RAS SYSTEM

RAN Transmission

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Objectives
After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to: • Explain the principles of RAN Transmission • Describe the ATM Cross Connect (AXC) architecture • Describe briefly the transport solution for NSN Flexi WCDMA BTS • List the virtual channels between RNC and WCDMA BTS • Explain the WCDMA BTS AAL2 multiplexing RAN architecture

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RAN Transmission Principles
MTP3SL/ OAM/SIGTRAN /User Plane User Plane

MGW SDH/
CoCo

BSC ATM 2G SGSN WBTS IP RNC ATM IP

OSS

PDH

WBTS
OAM

GGSN Ethernet

BTS MSS 3G SGSN
MTP3SL OAM/SIGTRAN /User Plane

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ATM over E1

ATM cell Header Payload

0 1 2 ... TS1-15 TS0

E1 frame 15 16 17 18 . . . TS16 TS17-31

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0 1 2 ... TS0 TS1-15

E1 frame 15 16 17 18 . . . TS16 TS17-31

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E1 (2,048 Mbps) -> 4528 cells per second.

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When transmitting ATM cells over a digital interface like E1, we map the cells into the physical layer frame. ITU-T Recommendation G.804 and ATM Forum specification af-phy-0064.000 define the ATM direct mapping (ADM) process. ADM uses the header error check (HEC) field in the cell header to identify the first bit of a cell in an E1 frame. A receiving E1 IMA interface examines the incoming bit stream and checks if a set of eight bits comprises a valid CRC for the preceding 32 bits. The alternative to ADM is the physical layer convergence protocol (PLCP). PLCP uses special overhead bytes to delineate the start and end of the ATM cells inside the E1 frame and thus reduces the effective payload rate. Since PLCP adds overhead, ADM replaces PLCP.

ATM over STM-1
VP1 VP2

1 byte 9 bytes 260 bytes VC-4

VP3

9 bytes

Section Overhead

P O H . . . VC-4

STM-1 (155,52 Mbps) can fit 44.15 cells per frame -> 353 207 cells per second.

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WCDMA BTS site connectivity

RNC

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Hybrid BTS Backhaul

(1/2)

• Hybrid BTS Backhaul allows for the backhauling of the BTS over packetswitched technologies, IP and Ethernet in particular. • The HSPA traffic is offloaded onto the packet-switched network. Delay sensitive traffic is carried over TDM links.

ATM E1
BTS

TDM TDM

ATM IP Ethernet

STM1
E1 Eth

ATM IP Ethernet

Packet Packet

ATM IP STM1 Ethernet

ATM STM1

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Hybrid BTS Backhaul has introduced in RAS06 In the first case only HSPA traffic is offloaded to the packet-switched network; an existing path, based on ATM over TDM technologies, is used for all other traffic. HSPA traffic is less sensitive to delay and delay variation, and the QoS requirements to the packet-switched network can be relaxed accordingly.
Ethernet is introduced as a BTS backhaul technology:

-Compared to traditional ATM over TDM technologies use of Ethernet can substantially reduce transport OPEX. -Ethernet backhaul is a cost effective way to provide the extra capacity required for HSDPA and HSUPA.

Integrated and stand-alone AXC

AXU

IFU IFU IFU IFU IFU

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AXC (ATM Cross Connect) is the Integrated ATM Transmission Node of the Nokia WCDMA base station and a Stand-alone ATM Transmission Network Element. The Integrated AXC for Supreme and S-AXC supports 5 IFUs. The S-AXC can be installed in a standard ETSI or 19-inch rack and co-located with the BTS S-AXC is needed For providing additional slots for interface units at WCDMA BTS sites. At some sites the available 1-5 slots for interface units in the BTS integrated AXC may not be sufficient As a hub for grooming/concentrating WCDMA traffic at a site without a WCDMA BTS Minimum AXC configuration One ATM cross connect unit, AXU One interface unit, IFU (any IFU possible) Maximum configuration One ATM cross connect unit, AXU. Five interface units, IFUs (any IFU and any combination of IFUs possible) Any combination of interfaces and interface units is possible with a very few limitations Maximum switching capacity = 1.2Gbit/s Maximum amount of physical STM-1 interfaces = 15 Maximum amount of physical E1 interfaces = 40 Between 1 and 8 E1 links per IMA group for E1 IFU Between 1 and 8 E1 links per IMA group for Flexbus IFU Between 1 and 32 VC-12 links per IMA group for IFUF

