An information produced by Coruña Science Museums Scientific Communication Monographs Edition made with the sponsorship of 06 bird flu

E n recent years new varieties have emerged infectious disease that can affect hum ans, including avian influenza. In the latter case, the statements of some globa l public health authorities added to the feeling of helplessness citizen, have g enerated concern and some alarm. At present, however, bird flu is primarily a ve terinary problem. In any case, you can improve the health of a population withou t thinking of their neighbors. In the fight against infectious diseases is neces sary to join efforts, especially because the high mobility of people and animals provide a rapid and global spread. I What is avian influenza? na disease suffer mainly birds and is caused by influenza viruses. There are man y types of HPV virus. The so-called H5N1 that is now spreading from Asia, and ha s infected some humans. It is also dangerous because it has a high capacity to m utate into a flu virus that could be contagious and deadly to humans. U How I have gotten some people bird flu? lthough it is normal that bird flu does not infect humans, since late 2003 have been confirmed about 120 cases. Research on they determined that transmission oc curred through inhalation (breathing), and it took a continuing direct contact w ith sick birds and their feces. A I Is there a treatment for human bird flu patients? E Guest of bird flu THE bird flu virus normally lives in waterfowl, which can be transmitted to othe r hosts, like pigs, poultry and humans. here are many drugs to treat general symptoms of the disease (antipyretics, anal gesics, etc). The use of antivirals is an option more specific. These drugs are designed to combat viral infections and prevent the spread but not the patient n or cure it, it does alleviate the symptoms and complications secondary to infect ion. Of the two drugs in this class are on the market, WHO has opted for the Tam iflu. In any case, the use of antivirals should be supervised by specialists, as this may encourage the emergence of viruses resistant to them. I How can a flu virus can kill people? a human influenza kills the cells of the respiratory system. If the aggressivene ss is low, the human body can regenerate and fight infection, but if it is great er than it can bear, triggers the death. Fortunately, it is normal that this wil l not happen. The influenza virus is especially dangerous for their ability to m utate. In places in Southeast Asia where birds live side by side, humans and pig

s there is a lot of these viruses also have many opportunities to move from one species to another. This creates the ideal conditions to continuously generate n ew influenza viruses, some of which can be fatal. L What should I do if a human flu pandemic were to Spain? No extreme should first regular preventive measures personal and social hygiene like hand washing, sneezing in front of a handkerchief, avoid crowds and confine d spaces. The World Health Organization recommends the closure of schools, estab lish a quarantine on the affected parties to prohibit large gatherings, limit tr avel and increase measures of hygiene. Also advised to communicate the risks to the population, providing accurate information and building confidence in the he alth authorities. They should use medical resources (antivirals, vaccines) in th e most effective. E Can I eat birds? What about eggs? S L Í. No evidence of infection from eating cooked meat or eggs. Moreover, this vir us is destroyed at temperatures above 70 degrees centigrade, which is usually ov ercome during cooking. I What are the differences between human and avian flu in people? as people infected with avian influenza viruses showed symptoms similar to those of flu, including fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches and difficulty breath ing. The main difference between the two diseases is that the flu virus only inf ects the airways (lung, trachea, throat) while bird flu is also multiplied in ma ny other parts of the body such as liver,€intestines or brain. What can I do now against bird flu? E I What we have to worry? oday, bird flu is a veterinary problem. It could become worrying if it becomes a pandemic affecting millions of humans. For this to happen three conditions must occur: 1) the emergence of a new strain of avian influenza virus, 2) that is ca pable of infecting humans, causing a serious disease, and 3) that spreads easily and sustainably among humans. So far, the avian flu virus H5N1 meets the first two conditions, but-and this is important-failure to enforce the third. No bird flu currently is not a public health problem in Spain. In general, the i mportant thing is to prevent the spread of the virus in poultry populations. Thi s minimizes the exposure of humans to the virus. It is also vital to report huma n cases of bird flu to WHO, together with the health systems of affected countri es can implement the necessary preventive measures. How much should I travel to countries affected by bird flu? ccording to WHO and the Spanish Ministry of Health, should not be allowed to tra vel to affected countries. But I do not recommend deleting there any direct cont act with live birds and travel vaccinated against flu. E S

