STATISTICAL DOUBLE and CASIO FX-9850 Adjustments linear and nonlinear Terminale ES.

Straight Mayer, least square regression exponential, logarithmic. I. Summary II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Data Entry Graphic Adjustment Calculation Method of residues Mayer adjustment by the method of least squares regression with cha nge of variable Exponential Regression Logarithmic Regression Website Descartes and Mathematics: Word Document http://perso.wanadoo.fr/debart/ index.html: http://www.maths.ac-aix-marseille.fr/debart/doc_dp/statistique_doubl e_casio.doc HTML page: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/debart/ti92/statistique_double_ca sio.html Page No. 25, made the 15/11/2002 - Updated 08/24/2005 I. INPUT DATA The calculat ions are made using the lists in the STAT mode for data recording and reading of results and the run mode for certain calculations. Note: All calculations are d one with all the precision of the machine. Only the results will be rounded. Ini tialization: Use a list for the variable xi and list 2 for the variable yi, the frequencies were blocked to 1. List 3 is optionally used to calculate the valu es y versus x, the ordinates of the linear fit and list 4 for the calculation of residuals. In case of problems check the settings in the menu STAT SET GRPH: Gr aph type: Scatter Xlist: Ylist a list: list 2 Frequency: 1 Mark Type: Data Ent ry: to be in the STAT mode. It is prudent to delete the data with the second men u STAT: ► DEL-A by standing on each list. Then in list 1 and list 2 type each va lue followed by EXE. Make no mistake, or omission or not erased previous value a nd check. Example Cinema and Television (ERT Fractal Exercise 21 on page 24) Dep artment of Thousands of TV viewers Number cinema Loire Atlantique 381 572 2294 2 40 093 1317 Maine et Loire Sarthe Vendee 741 190 037 735 188 840 346 99 650 Maye nne Casio fx-9850 Double Statistics Page 1 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth II. GRAPHIC ADJUSTMENT Draw scatter. Calculate the mean x and y. CALC menu 2VAR x = Σ xi i = 1 i = n nny) and a line D through G through the cloud of points "at the troke Center of gravity G (x, almost." Read on the graph the coordinates u and v of point M on this line (quite far from G ). For example M (2000, 320, 000). y - v 220038-3200 00 Calculate the slope a = = ≈ 109. x-u 1086-2000 Type TO ALPHA A to store a (s creen: years → A). Then find the knowledge that the constant coefficient equatio n of the line through G is y-y = (x-x). or b = y - x = 220038 - a 1086 = 101 664 . TO ALPHA Type B to store b (screen : years → B). The line has the equation x + y = 109 101 664 III. Residue calculus The slope had been stored in the variabl e A and the constant coefficient in the variable B RUN mode will place the val ues vs. x ordinate the linear fit y = ax + b in list 3 (list 3 values can also d raw the line). With the key OPTN choose LI T (initially hit twice LI T, LI T men u and word list): A list → list + B 1 3 Calculate the residuals and store them i n list 4 (list-2 list 3) 2 → 4 list and calculate their sum: double tap on : Va lidate um then List: um List 4 In this example we find the residuals equal t o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5433 = 1086 ≈ 5 y = Σy i = 1 i = n i = 1100100 ≈ 220,038. 5 Σ [y i = 1 i = n i - (Ax i + b)] ≈ 2.60 109. 2 Casio fx-9850 Double

