HISTORY 1918: pneumonia, or the Spanish Flu Maria Fernanda Rollo * Fight October 4, 1918: You can say

that has already spread throughout the countr y and in London she rages with intensity. Had the government not to continue the tests in high schools, and that all establishments of education do not work unt il further notice. Admittedly, theaters and Animatógrafo still open, and the ah i crowd to contagion effects, is more dangerous than in schools. Opinions differ as to the nature of the disease ... (...) Convenient would be (...) that until the outbreak ceases, the corpses do not cross in procession to the city in long funeral train, repeated every hour. (...) The Fight, 10 October 1918: The pneumo nic influenza. The epidemic continues to spread. Moncorvo, 7. Continues to incre ase dramatically (...) Samora Correia, 7. Continue extending the cases of pneumo nic influenza, with homes where everyone in the family attacked the terrible evi l. (...) Coimbra, 9. A terrible epidemic of pneumonic influenza will declining s omewhat in the military (...) Miranda do Douro, 6. We are faced with a fearful e pidemic influenza (...) Nearly half the population of the county is sick (...) A ljustrel, 8. The epidemic of pneumonic influenza knocks at the door. (...) Erice ira, 8. In this village is raging with great intensity (...) and the number of p eople attacked every day 20-30, and the population is a real panic. (...) F az now 90 years that pneumonia killed more than 50 000 people in Portugal, among the approximately 70,000 who perished from epidemics between 1918 and 1919. Die d of the same evil almost 50 million people worldwide, was the most deadly epide mic of all time. Pneumonia killed more people than World War I that was certainl y not foreign to the spread of the epidemic, killed "only" 8 million. Despite "w idespread neglect, pneumonia went down in history for us all. Those who survived were silent pain and carried the memory suffered, more or less diffuse, this ca lamity that has plagued countries, cities, towns, whole families. The spectacle of pain and morbidity, is only very slightly closer than the press reports at th e time showed that up and playing a mere annotation. Morbid trilogy In Portugal, the epidemic broke out and spread, boosting the alre ady gloomy trilogy of misery, war and death. His story must be told considering the context of the country we were, taking due account of the Portuguese economy and society of that time and its evolution under the sign of War I and Sidon; p olicies and strategies of governments (or lack thereof) entered under a Republic an, in general, and in wartime, in particular, understanding the background of p olitical instability and financial situation of endemic economic and social cris is, the worsening of the moment "question of livelihoods" and the growing povert y and discontent social and political, all within the context of globalization a nd international in that war, the economic and social situation and the conditio n itself epidemic, fall and stem. In this drama of adversity crossed, cometh with the growing clamor unrest among a population that, beyond the hype of the deaths, the horror of hunger and human misery framework installed, overcame the unprecedented deterioration of the con ditions and level of life among all, permeated between criticism and feedback si gnal or as contradictory, political sensitivities and ideological inspiration di verse, is projected ideas and beliefs in a climate of thought buzzing in "output s" political and economic and social models. War, Famine, Death, concertaramse i n funeral procession, the red in 1918. As for other parts of the World War I the situation, the effects of condensed triggered and, like pneumonia, focused and leveraged, they determined a turning point. The political consequences were comp lex and had lasting impacts in jail and a country that between hesitancy and ine rtia in terms of its economic activity was slow in responding to the challenges and opportunities of modern economic growth and social development. It is, there

fore, that under the specific environment in which the pneumonic happened and qu ickly reached an unprecedented scale, or, as the precarious living conditions, o r the widespread economic and social backwardness Portuguese, operated in the ne gative, the current and potential spread and effects of pneumonic and scenery of morbidity registered in our country Admittedly, crisscrossed by crises and dist urbances affecting both domestic and international the metropolis, whether the c olonies in the various sectors,€faced with the growth of defense workers, the R epublican period experienced moments that were interesting developments, particu larly in the immediate post-War, the field of industry. However, although there has been a reasonable growth in the industrial sector, it was limited and far fr om achieving catapult Portugal to the level of industrialized countries of Europ e. The national economy continued to rely principally on their agricultural acti vity, though very insufficient for national needs. Among criticisms, concerns an d proposed solutions to the "question of livelihoods" ... continue persistently. So it would be up HISTORY because it was not even clear the course that would govern the conduct of the ta rgets of economic development of the country, atavistic view of the debate that opposed in terms of ideas, two contradictory concepts that should guide you. On the one hand a concept that, in the ideas of the time, defended the country's sp ecialization in agricultural production, on the other, a set of disparate ideas, with some ground currents of economic thought, which advocated support for an i ndustrialization that circumstances were always doing abortions. Disagreements b etween political, strategic blunders, financial difficulties, pitfalls and other applicants, the country persisted between the lack of will and vision and an in ability to initiate and enhance dynamic self-sustaining development, in which sc enes of social misery - similar to that favored spread of pneumonia in 1918 - be yond the usual and constant emptying of the historical memory - could be permane ntly excluded. nerable hygiene conditions favored its rapid spread, especially b y contamination transmitted by fleas and lice, as identified at the time Ricardo Jorge. The Spanish flu struck the country widely, reaching a population in 1911 totaled 5.55 million inhabitants, of which 20% living in cities. A population " fragile", characterized by a high mortality rate, particularly children, whose m ain cause of death was, under normal conditions, tuberculosis (only between 1910 and 1920 killed about 100 thousand Portuguese), and "lived "with pneumonia and smallpox. The pneumonic, adding their effects to the war, has provoked the inter ruption of the shy population growth. The pneumonic influenza epidemiology Note presented by prof. Ricardo Jorge the Superior Health Council: The epidemic wave that rolled in early June of Spain, it is clear that treated us with marked kind ness. Already brought in their train attacks the lungs, which served to further characterize it, but no doubt it was the lesser evil as possible, bland, low del ay, and even weaker than the usual diffusion (...) Since August a new wave curls , without the relative innocence of the first. He has this way known influenza; returns when least expected, in successive waves, and these recurrences usually also refine seriousness. Contemporary Medicine, September 29, 1918, p. 308. The pneumonic came abruptly, making brutally recalled the horror that marked the course of major disease outbreaks, continuing until the mid-nineteenth century. It was preceded by the typhus that between 1917 and 1918 killed more than 2000 Portuguese, especially the elderly, the poor, the beggars and the indigent. Typh us, which originated in Espinho, struck with great violence the city of Oporto, where DeplaThe black year of 1918 all started in May 1918, when Spain was declared in a flu epidemic that soon would spread to Portugal - standing in the genesis of the na me of Spanish Flu because he was known. It is considered today, however, as the most likely American origin of the disease. In fact, it is known that in early M arch 1918 the disease has manifested itself in the U.S., spreading from there to Europe, becoming a pandemic that hit in a few weeks every continent. In June it