I Are there vaccines against avian influenza? here's a vaccine that protects birds against the disease is already being used t o prevent its spread in poultry. But there is no against a possible human avian influenza. To develop this vaccine is necessary to know how the virus that cause of course, and for now, it does not exist. Dispersion of influenza virus E I Will it help the flu vaccine against human bird flu? Experts believe that we as the common flu virus and the human bird flu still non existent share elements of its structure, vaccination against the first help the immune system to fight this new virus. Others believe that no good, for the sam e reason that influenza vaccines are not worth one year to another and must be r enewed (because the viruses change.) U Migration route for birds Within each area, the birds move south in autumn and northward in spring How do I know if a bird is sick with bird flu? I Symptoms include loss of feathers, reduced egg production, diarrhea, congestio n, uncoordinated movements and flabby ridge. The more aggressive variety can cau se death within a few hours, and mortality in this case is close to 100% of infe cted birds. L I Is bird flu a serious illness to humans? till October 2005, of the 117 known cases of human bird flu in 61 ended in death , a death rate that exceeds 50%. This figure compares with 10% mortality that is associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, better known as SARS, or 80% of the Ebola virus. An important aspect that increases the severity of infectio n is its ability to spread between humans (higher in the case of the flu and voi d on avian influenza). H avian I How is spreading around the world the bird flu? Epidemic started The disease spread from China to Siberia, and from there to the west of Russia, Romania and Kazakhstan, which may be due to migratory waterfowl in 2004 outbreak s in poultry outbreaks in birds in 2005 as wild birds, particularly waterfowl, are natural hosts of avian influenza viru s. Many of these birds are migratory, and when the autumn came the move to the s outh (in the spring they do to the north) that can spread the virus to new regio ns. In addition, different global migration routes overlap each other, which mak es possible the transmission in an east-west. It seems that this has come to Tur key, Romania, Greece and Russia. Similarly, the commercial transport of these an imals also contribute to the spread of avian viruses. L

Can I transmit avian influenza from one person to another? I Is it a new disease or existed before? D and when there is no known case. And if it will occur because the virus will hav e become a different one. Most experts believe that this is a matter of time to happen. The avian flu virus could suffer this hypothetical situation changes (mu tations), or combining with human flu virus. L What animals can I have the flu? ll birds, both poultry and the wild. Less often also spread pigs€and even being s T human. Wild ducks are more resistant than other birds to infection. Thus, while not suffering the disease may carry the virus during their migrations and transm it it to other birds, especially domestic ones, which are more likely to get sic k. to avian influenza was first identified in Italy in 1878. Since 1959 there have been 32 outbreaks in poultry worldwide, which were produced by different types o f virus. The first confirmed case of avian influenza spread to humans was detect ed in 1997 in Hong Kong. The origin of the epidemic that are currently suffering the birds are located in South Korea, where he appeared in December 2003. Then spread to Southeast Asia, recently reached Europe. The influenza pandemic of 1918, popularly known as "Spanish flu." It says he rec eived this name because it was in this country where it was first reported, the media of other nations were affected by the war. I How does the current bird flu with the flu of 1918? Could cause a pandemic so deadly? ecent research has found common features between the current H5N1 avian influenz a and the influenza virus of 1918. The data suggest that was a bird virus itself which is then adapted to humans, proving to be exceptionally deadly. Now we liv e in a world much more connected and an influenza pandemic would spread in a few months, but we also have more resources to cope. What I pandemics have affected mankind? n the twentieth century there are three. The 1918 killed more than 20 million pe ople around the world (just over 1% of world population) and is considered a mor e aggressive disease in history. The other two pandemics were milder: in 1957, c alled "Asian flu" caused an estimated 1 to 2 million deaths, and 1968, the "Hong Kong flu, 1 million. It is important to remember that every year flu outbreaks causing hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly elderly and infirm. R E Some terms to distinguish Avian I Infectious disease, viral disease that primarily affects human airways.

I is important to distinguish these three viruses AVIAN INFLUENZA HUMAN OR COMMO N and we used to wait each fall. AVIAN INFLUENZA is affecting millions of birds and has caused some human infections and deaths. I Virus Group of infectious agents, the most simple in structure and composition, which includes the cause of smallpox, AIDS, measles, rabies, etc. Can only live inside the cells they infect (animals, plants, bacteria, fungi). Human bird flu case is the virus that could trigger a human pandemic. The first two exist. The third is not. I Pandemic Human infectious disease that has exceeded the boundaries between nations and ex tends around the globe. Coruña Science Museums DESIGN AND LAYOUT OCTO PUBLICATIONS