Page 2 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth IV. METHOD OF MAYER This method is not strictly speaking the terminal program, b ut a good exercise for equations of lines and as such can be proposed in budget (Fractal No. 13 page 23). It is unfortunately not programmed in the Casio calcul ator. The series is ordered, divide it into two parts. Here the two departments most important one hand, and three other. Calculate the coordinates of the point s G1 (u, v) is the midpoint of points associated with the smallest abscissa and G2 (s, t) at other points in the cloud. A method with the Casio calculator: RUN mode after the OPTN button and copy a list in list 2 list 3 list 4 list 5 and th en list 6. → list 1 list 2 list 3 list 4 list 1 → → 2 → list 5 list list 6 LI T menu by pressing DEL delete (here three) most recent list of items 3 and 4 and t he list (here two) first list of 5 and 6 list mode Run calculate averages (OPTN List Mean) Mean (List 3) 1805.5 ALPHA → U Mean (List 5) 607.3 → ALPHA Mean ( List 4) → 310832 ALPHA V Mean (List 6) 159 509 ALPHA → T v-t 159509-310832 = = 1 26.3. u-s 607.3 - 1805.5 tore in variable A: type A → ALPHA; display is Ans → A 126.3. Then knowing that the constant coefficient equation of the line through example G1 is: y - v = (x - u), or b = v - au = 310 832 - A = 1805.5 × 82 811. tore in variable B: B → ALPHA The right is therefore Mayer equation y = x + 126. 3 82 811 Check the chart on the right of Mayer is threaded through the point G. Calculate the slope a = can be made as above Chapter III, the calculation of the residuals. We then find i = n i = 1 2 Σ [y i - (axi + b)] ≈ 1.24 109. The equation of the line of Mayer is a much better

 

 

 

 

 

tatistics

approximation that refines previous adjustment. Casio fx-9850 Double

Page 3 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth V. ADJU TMENT BY THE METHOD OF LEA T QUARE The calculator gives the main outst anding values, the correlation coefficient, the equation of the regression line Dy / x. You can get a graph and an estimate for predicting any function of x or x in inverse function of y. a. Calculation of characteristic values in TAT mode using options 2VAR CALC. Averages: x = Σ xi i = 1 i = n nn variances and standard deviations: Record the values found on the calculator screen: V (X) = 5433 = 1086 ≈ 5 y = Σy i = 1 i = n i = ≈ 220 038 5 1100100 Σx i = 1 i = n 2i

8.206 × 10 6 - x2 = -10,862 ... ≈. , 5 V (Y) = Σy i = 1 i = n

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nn σx to be ng by i = n

= V (X) ≈ 678.6 σy = V (Y) ≈ 92 587 (denoted by Ca io and xσn yσn and not confu ed with xσn yσn-1-1 and that the calculation are modified by dividi n- 1.) Covariance: i = 1

 

 

   

   

