CojpgM
COPHRIGHT DSPOSm
DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL
CALCULUS
BY
REVISED EDITION
BOSTON, U.S.A.
D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS
1906
ao2>
a A
UBRARY of CONGRESS
Two Copies Received
JAN 111907
Cooyriarht Entry
A L.
iSS
It). Kioto
o^ XXc No.
COPY B.
By GEORGE A. OSBORNE
PREFACE
In the original work, tile author endeavored to prepare a text
book on the Calculus, based on the method of limits, that should
be within the capacity of students of average mathematical ability
and yet contain all that is essential to a working knowledge of the
subject.
In the revision of the book the same object has been kept in view.
Most of the text has been rewritten, the demonstrations have
been carefully revised, and, for the most part, new examples have
been substituted for the old. There has been some rearrangement
of subjects in a more natural order.
"ion will be found, also, among the examples in the chapter imme
diately following.
George, Jr.
The author also acknowledges his special obligation to his col
CHAPTER I
Functions
AF.T*. PAGES
I. Variables and Constants 1
CHAPTER II
CHAPTER III
Differentiation
Algebraic Functions. Examples
Logarithmic and Exponential Functions.
.... Examples
2639
3945
Trigonometric Functions. Examples . 4551
Inverse Trigonometric Functions. Examples 5157
Relations between Certain Derivatives. Examples 5760
CHAPTER IV
Successive Differentiation
CHAPTER V
Differentials. Infinitesimals
PAGES
6163. Definitions of Differential 6870
64. Formulae for Differentials. Examples . 7173
65. Infinitesimals 73,74
CHAPTER VI
Implicit Functions
CHAPTER VII
CHAPTER VIII
Expansion of Functions
CHAPTER IX
Indeterminate Forms
CHAPTER X
Maxima and Minima of Functions of One Independent
Variable
AUTS. PAGES
101. Definition of Maximum and Minimum Values . . . 114
102104. Conditions for Maxima and Minima, Examples . . . 114119
105. When Examples 119121
d.r
100. Maxima and Minima by Taylor's Theorem. Problems 121129
CHAPTER XI
Partial Differentiation
Two More Independent Variables
107.
108.
109.
Functions of or
Partial Differentiation.
Geometrical Illustration
Examples .... 130. 131
131. 132
133
110. Equation of Tangent Planes. Angle with Coordinate Planes
Examples 133136
Ill, 112. Partial Derivatives of Higher Orders. Order of Differentia
tion. Examples 136139
113. Total Derivative. Total Differential. Examples 140144
114116. Differentiation of Implicit Functions. Taylor's Theorem
Examples 144147
CHAPTER XII
Change of the Variables in Derivatives
117. Change Independent Variable x to y 148, 149
118. Change Dependent Variable 149
119. Change Independent Variable z to z.Examples . . 150152
120,121. Transformation of Partial Derivatives from Rectangular to
Polar Coordinates 152154
CHAPTER XIII
Maxima and Minima of Functions of Two or More
Variables
122,123. Definition. Conditions for Maxima and Minima 155, 156
124. Functions of Three Independent Variables . 156161
CHAPTER XIV
Curves for Reference
120127. Cirsoid. "Witch. Folium of Descartes . 162, 163
Vlll CONTENTS
ARTS. PAGES
128130. Catenary. Parabola referred to Tangents. Cubical Pa
rabola. Semicubical Parabola 164, 165
r = asm* 167172
o
CHAPTER XV
Direction or Curves. Tangents and Normals
Subtangent. Subnormal. Intercepts of Tangent
146. . . 173
Angle of Intersection of Two Curves. Examples
147. . . 174176
148. Equations of Tangent and Normal. Examples . . . 176179
149151. Asymptotes. Examples 179182
152, 153. Direction of Curve. Polar Coordinates. Polar Subtangent
and Subnormal 182, 183
154. Angle of Intersection, Polar Coordinates. Examples . . 183186
155, 156. Derivative of an Arc 186188
CHAPTER XVI
Direction op Curvature. Points of Inflexion
157. Concave Upwards or Downwards 189
158. Point of Inflexion. Examples 190192
CHAPTER XVII
Curvature. Radius of Curvature. Evolute and
Involute
157161. Curvature, Uniform, Variable 193, 194
162164. Circle of Curvature. Radius of Curvature, Rectangular Co
165.
