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GCSE English Language Paper 1 Question 3

Structural Techniques
Techniques Definitions
Focusing Where the writer points the
attention of the reader.
Introducing When a character or idea is first
Developing As we are given more information,
we learn more about a
Changing A writer will change the focus
throughout the course of the
Concluding Where the examiner has chosen to
end the extract will usually indicate
a conclusion.
Sequence Whether the text is in chronological
order or if it is circular.
Contrasts Where two or more ideas are
strikingly different.
Repetition Saying something again.

Threads A theme that runs through the

Patterns A common idea throughout the
Motifs A dominant or recurring
Shifts of Where the focus changes in the
focus text.
Movement The text can move from big to
small, place to place or inside to
outside (vice versa)

Narrative Whether the text is written in 1st,

Perspectives 2nd or 3rd person. This can shift in
the text.
Discourse These can also be called
Markers connectives.
Links These are connecting ideas across
paragraphs that link them together.
Topic The opening sentence in a
Sentences paragraph that introduces the
Paragraphs These usually change for a new
GCSE English Language Paper 1 Question 3
topic, time, place or person.
Tense Whether the text is in the past or
present tense. This might change.
Punctuation Marks that help us to clarify
meaning in a text.
Anaphoric A word in a text that refers back to
Reference other ideas.
Cataphoric A word that refers to ideas later in
Reference the text.