CENTURIES Reyes Católicos XVI Charles I (1517-1556) Philip II (1556-1598) Felipe III (1598-1621) XVII

Philip IV (1621-1665) 1500 1520 commedia dell'arte troupes traveling 1540 1560 1580 1600 BAROQUE THEATRE National Theatre Building He had a spectacular success with the public. There are issues and situations va ried, but love and honor are essential ingredients. They mix the comic and tragi c. They have a secondary action parallel to the main, there are a variety of spa ces, a structure in three acts or days, adequacy of language to each character, verse polymetric ... 1620 1640 1660 Continues the popular or traditional lyric poetry, as in the Middle Ages, and un til today. Still love ballads. And religion writers from the late sixteenth cent ury, will be attracted to this popular poetry, imitating their subjects, forms a nd styles. Lope de Rueda (1510-1565) are built the first theater company created the first Spanish comedy theaters Since 1560, serious problems are evident. Sustaining the Empire of Philip II inv olves many administrative and military expenditure. The country is impoverished, there is increasing differences Fray Luis de León (1527-1591) social. Be seen the San Juan de la Cruz (1542-1591) the negative effects of elegance, delicacy a nd expulsion of Jews and simplicity of the lyrics are profane Moors. L a S a n t a move to the spiritual realm. I nquisici or npersigue Fray Luis writes odes of any suspicious idea reflective character and love of being anti-Catholic. It is by nature and life begins a long crisis that simple. San Juan writes poems will last until the first century (Spiritual Canticle, Dark Night of the Soul, Flame XVIII. However, the love alive) love to know Spanish literature during the Baro que expresanenrealidad a mystical experience. Both impressive development. The sixteenth century is a time of profound change. Economically, capitalism rep laced feudalism definitely. With the discovery of America trade grows, cities in crease their population, there is scientific progress, is developing a nascent i ndustrial base. There arises a new social class, the bourgeoisie, but the people 's living conditions do not improve too much. Politically, takes place a central ization of power in the figure of Rey, Spain has many areas and becomes a world power. Between 1500 and 1560 there is a wave of confidence, optimism and vitalit y, believed in progress and the human right to be happy. Defending a religion of Erasmus more intimate and less superstitious. The artists are set in Greek and

