort circuit test: T e measuring instruments are needed: A voltmeter (to measure t e voltage V) An ammeter ( or t e measured current I) A meter ( or measuring t e power P) Allure curves Role o t e dynamo o t e mac inery brake braking and t en c ange t e speed in b ot directions so it can also increase t e speed areas: - Railway Traction, elec tric ve icles, marine propulsion 1MW-100MW - 100kW-1MW Big Business - Now (and g rowing) industry or production systems 100W -100 KW - small engines (typically ans) - loppy 1W - 100W Pros: - wide range o applications - Timing o rotor co mpared to t e rotating stator ield - T e sync ronous mac ine is easier to per o rm and more robust t an t e DC motor. Its per ormance is close to 99%. You can a djust its power actor by c anging t e excitation current Ie. - Use in power pla nts (known alternator). It as also been used in railway traction (driving) in t e Atlantic TGV ... - It is also more costly to ac ieve t an most induction moto rs.€- Turn at constant speed and t e ability to provide balanced t ree p ase vol tages stabilized requency. In addition, it can provide t e reagent (a capacity) . Cons: - Can not boot wit out external assistance. - An auxiliary engine startu p is o ten necessary. It is an exciting, t at is to say, a second source o ener gy. I t e torque exceeds a certain limit, t e engine stalls and stops. - Howeve r, it is ound in some residential applications, because it is more expensive to manu acture and less robust t an t e induction mac ine and it can not simply st art independently ... Conclusion Because o disadvantages s eat ing t e use o s ync ronous mac ines as become rare except in areas clearly speci ied and replac ed by mac ines async ronous brings muc good and e ective in di erent uses. Here is my MSN Laperouse2008@ otmail.com

 

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