AXU - ATM cross connect unit
Power module Microcontroller module

• Switching capacity: 1.2G. • Supported simultaneous connections: 1000 (with any mix of VP and VC)
Lever LED LMP Q1 ERC1 ERC2

AAM-Module (AXUB, C2.0

Lever

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AXU Performance Switching capacity: 1.2G Supported simultaneous connections: 1000 (with any mix of VP and VC) Supported ATM service categories: CBR, UBR Supported cross-connection: Semi-Permanent Virtual Path Connection, Semi-Permanent Virtual Channel Connection

AXC compact – AXCC/AXCD

Ejector LED LMP Q1

Ejector LED LMP Q1

ERC

8x E1/JT1/T1

ERC

8 x E1

Ejector

Ejector

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Nokia AXC Compact contains AXU and IFU functionality in a single unit and provides eight symmetrical (AXCC) or coaxial (AXCD) connections AXCC/D is non-expandable but is it possible to add IFUG unit(s) Supports BTS AAL2 Multiplexing and Inverse Multiplexing for ATM, but not fractional E1 Local Management Port (LMP) 10baseT crossed Ethernet interface, RJ- 45 connector Q1 management port V.11 interface, D-sub 9 connector External reference clock interface (ERC) Performance Switching capacity: 165 Mbit/s Supported simultaneous connections: 250 (with any mix of VP and VC) Supported ATM service categories: CBR, UBR Supported cross-connection: Semi-Permanent Virtual Path Connection, Semi-Permanent Virtual Channel Connection

WCDMA BTS Transmission Overview
CAT-5 or optical

Ethernet network Nokia FlexiHopper max. 16 x 2 Mbits/s Nokia MetroHopper max. 4 x 2 Mbits/s

WBTS

1.2 Gbit/s IFUH AXU IFUE IFUF IFUC IFUG IFUA/D

2 x Fast Ethernet 1 x Gigabit Ethernet 3 x Flexbus interfaces 1 x STM – 1 (VC12) 63xE1 3 x STM-0/STM –1 or OC-1 /OC-3 interfaces 8 x RJ 45 Ethernet
Flexbus cable

Nokia GSM / EDGE Base Station

Optical Fibre

SDH equipment or ATM Leased Lines

AXC

IFU slots available: Supreme Optima & Optima Compact MetroSite WCDMA MetroSite 50 Triple-mode UltraSite EDGE

5 3 1 1 1

8 x E1/JT1/T1 interfaces
Copper cable

Leased Lines or PDH / SDH equipment GSM Base Stations Nokia and other

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The Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS supports the following transmission media. Radio transmission IFUE with Nokia Flexbus interface: 16 x 2 Mbit/s, three Flexbus connectors. The IFUE unit can be connected to the Nokia FlexiHopper and MetroHopper Microwave Radios. Wire line transmission IFUA with E1/JT1/T1 with IMA interfaces: 8 x 2Mbit/s (E1) or 8 x 1.5Mbit/s (JT1/T1) PCM connections, eight twisted pair 120/110Ω TX/RX interface connectors for either E1 or JT1 use. The unit can be configured either to E1 or JT1/T1 mode. IFUD with E1 with IMA interfaces: 8 x 2Mbit/s (E1) PCM connections, 16 coax 75Ω TX/RX interface connectors. IFUG with 8 x 10/100 MB Ethernet interfaces. Fibre optic transmission IFUC with 3 STM-1 interfaces: VC3/VC4 support for fibre optic cable, signal termination, synchronisation and CPU circuitry for unit control. The unit has three STM connectors. The IFUC unit can be connected to a microwave radio. IFUF with 1 STM-1 interface: VC3/VC4 support for fibre optic cable, signal termination, synchronisation and CPU circuitry for unit control. The unit has one STM connector.

