# University of Savoie DEUG STPI Unit U32 linear systems - Automatic CHAPTER 6 SYSTEMS OF SECOND ORDER 1.

Differential equation - Transfer Function. Called second order system, a system governed by a differential equation of the form: 1 d 2 y dy 2.ξ. +. + Y = K ω2 ωn dt dt 2 n 2.ξ 4 ith: - 2 <0 ωn ωn giving ξ <1 (the system can not be decomposed into t o first order systems in series). ωn is called free or natural frequency pulsation or angular frequenc y of undamped system. ωn is measured in rad / s. ξ is called damping system or d amping factor. K is the static gain of the system (gain steady). By applying the Laplace transform to this equation, e get: 1 12 1 '+ 2. + ξ 2.ξ. p.Y (p) -. y (0 +) + Y (p) = K. X (p) 2. p. Y (p) - 2. P. y (0) + 2. y (0) + ωn ωn ωn ωn ωn 1 2. ξ When the initial conditions are nil, 2. p 2 +. p + 1 . Y (p) = K. X (p) ωn ωn The system transfer function is: Y (p) K. Ωn2 H (p) = = 2 = X (p) + 2 ωn. ξ.ωn p + p 2 2 2.ξ K p 1 + p + 2 This transfer function has a pole comple conjugate: j-ξ ±. 1 - ξ2. Ωn E ample: (t) i (t) CR y (t) ωn ωn

( ) di 1t For zero initial conditions, And y = 1T. ∫ τ i.d C0 Universi y of Savoie DEUG STPI Uni U32 linear sys ems - Au oma ic e have: L + + ∫ R.i i.

dt dτ = C0 - 33 -

where: wi h: wi h: d2 y dy + R C. + Y = x 2 d d 1 H (p) = 2L C. p + R C. p + 1 1 1 ω2 = and = ξ. R. C. L. No ωn C 2 L C. 2. Impulse response. The system impulse response is given by: h (t) = LP-1 [H (p)] h (t) =. E. Sin ωn. 1 - ξ2. t 2 1 - ξ can be seen from this e system is stable, if ξ.ωn> 0. Ie if the poles of the transfer ive real part. ωn is positive, the system is stable for ξ> 0. table, h (t) is a damped sine of: [ ] h (t) 0 t K. Ωn ξω nt-Where pression that the function are negat If the system is s

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ω p = ωn. 1 - ξ2 o n pulse is called pseudo pulse system. 3. Step response. This response is obtained for (t) = u (t) or X (p) = 1 / p. We therefore have: We sho that hen (t) = LP-1 [H (p) / p] 1 (t) = K 1 -. e-ξω nt. Sin ω n. 1 - ξ2. t + θ 1 - ξ2 [ ] 1 - ξ2 - 34 University of Savoie DEUG STPI Unit U32 linear systems - Automatic 1 Xp 0 tr tp t When the system is stable, (ξ> 0), the system response is damped sine from aroun d the final value that is equal to K times the value of the step. (E cept for th e critical case, here ξ = 1: the response is aperiodic.) The initial slope is e qual to 0. 4 The response time of 2% is roughly equal to. ξ. ωn For second order systems, define first e ceeded Instant: We call the first moment of e cess, the moment hen the output reaches its first ma imum. T is denoted P. Amplitude of the first e ceedance: the first is called amplitude e ceeded the amplitude of th e first ma imum on the final value of the output. We note this value Xp. Calcula ting tp tp A, e have '(t) = 0 since (t) is ma imum. Ho ever, e have: 1 ' (t) = - K. . e-nt ξω. ωn. - ξ. Sin ωn. 1 - ξ2. t + θ + 1 - ξ2. Cos ωn. 1 - ξ2. t + θ 2 1 - ξ [ Therefore '(t) = 0 is: e have: therefore, by identifying: ith: tan (θ) = ξ for a system ith a static gain of 1, K = 1:

