n When infected people for the first time? Edible parts Inedible T n How can someone get?

n the '90s began to see people with a hitherto unknown disease, which is called "variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease" for his resemblance to her. In 1996 the Brit ish health minister acknowledged that there were 10 patients with this variant, and could be related to the cows. n How does the old in the wholesomeness of the meat? An information produced by E l consumption risk increases with age of animals. In Spain, 85% of the meat cons umed comes from young cattle between 6 and 18 months (in Galicia between 7 and 1 0 months), which are those with less risk. It is recommended to take meat from y oung individuals. Coruña Science Museums n What are the symptoms? a new disease in humans is a "variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease." The old Cre utzfeldt-Jakob disease affects one person per million and listed 55 to 65 years. Start with nervous symptoms such as difficulty sleeping, problems with vision, uncoordinated movements, and causes death within a year. The new variant, associ ated with the bovine disease, differs in that it can occur at younger ages from 15 years and the symptoms are psychiatric in nature (depression, dementia, etc). Since the individual is infected until the disease manifests itself may take mo re than six years. For now there is no treatment. n What parts of the cow are dangerous? n What other products are at risk? E H o know that the infectious agent (prion) was transmitted from cows to people (ev en been isolated) and the need for a minimum amount of prions that infection suc cess. It is believed that the disease had been transmitted through food, but is not fully demonstrated. In fact, not be explained with a single reason the sprea d of all those who have fallen ill. There is more prevalent in persons working w ith animals (farmers, 13 veterinarians, butchers). Not Yet demostra12, 3 do that blood is one route of infection among persons 12.2 12.1. 11.23 11.22 11.21 11.1 11.1 11.21 11.22 11.23 12 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.2 13.31 13 .32 13.33 l 64% of an adult animal prions are found in the brain (brains). The spinal cord , which runs inside the backbone, contains 25.6%. Ganglia that are located near the spine, intestines, eyes, tonsils, spleen, kidneys, liver, lung, pancreas, pl acenta, lymph nodes and add the rest. The direct consumption of these tissues or foods made from them can spread the disease. Other organs and tissues have a ne

gligible infectivity. In muscles, for example, no infectivity has been detected, not even if you want on the tongue and other muscles of the head. Nor has it be en found in milk, semen and saliva. T ll those in whose preparation contaminated materials are used and prions are not destroyed during preparation. Materials of bovine origin used in hamburgers, ho t dogs, sausages, ready meals and frozen. Also in the preparation of some medici nes, cosmetics and sweets in these cases, even when prions might exist in the ra w material should be destroyed in the process. n When did the disease? Chromosome 20 The human protein that can become a prion is determined by a gene located on chr omosome 20 L Scientific Communication Monographs UNITED KINGDOM DENMARK 2000 1997 1986 NETHERLANDS n Are we all set? at first epidemic of mad cow disease appeared in Britain in 1984 and has affecte d more than 180,000 animals. The British did not take action to protect consumer s until the end of 1989, so for about six years, the population was exposed to i nfectious agents. For more risk, are fond of eating meat adult bull and cow, unlike the Spanish who prefer beef. The second outbreak appe ared between 1989 and 1991 in Switzerland, Ireland, Portugal and France, IRELAND 1989 counted in each country more than 120 cases (some patients exceeds 500 ani mals). It has been shown that arose from the use of imported feed was contaminat ed. 01 2000 GERMANY LUX. SWITZERLAND 1997 1990 BELGIUM FRANCE 1997 1993 T ll have the protein that can become a prion, but there is a genetic component th at causes resistance or sensitivity and is involved in disease progression. In s heep, the resistant individuals lengthen the incubation period to the point that the disease may never occur,€even if they are infected. The considerable short ening the incubation time to get sick in a year. PORTUGAL 1990 SPAIN 2000 2001 ITALY mad cow A

information of DESIGN AND LAYOUT Coruña Science Museums OCTO PUBLICATIONS n How did the evil mad cow disease? Cattle Census At December 31, 2000 n Why sick cows are older? L 83.096 million Thousands of head 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 E 870 000 6.089 million sta cow disease affects adults of any race or sex. It has been diagnosed primari ly among those dedicated to dairy production and to a lesser extent, to the meat . The incubation period, since the animal becomes infected until the disease man ifests itself, is about four years. So usually occurs in animals older than thre e years but exceptionally can anticipate them. The clinical course, which happen s in about two months, is progressive, irreversible and leads to death. as investigations found that the cattle had been infected by feeding, and that i ts appearance was related to a change in the manufacture of feed were made of bo nes and remains of terrestrial animals. By 1981-82 it had sought savings in prod uction, reducing the temperature and time were subjected to animal remains. In B ritain it is common as scrapie and do not have the custom of eating lamb brains, they ended in the flours. The change meant that infectious agents were not dest royed and contaminated feed. Transformation of the prion protein to its infectious form Prion Protein E ast December 2000, the Science Museum opened a hotline to accommodate the concer ns and concerns of citizens about the evil of mad cow disease. During the week r emained active were received about 300 calls. Most were related to food issues, sensitive animals and routes of infection. This is what you can now respond. n How are infected cows? L to infection occurs when an animal eats food contaminated with prions. These pas s through the gastrointestinal tract without affecting their gastrointestinal ju ices to the final stretch of the small intestine where they are incorporated int