IFUC and IFUF

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IFUC 3 x SDH optical interfaces Mixed configuration supported Intra-office/short-haul Used connector: optical, LC type Interfaces can be configured independently as STM-1 (European standard, 155.52 Mbit/s) OC-3 (American Standard, 155.52 Mbit/s) IFUF 1 x SDH optical interface for structured STM-1 connections LC connector Up to 63 VC-12 with IMA

IFUE

WBTS IFUE

Flexbus (16 x 2M)

BTS Site

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IFUE 3 x Flexbus interfaces per PIU IMA support IFUE capacity up to 16 x E1 (4 x 2M for MetroHopper) Connects WBTS to Nokia microwave radio or Nokia GSM BTS Allows combination of 2G (TDM) and 3G (ATM) traffic with a granularity of E1 RNC site - Flexbus interface is implemented using stand-alone AXC or FIU19" equipment A BTS connects directly to Nokia Flexi/Metro Hopper with the Flexbus feature 2M cross-connection within one plug-in unit TNC-connector 50 Ω (female)

IFUG

•Eight Ethernet interfaces. •10baseT, RJ-45 connector. •Can be used to connect external equipment on the AXC site to the common DCN.

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IFUG Eight Ethernet interfaces 10baseT, RJ-45 connector Can be used to connect external equipment on the AXC site to the common DCN

IFUA and IFUD

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IFUA 8 x E1/T1/JT1 interfaces 110 Ω / 120 Ω balanced TQ connectors Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) support fractional Interface (E1/T1/JT1) IFUD 8 x E1 interfaces 75 Ω unbalanced BT 43 connectors Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) support Fractional interface (E1) CES to map TDM traffic in ATM cells Complete E1/T1/JT1 frame transported in ATM cells (unstructured) Fractional E1/T1/JT1, only TDM timeslots transported within ATM cells (structured)

IFUH
• 2 x 10/100 BaseT Fast Ethernet with
RJ45 connectors • 1 x Gigabit Ethernet with LC connector • Provides ATM over Ethernet connection for Hybrid Backhaul solution

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FTM - flexi transport module
• FTM is the integrated transmission equipment of the Flexi WCDMA BTS. • It is mechanically and electrically connected to the System Module of the Flexi WCDMA BTS. • FTM is a separate sales item. It meets the System Module for the first time on the site.

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FTM versions

FTIB (RU10)

FTHA (RU10)

FTEB (RAS05.1)

FTPB (RAS05.1)

FTOA (RAS05.1ED

FTJA (RAS06)
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FTIA (RAS05.1)

FTFA (RAS05.1)

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Flexi Transport Sub-modules
Module name
FTPB FTEB FTOA FTFA FTIA

Interfaces
8xE1/T1/JT1 8xE1 coaxial 1xSTM1/OC3 2xFlexbus 4xE1/T1/JT1 2xFast Ethernet, 1xGE 4xE1/T1/JT1 2xFast Ethernet, 1xGE

Availability
RAS05.1 RAS05.1 RAS05.1 ED RAS05.1 RAS05.1
Ethernet supported in RAS06

Remarks
120/110/100 Ω, RJ48c 75 Ω, SMB 1xSFP, LC equipped TNC Optional Gigabit Ethernet interface (SFP)
RJ48C, RJ45, SFP (LC)

FTIB FTHA
FTJA

RU10 RU10 RAS06

Support Timing over Packet 2xMDR68 connectors Optional Gigabit Ethernet interface (SFP)
SMB, RJ45, SFP (LC)