was an epidemic worldwide, having meanwhile arrived in Portugal from Spain, the Alentejo border. From there evolved in two waves: the first, between May and la te July, more lenient, the epidemic situation has remained more or less controll ed, which succeeded a second round between August and December, terribly dramati c assuming truly devastating effects. The flu hit the border areas initially, bu t soon, mainly due to movements of people, and struck the coastal areas, particu larly Lisbon and Porto. Between June and July raged in the capital, where he lea d more than 400 deaths a week. In mid-July, the worst seemed to have passed ... However, in late August,€as indeed happened in many other countries, broke a se cond wave of different characteristics with regard to the physiognomy of the dis ease, which assumed a much more violent. After the apparent calm, the epidemic has worsened, spreading hard by the countr y, showing an unprecedented scale, causing panic among everybody and making it c lear the picture of general failure to combat it. He became what it might, activ ating measures, sometimes counterproductive, among which permits movement of peo ple, including military. Among all, there emerged a scene of utter helplessness, starting with the medicine ... medical science could not yet deal with this dis ease. Among measures exploratory invaluable efforts in order to understand and o vercome this flu, among the most consistent warnings, resulting in an environmen t of increased awareness about the uniqueness of the tragedy, such as those prop osed by the Director General of Health, Jorge Ricardo, the absence of medical kn owledge and clinical processes more suitable prevented the proper treatment of v ictims and inhibited the ability to contain influenza. Furthermore, the pandemic had powerful allies: the war, as mentioned above, and the endless procession of consequences, the inability and inadequacy of health services and assistance, t he deplorable conditions of hygiene and sanitary conditions in which he lived mo st population, widespread shortage of food and medicines in short, all that char isma poverty or low educational level, economic and social development in the Portugu ese population, made up a dramatically favorable stage disease progression. The noise grew until in October - the darkest months of pneumonia in Portugal. Among the widespread ignorance about the ways of fighting the Spanish, widesprea d panic or scarcity of resources, most of the implemented measures proved succes sful ineffective or useless, and in some cases, even counterproductive, even the most advised recommendations such as those initiated by the Directorate General Health, had a few reflections, appearing inadequate or impracticable, not to me ntion the hasty measures and totally inappropriate, useless or the advice of aut hentic placebos that impoties, authorities and doctors were releasing more or less at random. If, on the one hand, how quickly it spread and size of the epidemic reached, they surprised everyone, authorities, official agencies, general public, on the other hand, wa s the total ignorance of the prophylactic measures to be implemented. Vainly tri ed to mount an organized fight the epidemic. LuEm Sacavém: Mr. Dr. Sidonio Paes was walking the grounds where it is distributed to soup Tando against poor livi ng conditions that affected the majority of the population, the general lack of hygiene, inadequate health services, the lack of doctors, lack of medicines, whi ch aggravated the speculation, the pneumonic continued to devastate ... claiming lives, without choosing victims. Despite turning up at all, between the few ric h and many poor cleavages were increasing, social injustice, that the busi Sacav ém: Arrival of the President of the Republic of war flaring Associates, were th e place where he runs the "Soup for the poor "... How many is often the case, th e tragedy fed misery: the pneumonic penalized especially the most disadvantaged. A bit all over the show was death, bodies piled up, misery and suffering. The m akeshift hospitals, from high schools and private homes, in addition to that the re were not many victims came to ... there was not even able to Enno Beato: Arri val of the Head of State Asylum Maria Pia, land ... the bodies housing the "Soup

for the poor. " There were many initiatives, meetings group of inmates at the a sylum that he made the honor guard d'ram has been tremendous efforts, material a nd human resources, public and private, all ten-pneumonia, which together have k illed for (the Taram help in order to fight the estimates vary) between 50 and 7 0 000 pesgripe and, specifically, watching his victims-ple, that quickly if he w anted to "forget", but especially those most in need ... Palia, leaving it as pa inful memory, the objectives, it is true, for in those circumstances, the collec tive subconscious limbo - as if everything happened out of the earth could stop the tragedy ... After the most dramatic period, which oc-Men (given that some co nsider it in October, the epidemic was to deva-raram divine punishment). busines s presence, furnishing throughout the month of November. Anyway, by that time, t he political, and * Researcher at the Institute of Contemporary History the coun try in general,€desProfessora were suspended from the Department of History of War and closing of the political, ECoDI Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanitie s nomic and national social, soon inflamed the New University of Lisbon for the murder of Sidonius Parents.