o the body. Then slowly spread to the brain through the nervous system, without the immune system to react against infection. Their accumulation in the brain da mages cells and causes the symptoms of the disease. Some researchers isolated pr ions in mites feed and support the idea of possible infection by parasites. So w hile not an absolute certainty, it is recommended to slaughter the animals that share facilities with the sick. n Is it a new disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy? n Why it is said that these are rare diseases? tanley Prusiner discovered prions that outsiders are causing spongiform encephal opathies. All infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses have nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) to reproduce, but not prions. In addition, prions are an incredible w ay of multiplication, for normal proteins become pathogenic organism simply by c hanging the shape of the molecule. That proteins can change shape is not surpris ing. The change in appearance gets the egg white to coagulate the cooking is an example. It would be strange if this was contagious and, when in contact with ot her cooked egg raw, some clots. Something similar is happening in the replicatio n of prions. n What are prions? L or is. The first description of the also called mad cow disease was published in 1987 in an English magazine. There was talk of a degenerative neurological dise ase with symptoms similar to scrapie of sheep (or "scrappy"), known since 240 ye ars ago in the United Kingdom and Germany, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and "ku ru" to humans. S L I Prions are proteins (including hemoglobin, insulin and collagen). Since the pr oduction of any protein is directed by a gene, it was thought that there may be a able to synthesize proteins that become prions. This was confirmed in some ani mals and in humans, where it proved that these proteins exist naturally without causing the disease. In fact, they are in the membranes of nerve cells and are i nvolved in mineral metabolism. What happens is that these proteins can exist in two versions, one safe and another pathogen, and the only difference between the m is the form they take.€When pathogens are normal with the change induced in t hem so that becomes pathogenic (it would be like a domino effect). The resemblan ce is what determines that prions are not detected by the body's immune system a nd can be extended without causing any reaction of defense. n Why these diseases can pass from one to another species? L I prions can be transmitted between different species (cows, sheep, cows, men) d epending on the similarity of the proteins from which they come. If the protein that can form the bovine prion is similar to humans, might induce the shape chan ge that leads to the emergence of human prions. And the disease is transmitted t hrough food because prions supports the action of gastric juices. n Why is it necessary to incinerate the corpses and remains of diseased animals and contaminated feed? orque prions are highly resistant to traditional disinfection mechanisms. They r esist most physical disinfectants such as ultraviolet radiation, and require hig

h temperatures to destroy. Pasteurization does not come, because they can withst and over 160 degrees. They also resist the action of many chemical disinfectants such as formaldehyde and phenol, but are sensitive to bleach, soda and formic a cid. Prions have been planted on the environment and have been recovered until t hree years later, so that support environmental conditions (sunlight, microbial decomposition, etc). P EUROPEAN UNION SPAIN (Estimate) GALICIA EUROPEAN UNION Dairy nurse of 1-12 months 1-2 years more than 2 years SPAIN Dair y nurse 1-12 months 1-2 years more than 2 years GALICIA Dairy nurse 1-12 months 1 to 2 years more than 2 years 20,296,000 12,131,000 24,269,000 17,782,000 8,418,000 n Can you diagnose the disease in cows live? L 1,189,000 1,785,000 2,060,000 740,000 315,000 a disease characterized by behavioral changes (nervousness, aggressiveness), cha nges in sensation (they become very sensitive to noise and contacts) and muscle coordination (trembling, frequent falls, difficulty standing). Other symptoms in clude rapid weight loss and a sharp drop in milk production. For now there is no diagnostic test for live cows, all dead animals are made on samples taken from the base of the brain near the spinal cord. Microscopic examination of tissue re vealed the appearance of holes, from which the adjective "spongiform." In these tissues also can detect the presence of prions. n What animals are free from infection? S and found a new disease in cats and zoo animals, like cats (tigers, panthers), r uminants (gazelles, wildebeests) and some monkeys. Although in general, diseases from one species to another are not contagious. The disease has not been detect ed in pigs or poultry (chickens do not even know TSEs), or rabbits, or dogs (dog s, foxes, wolves), or fish. But this does not mean you can not get to catch it, in trials, has been achieved artificially infect ostriches and pigs. In these la tter animals was achieved by injecting infectious material into the brain or blo od, but in any event, ingestion, or by providing four kilos of brains infected a nimal. n Can we infect the lamb? lthough the prions that cause scrapie and spongiform encephalopathy of sheep are those who spread the disease to cows, and from them passed to humans, there is no evidence that can directly infect people. In fact, for over two centuries has lived with her without appeared cases. A

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