16xE1/T1
4xE1 coaxial 2xFast Ethernet, 1xGE
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Inverse multiplexing for ATM
• IMA allows the combining of several physical links (E1 or T1/JT1, max. 8) to one logical link
NIP1
IMA Group E1/JT1
Link # 1 Single ATM cell stream from ATM layer Link # 0

AXC
IMA Group E1/JT1

E1/JT1
Link # 2

E1/JT1

Original ATM cell stream to ATM layer

E1/JT1

E1/JT1

IMA virtual link

TX direction cells distributed across links in round robin sequence RX direction cells recombined into single ATM stream

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Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is a method which provides a modular bandwidth for user access to ATM networks and for connection between ATM network elements, at rates between the traditional order multiplex level. An example is to achieve rates between the T1/E1 and T3/E3 levels in the asynchronous digital hierarchies. T3/E3 links are not necessarily readily available throughout a given network, and therefore the introduction of ATM Inverse Multiplexers provides an effective method of combining the transport bandwidths of multiple links (such as T1/E1 links) grouped to collectively provide higher intermediate rates. The ATM Inverse Multiplexing technique involves inverse multiplexing and de-multiplexing of ATM cells in a cyclical fashion among links grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical link whose rate is approximately the sum of the link rates. This is referred to as an IMA group. The picture above provides a simple illustration of the ATM Inverse Multiplexing technique in one direction. The same technique applies in the opposite direction. IMA groups terminate at each end of the IMA virtual link. In the transmit direction, the ATM cell stream received from the ATM layer is distributed on a cell by cell basis, across the multiple links within the IMA group. At the far-end, the receiving IMA unit recombines the cells from each link, on a cell by cell basis, recreating the original ATM cell stream. The aggregate cell stream is then passed to the ATM layer. The IMA interface periodically transmits special cells that contain information that permit reconstruction of the ATM cell stream at the receiving end of the IMA virtual link after accounting for the link differential delays, smoothing CDV introduced by the control cells, and so on. These cells, defined as IMA Control Protocol (ICP) cells, provide the definition of an IMA frame.

WCDMA BTS - RNC connections
WBTS
WAM
TCP/IP C-NBAP D-NBAP UP UP UP AAL2 sig TCP/IP C-NBAP D-NBAP UP UP UP AAL2 sig TCP/IP C-NBAP D-NBAP UP UP UP AAL2 sig IP Router

AXC
HW
IFUC IFUC IFUC IFUC IFUC IFUC IFUC x

Connections between WAM and AXC are automatically configured

ATM Connection Table
HW
CIF 1 CIF 1 CIF 1 CIF 1 CIF 1 CIF 1 CIF 1 x

VPI VCI VCI VPI
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 30 33 34 35 36 37 38 x 33 51 61 71 121 122 123 x 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 x

ATM VPCs NetAct

WAM

AXU RNC

WAM

To other BTSs
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ATM VCCs

C-NBAP Connected to telecom master WAM. Uses AAL5 adaptation and QoS is CBR D-NBAP Connected to each WAM. Uses AAL5 adaptation and QoS is CBR AAL2SIG Connected to each WAM. Uses AAL5 adaptation and QoS is CBR AAL2UP 1-3 User Plane VCs per WAM. Uses AAL2 adaptation and QoS is CBR O&M (DCN) Connected to SAR device in AXC. Uses AAL5 adaptation and QoS class is UBR

Combining WCDMA and GSM traffic
Both options supported
GSM BTS

Abis Iub
Nokia UltraSite WDCMA BTS

PDH/SDH

Shared PDH/SDH capacity (n x 2M & n x 64k Fractional E1)

GSM BTS

Abis Iub
Nokia UltraSite WDCMA BTS

ATM

Shared ATM capacity (Unstructured & Structured Circuit Emulation Service)

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TDM Using external PDH and SDH equipment to add and drop different traffic interfaces (E1,STM-1,T1, etc.). Nokia's MetroHub, DN2 or the GSM BTS DTRU/TRUA can perform these required cross-connections. ATM traffic starts always with TS1 to TSn and then TSn+1 for TDM. A 64 kbit/s cross-connect is necessary for changing TS. Advantage: existing GSM traffic does not have to be disturbed. ATM Using Circuit Emulation Service to add GSM (TDM) traffic to WCDMA (ATM) traffic. Disadvantage: GSM transmission has to be interrupted before connecting it to the WCDMA transmission.