tatistics

2i 11 y 2 = 2.849 × 10-2200382 ... ≈. 5 σxy = Σx y i i n For the calculation of variance and covariance, without turning off the calcul ator, leaving TAT , u ing the MENU button elect RUN mode, pre VAR then ele ct TAT. Finally the variable X and the tandard deviation xσn x2 monitoring EXE . The calculator di play σx2: xσn2 460,489.84 to copy above in V (X) = .... ≈ 4 60,490. Then EXIT button and elect the variable Y and the calculation of x2 yσn monitoring EXE. The calculator di play σy2 to copy above in V (Y) = .... ≈ 8.5 72 × 109. imilarly to the calculation of covariance u ing the variable X and Y by memorizing the number n: Σxy ÷ 5 - y × X EXE Ca io di play EXIT: Σxy ÷ 5 - x = y × ≈ 7 Let σxy = 62030747 .... ≈ 6.203 × 10 x 1.5056 × 10 9 xy = - 1086 × 220 038 ≈ .... 5 b. regre ion witch back to TAT, elect CALC or GRPH, then REG and X. Narrativ e The regre ion coefficient for a director σ xy 6.203 × 10 7 = 2 ≈ ≈ 134.7. σx 678.6 2 line pa e through the center of gravity G (x, y) to repre ent on the g raph, it equation i : y-y = (x-x). The con tant factor i b = y - ax ≈ 73,667. The linear regre ion equation for any xa: y = 134.7 x 73,677 + torage coeffici ent After running the regre ion calculation u ing the MENU button, choo e RUN mode calculation. With the key VAR TAT then elect F3 F3 till GRPH mode. Ca io fx-9850 Double Data Page 4 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth The bottom of the creen di play the coefficient a and b of the right that can be tored in variable uch a A and B. Place the lope in the variable A: ALPH A F1 → A → A and a con tant factor in the variable B: F2 ALPHA → B → b B It i a l o po ible to tore the equation in the function editor with the menu GRPH and after the regre ion calculation REG and X, u e the COPY option. v. Correlation Coefficient The correlation coefficient r i a number between -1 and 1. The nei ghborhood of 1 or -1 indicate a good correlation in principle no one can ay mo re directly. We can not conclude that the validity of a correlation function in the tati tical context. σ xy 6.203 × 10 7 r = 0.987 ≈ ≈. σ xσ to 678.6 × 92 587 Very good rate of correlation. Thi how that currently in France, contrary to popular belief, the Cinema development i con i tent with that of televi ion. A fter toring the coefficient of performance of the regre ion calculation u ing the MENU button, choo e RUN mode calculation. With the key VAR TAT then elec t F3 F3 till GRPH mode. The bottom of the creen di play the coefficient a, b , c ... curve . Tap F6 for the next creen.€Di played correlation coefficient r which can tore for example in the variable R: F1 ALPHA → R → R r if r i e ti mated clo e to 1 or -1 we can make e timate with, depending on the context a go od reliability. In the RUN mode by pre ing OPTN choo e TAT type: 1000 208 37 2 can be e timated at 208,000 the number of TV a department where there thou and of entrie 1000 in film. Al o: 500 000 x 3164.9 to e timate 3.2 million cre ening in a department with 500,000 televi ion et . d. Calculating the re idual A in Chapter III we will put in li t 3 y value calculated with x ordinate of point on the linear fit y = ax + b. In the TAT mode after running the regr e ion calculation back to the creen di playing the li t (among other key EXIT ). With the arrow key are placed on the track li t 3 that appear in rever e vi deo. For the lope with a key VAR TAT then elect F3 F3 till GRPH mode, type F1 calculator di play a button with the OPTN LI T and elect menu type a word L

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i t and a li t ha a li t type + 1 + For the con tant coefficient b with key VAR TAT then elect F3 F3 till GRPH mode, type F2: a li t a + b OK with EXE Ta ble 3 li t will automatically fill it with value . For the re idue , quared dev iation , i placed with the arrow on the track li t 4 that appear in rever e v ideo. Ca io fx-9850 Double Data Page 5 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth type an open parenthe i : By pre ing OPTN LI T menu and choo e Word Li t and ty pe 2: type the minu ign -: F1 la t word Li t and type 3: clo ing parenthe i , calculated with the quare button and confirm x2 EXE: li t 4 contain the releva nt re idue . ((Li t 2 (li t 2 -: (li t 2 - li t 3 (li t 2 - li t 3) 2 tand on a box blank for example in li t 5 and compute their um: double tap on : um validate Li t and then finally type 4 and end with EXE: um Li t 4 i c alculated a the um of re idual equal to: i = n i = 1 2 Σ [y i - (Ax i + b)] ≈ 1.08 109. The right Dy / x i a better approximation than previou adju tment . By definit ion it i not po ible to find a line admitting a maller re idue. Ca io fx-9850

Page 6 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth VII. REGRE ION WITH CHANGE OF VARIABLE a. inver e function: value of a u ed veh icle i , in 1999, the odd of an Argu Car Type: U ed Year of introduction Cote Argu thou and franc 1998 58 1997 48 1996 38 1995 32 1994 24 1993 19 1992 15