Latin classics, in search of inspiration. RENAISSANCE POETRY The formula of courtly love is exhausted, the Castilian troubadour poems are too mechanical and monotonous. Hispano-Italian contacts favor the "import" of the f orms and themes of the Renaissance: spiritualized love, melancholy, exploration of feelings, idealistic nature, seeking harmony, use of classical myths, lexical richness, new metaphors. .. religious poetry, secular poetry (ascetic and mysti c) Garcilaso de la Vega (1501-1936) Prototype of a warrior and letters, lived so me time in Italy, where he made contact with the Renaissance atmosphere. His wor k is short, all the theme of love: sonnets, elegies, epistles and Eclogues (with pastors and actors). His poetry is simple, full of harmony, with precise langua ge, musical, very delicate, to express deep emotions, but contained. Tirso de Molina (1584-1648) The Trickster of Seville Calderon de la Barca (16001681) intellectual and discreet man (as opposed to Lope), represents the most ge nuinely Baroque theater. With him there is an evolution: his characters are more complex, with deepest conflicts over Shakespearean, a more developed language . .. After his most famous works, The Life is a Dream and The Mayor of Zalamea, is dedicated to the religious drama. BAROQUE POETRY Baroque poets go to the extremes of pessimism to vitalism, from the serious to t he banal, from the religious to the profane ... In his poems there is great tens ion and dynamism. Reject the Renaissance harmony and balance. Aware of the ephem eral nature of beauty and life, seek perfection through the formal complexity (c ulteranismo) or hoopla conceptual (concept). Lope de Vega (1562-1635), charismatic man with a passion, was an idol of the mas ses. His poetry was full of vitality, of freshness, but not without its technica l and depth. His great legacy is in the theater theatrical hit with a formula fo r success, the public adored him. He wrote at least 400 plays: Fuenteovejuna, Th e dog in the manger,€Peribáñez and the Commander of Ocana, La dama boba, The Knight of Olmedo ... Francisco Quevedo (1580-1645) An absolute genius. Very earl y writer, was a novelist but especially a poet. Man of deep personal contradicti ons, tried to put a dent in the court while the world saw an absolutely ridiculo us, worthy of caricature. Combine with equal brilliance, anguished poetry metaph ysical poetry and acid satire, the philosophical and the obscene. Master of doub le meanings, puns, dominated like few others all the possibilities of language. Luis de Góngora (1561-1627) tireless search for beauty, explorer of new forms, is a typical example of refugee poet in a sort of ivory tower of self-imposed lo neliness. He was an admired writer, and created a school (culteranismo, poems of great formal complexity), but also cultivated the romance and song, especially in his satirical poetry. used the lyre, his favorite verse. Progressive complication of forms: Mannerism RENAISSANCE NOVEL From 1550 on diversifying the genres of romance, the narrative genres are typica lly Renaissance: the pastoral novel, Moorish and Byzantine or adventure. 1559: f irst pastoral novel Seven Dianas, J. Montemayor. 1554: Publication of Lazarillo de Tormes first-person accounts of the life experience of Lázaro de Tormes, poo r lad going from master to master to achieve a decent social position. The "tour " of Lazarus discovers dirt on the sixteenth-century Spanish society, especially the empty religiosity, hypocrisy, his greed, his lack of scruples. The alleged status worthy of Lazarus is a great lie, be aware that his wife's lover an Archp riest in order not to lose what has been achieved. Lazarus has applied all criti

cal defects in their masters, which is passed from the moral poverty of their su rroundings. This is the first novel in which there is a clear evolution of the c haracter, and the first to give a sense of verisimilitude. It also highlights th e use of humor, irony, ambiguity. A masterpiece despite its apparent simplicity. Prose entertainment continues the success of the books of chivalry and romantic novels. After La Celestina comes a novel variety that pays attention to marginal environments and characters of low social status. Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) embodies the transition from Baroque Renaissance idealism to disillusionment. He had an eventful life more miserable than happy: captivity, imprisonment, difficult marriage, economic hardship ... Poet and acc eptable mediocre playwright, was in the novel where he demonstrated his talent. Cultivated all genres but it was a work in which he satirized the books of chiva lry which launched him to fame: Don Quixote (1605 and 1613). Don Quixote is a cr azy old man, however able to amaze with his wisdom, an idealist who seeks a bett er world but strikes a cruel and petty society. Sancho Panza is the counterpoint to Don Quixote: practical, cowardly, lazy, materialistic. Together they complem ent each other perfectly, and weave a deep friendship, the greater the more rife with disappointment of his dreams and expectations. Don Quixote is a satire, bu t also a song of love and freedom. The narrative technique is superb, even for t he first time mixing fiction and reality. And the mastery of the language of Cer vantes boasts that is unrivaled. BAROQUE NOVEL Rise of the novel type allegorical and moralizing, with typically baroque pessim ism and disillusionment. (1627) Quevedo: Dreams Baltasar Gracian (1601-1658) The best representative of t his type of novel. His works reflect a black picture of man and of life. His mos t important work is the Critic, starring Andrenio and Critilo, who travel the wo rld in search of Felisinda (ie happiness), which will be impossible to achieve. From the pilgrimage of the characters, the world is seen as a false and petty. G racian's work was highly valued, and judgmental language and conceptual full of games, is typically Baroque. Home of the picaresque novel (1599) Matthew German: Alfarache Guzman-form autobiography (1613) Cervantes: Rin con and Cortadillo-environment-star miserable thief, bum ... (1603) Quevedo: Lif e Buscón called Don Pablos, satire and criticism of customs