TDM links with fractional PDH interface
The physical link can be fibre, microwave, leased service, etc BTS site: • WCDMA BTS connected to GSM Abis • WCDMA BTS supports ATM over Fractional Interface (E1/T1/JT1) BSC/RNC site: • TDM traffic (GSM + WCDMA) separated by TDM cross-connect Hub • Possible ungroomed fractional E1 traffic is terminated in a standalone AXC Combined Abis and Iub

TDM link (PDH/SDH)
HUB
Fr ac ti
Fra ctio na lE 1

BSC

GSM BTS

on al E

Full E1
1

Fractional E1 (partly filled) (n x 64 kbits/s) TDM cross-connect function (n x 64 kbits/s)

Fu ll E1

WCDMA BTS
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RNC

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Common ATM transport for GSM and UMTS traffic
BSC GSM BTS
TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX

n x E1 or FB for GSM BTS TRUA
COMMON TRANSPORT ON MICROWAVE Stand-alone AXC
NIU ET

RRIC

WCDMA BTS
WSP

SFU

WAM

AXC
IFU

... ...

WSP

WSP

WAM
WSP WSP WSP

RNC
FB from WCDMA BTS

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Circuit Emulation Service (CES) Unstructured service is intended to emulate a point-to-point E1 circuit Structured service is intended to emulate a point-to-point Fractional E1 circuit Fully synchronous service because of UMTS requirements No Statistical Multiplexing Gain because of its CBR nature Unstructured circuit emulation service might be used to perform E1 TDM cross connection within AXC, e.g. from one E1 to Flexbus and vice versa The link between GSM BTS and WCDMA BTS can be one or more E1/T1 connections. Any of them can be fractional or full E1/T1 frames. Circuit Emulation is using AAL1 conversion and CBR QoS class. At the RNC site shall be a CES Inter working Function which can be implemented with a standalone AXC.

AAL2 VC configuration without AAL2 multiplexing (1/2)

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In basic configuration without AAL2 Multiplexing 1 AAL2SIG and 1-2 AAL2UP per WAM is needed.

AAL2 VC configuration without AAL2 multiplexing (2/2)

WAM 2

ATM Cell CID 12 ATM Cell CID 12 ATM Cell CID 12

ATM Cell CID 13 ATM Cell

AAL2 ATM VC towards RNC

WAM 4

AAL2 ATM VC towards RNC

WAM 6

ATM Cell CID 13

AAL2 ATM VC towards RNC

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BTS AAL2 multiplexing (1/2)

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BTS AAL2 Multiplexing is an BTS feature that allows to concentrate the AAL2 Signalling VCs and AAL2 User Data VCs between BTS and AXC to one VC on the IUB Interface. This reduces the number of used AAL2-VCs between BTS and RNC, simplifies the network configuration and provides a gain in transmission capacity using the statistical multiplexing effect. Depending on the traffic mix and other parameters, the expected Iub transmission capacity savings can be up to 30%.

BTS AAL2 multiplexing (2/2)

WAM 2

ATM Cell CID 12 ATM Cell CID 20 ATM Cell CID 21

ATM Cell CID 13 ATM Cell

AAL2 Mux
AAL2 ATM VC towards RNC ATM Cell CID 12 ATM Cell CID 20

WAM 4

WAM 6

ATM Cell CID 22

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BTS AAL2 Multiplexing BTS AAL2 Multiplexing multiplexes and concentrates individual AAL2 connections (CPS packets) in AAL2 ATM VCs coming from different WAMs of a single Base Station into a minimized number of AAL2 ATM VCs towards the RNC.