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The purpo e of thi problem i to e timate the price of a car of thi type unli ted relea ed in 1990. There xl'âge the car (in year ) and to document Argu (in thou and of franc ). 1.a. Graph the et (xi, yi). b. Determine an equation of t he regre ion line of y in x and draw that line. (Perform calculation with thre e ignificant figure ). v. Calculate the linear correlation coefficient r1 y in x. Can one e timate of the value of a car relea ed in 1990? Explain. 2. Expert believe it will be t fit by replacing the even value by yi zi = 1 value . a. y i In tabular form the double erie (xi, zi), i varying from 1 to 7. b. Calculat e the linear correlation coefficient r2 z x. Compare r1 and r2. v. Identify, u i ng the calculator, the equation of the regre ion of z at x in the form z = x + p (m p being rounded to 10-6 near). d. U ing thi equation we can e timate the v alue of a car relea ed in 1990? Give and explain the re ult. Information Correct ion: In the fir t part introduced in TAT mode xi and yi in a li t in li t 2. Th e equence X REG CALC can find the equation y = - 7.17 x 62.1. Although the corr elation coefficient ri = - 0.989 i very clo e to - 1 for x = 9 a negative value , which i ab urd, can reject the method in thi ca e. For the econd part to ke ep a li t for the variable xi, yi Forward Variable li t 2 to li t 3 (li t 2 3 → li t) with the arrow key are placed on the track li t 3 that appear in rever e video. After electing the button OPTN LI T (initially two tap LI T: LI T menu and word li t), type 2 and confirm with EXE. Then make the change of variable z

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Double tati tic

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in li t 2 (by calculating 1 / 3 li t → li t 2) with the arrow key are placed o n the track li t 2 that appear in rever e video.€Type 1 ÷ then F1 after typing the word Li t 3. ubmit a li t ÷ 3 with EXE. Tapping twice on EXIT to return to REG mode CALC X can find the coefficient r2 = 0.973 and z = x + p m = 8.115 p = 4.197 10-3 and 10-3. The coefficient r2 i generally le relevant than r1, but it near 1 indicate a good correlation: for x = 9 we find z = 0.0772 y = 12.9 t herefore po ible to e timate the value of a car in 1990 13,000 franc . Ca io fx-9850

Page 7 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth b. root function: braking di tance during a te t e ion a pilot vehicle mu t, w hen it receive a ignal in hi headphone , top hi vehicle a oon a po ible . At the time of the tone, we mea ure the peed of the car and the di tance requ ired to top the vehicle. For ix experiment , we obtained the following re ult : vi peed km / h topping di tance yi m 21 8 43 20 62 33 77 55 98 102 115 137

The road afety u ing the function y = 0.01 v2, which give a very good approxim ation and predict 225m braking 150 km / h or 134 km / h to 180 m braking. VII. EXPONENTIAL REGRE ION During an outbreak it wa noted every week the number of ca e xi yi. xi yi 1 94 2 221 3 446 4 1050

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1. Repre enting the cloud of point

in a uitable benchmark. An adju tment refin

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1. Calculate, u ing a calculator, the linear correlation coefficient r1 of any v . 2. Expert believe it will be t fit by replacing the ix value with the value vi = xi VI2 Pre ent in tabular form the double erie (xi, yi), i varying from 1 to 6. Calculate the linear correlation coefficient r2 of y in x. Compare r1 a nd r2. 3. In an orthogonal con truct the catter in thi new double erie . X-ax i with the x 1 cm for 1000, yi. ordinate with a 10 cm. 4. a. Determine, u ing t he calculator, the equation of the regre ion line of y at x in the form y = mx + p (m p being rounded to 10-2 near). Draw the line in the previou marker. b. W hat i the e timated topping di tance corre ponding to a peed of 150 km / h? v . U ing thi equation, determine the e timated value of x corre ponding to a to pping di tance of 180 m, then the corre ponding velocity of the vehicle. d. The manual provide traffic, to calculate the topping di tance (in meter ), the fol lowing method: take the quare of the peed in ten of kilometer per hour. "Com pare the re ult to c. that would be obtained by thi method. Information Correct ion: For the fir t i ue introduced in TAT mode vi in a li t and yi in li t 2. The equence X REG CALC can find r1 = 0.96. The fit equation, un olicited, v y = 1.4 - 37.6 give negative value for the peed below 27 km / h topping di tanc e and undervalued for high peed i not ati factory. To keep the following li t 2 for the variable yi, xi Forward Variable li t of 1 to li t 3 (li t 1 → li t 3): with the arrow key are placed on the track li t 3 that appear in rever e v ideo. After electing the button OPTN LI T (initially two tap LI T: LI T menu a nd word li t), type 1 and validate with EXE. Then make the change of variable xi in a li t (by calculating the quare: li t 3 li t 2 → 1), with directional arro w to put the title on a li t that appear in rever e video. Enter F1 for Li t a nd type 3. Calculate the quare with the pre x2, validate li t 3 2 with EXE. T apping twice on EXIT to return to REG mode CALC calculate X r2 = 0.996 which i a very good correlation. The equation y = mx + p with m = 0.0104 and p = - 1.09 give the topping di tance depending on the peed:. V2 y = 0.0104 - 1.09. For v = 150 one can e timate the topping di tance of 232 meter . We can provide a c ar topping on the 180 m would 132 km / h. Ca io fx-9850 Double Data Page 8 / 10 Lycée Val de Durance - 84 Perth