1 - ξ2. Cos ωn. 1 - ξ2. t + θ = ξ. Sin ωn. 1 - ξ2. t + θ ξ2 + [ ] ] [ [ ] ] (

an (θ) = 1 - ξ ξ2 and

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1 - ξ2 ) 2 = 1 ξ = cos (θ) and 1 - ξ2 = Sin (θ) previous e uali y becomes: Sin (θ). Cos ωn. 1 - ξ 2. T + θ = cos (θ). Ωn Si n. 1 - ξ 2. T + θ is: Sin θ - ωn. 1 - ξ 2. T + θ = 0 hence Sin ωn. 1 - ξ 2. T = 0 Finally e have '(t) = 0 for: - 35 University of Savoie DEUG STPI Unit U32 linear systems - Automatic ω n. 1 - ξ2. t = 0 ω n. 1 - ξ 2. t = k. π zero slo e at the origin. with k integer. π ωn. 1 - ξ2 the moment of first e ceedance is obtained for k = 1: tp = at this moment e have: here: Wp = W (t p) = K 1 + e - π / tan (θ) ( ) X = K. e-π / tan (θ) Note: A statement from the ste res onse, can be found by identifying the e uati on of a system and a π ξ = ωn = second order: π2 t . Ξ2 1- 1 + 2 ln p / K 4. Response o a ramp. This response is ob ained for x ( ) = a. . u ( ). 2.ξ was an X ( ) = a / ², and y (t) = K. a. t - +. e-ξω nt. Sin ωn. 1 - ξ 2. t + 2θ ωn ωn. 1 - ξ2 [ ] 5. Harmonic. We set p = jω, hich corresponds to a particular case for the Laplace transform. The transmittance K.ωn2 isochronous system is: H (jω) = 2 ωn - ω2 +2. j. ξ. ω.ω n then: and: H (jω) dB 2 4 = 20.log K.ωn - 10.log ωn ω4 + + 4. ξ2 - 2. ω2. ωn2 ( ) [ (

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) ] 2.ξ.ω.ωn Arg H (jω) = - tan [ ] T o cases arise: Case 1: H (j ω), vanishes: in this case, the gain of the system passes through a ma imum. We then say that there is resonance. H (jω) '= d H (j ω) dω 2 = - K.ωn. February 1 ω2 - No ω2 [( ) + (2ξωω)] (ω 2 2 n [4.ω 3 2 + 2. 4.ξ 2-2. Ω.ωn 2 n ( ) - Ω2 ) + (2ξωω) 2n ] 2 thus H (jω) = 0 is equivalent to: 4.ω3 +2. 4.ξ2 - 2. ω.ω2 = 0 n - 36 ( ) University of Savoie DEUG STPI Unit U32 linear systems - Automatic either: ω2 +2. ξ2 - 1. ω2 n = 0 ( ) ωn February 2 - ω

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February 1 ω / ωn (log) Φ H [jω] 0 [ ] ωn ωr ωn ω / ωn (log) -90 ° ξ = 0.2 -180 - 37 University of Savoie DEUG STPI Unit U32 linear systems - Automatic • Representation in the Nyquist plane: 0 Im H (jω) [ ] ω = 0 Re H (jω) [ ] ω → + ∞ ω = ξ = 0.8 ωn ξ = 0.2 ω = ωn • Representation in terms of Black: Gain (dB) in dB 20.Log Mp (K) -180 ξ = 0.8 ξ = 0.2 0 ° Phase (°) - 38 -

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hich is possible only if 2.ξ2 - 1 <0

( ) ie ξ < The resonance occurs for H (jω) = 0, ie: ω = = ωr ωn. (1 - 2.ξ 2) ωr is called p ulse resonant system. 2nd case: 1 2 In the case here there is resonance, then e define a factor of resonance by MP: H (j ω) 'never vanishes: there is no reson ance. This is the case here ξ> H (jωr) H (0) = Mp • Representation of Bode H (j ω) 20.Log dB (K) ξ = 0.8 slope = -12dB/octave -40dB/décade ξ = 0.2 Mp = 1 2.ξ. 1 - ξ2