BTS AAL2 multiplexing - AXUB
AXUB AXUB consists of AXUA plus a module called AAM (ATM Adaptation Module): AXUB = AXUA + AAM AXUA

AAM Module

BTS AAL2 Multiplexing is enabled by taking AXUB into operation instead of AXUA.

connectors for AAM module AXUB can be operated as AXUA by simply not taking AAM into operation.

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In addition of HW difference, also SW works differently when AXUB is in use. Nokia provides an AXUA to AXUB upgrade service.

STM-1 MSP protection
• Compliant with standard SDH MSP (Multiplex Section Protection) • Against equipment failures (at the interface) • Against point-to-point link failures
Working link

RNC
Protecting link
RNC Configuration: Working STM-1 interface Protecting STM-1 interface

Site

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Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) The link protection method implemented since AXC C2.0 is the bidirectional MSP1:1 scheme specified in ITU-T Recommendation G.841, chapter 7.1. Switching is non-revertive, that is, traffic is not switched back to the original working facility even if the failure is corrected. Note that RNC does not support MSP1:1 as such. For compatibility with the bidirectional MSP1:1 implemented in AXC C2.0, RNC supports the bidirectional MSP1+1 scheme specified in the TTC Rec. JT-G783. This scheme is compatible with MSP1:N bidirectional switching, and thus also with the standard ITU-T compliant bidirectional MSP1:1 implemented in the AXC C2.0. The difference between MSP1:N and MSP1+1 The MSP1:N and MSP1+1 link protection methods are easily confused. In the case of MSP1:N, user traffic is switched to the protecting interface only after any of the N working links fail (in C2.0 only N=1 is possible). In MSP1+1, the user traffic is transmitted along two paths simultaneously. At the receiving end, a selector is used to select the traffic from either the working or the protecting section. (It is also possible to bridge any of the working sections to the protecting section in MSP1:N. The receiving end, however, disregards the SDH payload in the protecting section until a switch is requested by the transmitting end, that is, the switching is not automatic as in MSP1+1.) RNC supports the non-revertive bidirectional MSP1+1 compatible with the bidirectional MSP1:N protocol (JT-G783, section A.3.4.1).

Full Native IP/Ethernet Connectivity Solution in RU10
• Provides 3GPP compliant
IPv4 transport option for all RNC interfaces • Allows to use IP and/or Ethernet connectivity from RNC towards to – core networks (Iu-CS and IuPCS), – other RNCs (Iur) and – base stations (Iub)
3G BTS

RNC

Iur/IP Iu-CS/IP

MGW

• New features available are:
(optical and electrical) – IP based Iu-PS, IP based Iu-CS – IP based Iur

– Gigabit Ethernet Interfaces

Iub/IP

RNC

Iu-PS/IP

3G BTS

SGSN

– IP based Iub

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IP based Iu-CS
• 3GPP compliant IP transport option for Iu-CS • Requires Ethernet interface unit at RNC

Iu-CS Control Plane

Iu-CS User Plane

Iu-CS Control Plane

Iu-CS User Plane

RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP IP AAL5

Iu User Plane

RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP

Iu User Plane RTP IP Ethernet RTCP UDP

AAL2

ATM SDH Iu-CS/ATM

Iu-CS/IP

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IP based Iu-PS
• 3GPP compliant IP transport option for Iu-PS (packet switched) • Requires Ethernet interface unit at RNC

Iu-PS Control Plane

Iu-PS User Plane

Iu-PS Control Plane

Iu-PS User Plane

RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP

Iu User Plane GTP-U UDP

RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP

Iu User Plane GTP-U UDP IP Ethernet

IP AAL5 ATM SDH Iu-PS/ATM

Iu-PS/IP

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IP based Iur
• 3GPP compliant IP transport option for Iur • Requires Ethernet interface unit at RNC