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1. Representing the cloud of points in suit le enchm rk. 2. We set z = e yi. C lcul te the equ tion of the regression of z t x y the method of le st squ r es. 3. Derive rel tionship etween x nd y. 4. In wh t ye r c sh flow should e xceed 10%? Inform tion Correction: Insert xi nd yi in list in list 3. M ke th e ch nge of v ri le the v ri le z (eg 3 → list list 2): with the rrow keys r e pl ced on the tr ck list 2 th t ppe rs in reverse video. C sio fx-9850 Dou le D t P ge 9 / 10 Lycée V l de Dur nce - 84 Perth Hit the utton for the former exponenti l OPTN menu choose List nd type 3. V li d te ex list 3 with EXE. CALC X REG mode llows you to find the equ tion ey = x + with = = 1518 nd 1933 r = 0.9996 indic ting very good correl tion. I t w s therefore the rel tionship ey = 1518 + 1933 x or y = ln (x + 1 518 1933). This djustment will llow 10% in 2014 fter 19 ye rs. Using the c lcul tor prog r m djustment progr m performs regression log rithmic line r fit etween the v ri les ti = ln (xi) nd yi. Forw rd v ri le Yi list 3 to list 2: st nd on th e tr ck list 2 nd v lid te List 3. Ag in CALC mode REG LOG c n find y = + l n x with = 8.094 nd = 0.6575. We then h ve the rel tionship y = 0.6575 ln x + 8.094. With lower correl tion is expected 10% in 2009 fter 14 ye rs. These forec sts too long term re cert inly not reli le. C sio fx-9850 Dou le St tistics P ge 10/10 Lycée V l de Dur nce - 84 Perth

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e it eem ju tified? 2. We et yi zi = ln (ln denote the natural logarithm). Calculate the equation of the regre ion of z at x by the method of lea t quare . 3. Find a relation hip between x and y of the form y = x α β. 4. How m ny p t ients c n e expected for the fifth week? Inform tion Correction: Question 2. : Enter list in xi nd yi in list 3. Then m ke the ch nge of v ri le z (ln 3 li st → list 2): with the rrow keys re pl ced on the tr ck list 2 th t ppe rs in reverse video. Log rithm with ln touch with OPTN choose List nd type 3., Ln v lid te list 3 with EXE.€T pping twice on EXIT CALC mode REG X c n find the equ t ion ln y = + x with = 0.7941 nd = 3.764. Question 3. : To tr nsfer the v r i le Yi list 3 to list 2 (list 3 → list 2): with the rrow keys re pl ced on t he title list 2. With F1 choose List, type 3 nd confirm EXE. Ag in REG EXP CALC mode c n find: α = e3, 76 = 43.12 nd β = e0, 794 = 2.213. Question 4. it w s good correl tion with r = 0.9992, so we c n provide for the fifth week αβ5 = 22 87 p tients. VIII. LOGARITHMIC REGRESSION The c sh flow (MBA) of comp ny from 1996 to 2001 s percent ge of turnover is given y the following t le where x i represents the r nk of the ye r nd the MBA percent ge yi: xi yi 1 8.13 2 8.51 3 8.79 4 9 5 9.15 6 9.31

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