Iur Control Plane

Iur User Plane

Iur Control Plane

Iur User Plane

RNSAP SCCP MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5

FP Layer

RNSAP SCCP M3UA SCTP

FP Layer RTP IP Ethernet Iur/IP RTCP UDP

AAL2

ATM SDH Iur/ATM

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IP based Iub for Flexi WCDMA BTS/UltraSite WCDMA BTS
• Flexi WCDMA BTS, Ultrasite WCDMA BTS and RNC • • • •
support 3GPP Rel-5/Rel- 6 compliant Iub/IP protocol stack via integrated Ethernet interfaces Based on IPv4 Reduced planning and configuration effort due to complete absence of ATM layer Reduced maintenance costs, e.g. BTS rehosting is basically just a change of an IP address Priority marking on IP (ToS/DSCP) and Ethernet (VLAN priority bits) layer

Iub Control Plane

Iub User Plane

NBAP SCTP

FP Layer UDP

IP Ethernet Iub/IP

Ethernet

Packet Network

Ethernet

3G BTS

RNC

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Dual Iub for Flexi WCDMA BTS
Dual Iub allows • offloading data traffic to alternative Ethernet path using 3GPP Rel-5/Rel-6 compliant Iub/IP protocol stack • any Ethernet physical layer (e.g. DSL, ngSDH, adaptive modulation microwave..) may be used • ATM/TDM for delay critical R’99 voice and data traffic as well as signaling traffic Operator benefits • significant cost savings in backhaul, like with solution Hybrid Backhaul with Pseudo Wires • no external pseudo wire gateway required at RNC site • higher peak rates possible as with n*E1s • BTS synchronisation is done via E1/T1 interfaces

E1/T1

ATM (TDM Network) Packet Network

STM-1/ OC3

3G BTS

Ethernet

Ethernet

RNC

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RNC Ethernet Physical Interface
New interface units for Iub, Iur and Iu: NP2GE – 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports ▪ 1000 Base-LX (optical) ▪ 1000 Base-TX (electrical) – 1+1 interface protection between two units – max. 12 units in RNC

NP2GE

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Basic Ethernet Switching
• Flexi WCDMA BTS provides Ethernet switching between 2 Ethernet ports in RAN74
IP based Iub mode

• Other base stations can be connected to the Flexi WCDMA BTS either from the
same location or daisy chained form different locations

BTS Chaining example

BTS

Flexi WCDMA BTS

Packet Network
BTS Collocation example

Controller

Flexi WCDMA BTS BTS
Shaping of the aggregated Ethernet traffic will be available with the feature RAN1769 Ethernet Switching

RNC

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Satellite Iub
Satellite links can be used for BTS backhaul for cases where conventional transport is not available or economical not feasible, like • for mobile BTSs, deployed for special/emergency situation in areas without any transmission line/microwave access • on islands, on mountains, in jungle or any other remote areas. Iub is modified to cope with the characteristics of satellite links (increased delay, loss ratio etc.), leading to certain performance degradation.
Please note: Satellite transmitters, modems, installation equipment etc. are not part of this feature!

NB
E1T1

RNC
STM1

modem

satellite station

satellite station

modem

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Timing over Packet
• Synchronization information, needed for running air interface with required
frequency accuracy, can be provided to BTSs over high quality packet network (e.g. Metro Ethernet) • Allows to keep costs low by obsolescing use of GPS or Hybrid Backhaul (simultaneous usage of TDM and packet backhaul) for synchronization
Solution includes:

• Timing over Packet (ToP) Master Clock at RNC sending synchronization
information to BTSs. RNC site node can be used to connect ToP Master Packet data

• Functionality in BTS (ToP Slave) for recovering clock signal from Timing over
IEEE1588v2 PTP (unicast)
1588 master

Ethernet

Packet Network
Router

Ethernet

3G BTS

RNC
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