166, 167.
ordinates, Polar Coordinates.
Coordinates of Centre of Curvature
Evolute and Involute
.....
Examples . . . 195200
200
201, 202
168170. Properties of Involute aud Evolute. Examples . . . 202205
CHAPTER XVIII
Order of Contact. Osculating Circle
171,172. Order of Contact 206208
173. Osculating Curves 208,209
CONTENTS IX
PAGES
174.Order of Contact at Exceptional Points . 209
170.
lating Circle at Any Point of the Curve
Osculating Circle at Maximum or Minimum
....
175. To find the Coordinate of Centre, and Radius, of the Oscu
Points. Ex
209211
amples 211213
CHAPTER XIX
Envelopes
177. Series of Curves 214
178, 179. Definition of Envelope. Envelope is Tangent . 214,215
180182. Equation of Envelope . 215217
183, Evolute of a Curve is the Envelope of its Normals. Examples 217221
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
CHAPTER XX
Integration of Standard Forms
184, 185. Definition of Integration. Elementary Principles . . 223225
186190. Fundamental Integrals. Derivation of Formulae. Examples 225240
CHAPTER XXI
Simple Applications of Integration. Constant of
Integration
191,192. Derivative of Area. Area of Curve. Examples . 241244
195. Illustrations. Examples 244248
CHAPTER XXII
Integration of Rational Fractions
194, 195. Formulae for Integration of Rational Functions p reliminary
Operations 249
196. Partial Fractions . 250
197. Case I.Examples 250253
198. Case II. Examples 254256
199. Case III. Examples 256259
200. Case IV. Examples . 260262
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XXIII
CHAPTER XXIV
Trigonometric Forms readily Integrable
209211. Trigonometric Function and its Differential. Examples . 270272
212, 213. Integration of tan n x dx, cot" x dx, sec n xdx, cosec n xdx . 273, 271
214. Integration of tanm x sec n x dx, cot m x co&ec n xdx. Examples 274276
215. Integration of sin x cos w x dx by Multiple Angles. Examples 276278
CHAPTER XXV
Integration by Parts. Reduction Formulae
216. Integration by Parts. Examples 279282
217. Integration of e ax sin nx dx, e ax cos nx dx. Examples . . 283,284
218222. Reduction Formulae for Binomial Algebraic Integrals. Deri
vation of Formulae. Examples 284291
223, 224. Trigonometric Reduction Formulae. Examples . . . 291294
CHAPTER XXVI
Integration by Substitution
p
226. Integrals of f(x 2 )xdx, containing (a f bx2 )i. Examples 295, 296
CHAPTER XXVII
Integration as a Summation. Definite Integrals
234. Integral the Limit of a Sum 306
235237. Area of Curve. Definite Integral. Evolution of Definite
Integral , 306309
CONTEXTS XI
ART?. PAGES
288, 239. "Definition of Definite Integral. Constant of Integration.
Examples 310314
240242. Sign of Definite Integral. Infinite Limits. Infinite Values
of/(.r) 314317
243245. Change of Limits. Definite Integral as a Sum . . . 317319
CHAPTER XXVIII
Application of Integration to Plane Curves.
Application to Certain Volumes
246. 247.Areas of Curves, Rectangular Coordinates. Examples . 320324
24S.Areas of Curves. Polar Coordinates. Examples . . . 325327
249. Lengths of Curves. Rectangular Coordinates. Examples . 327330
250. Lengths of Curves, Polar Coordinates. Examples . . 330332
251. Volumes of Revolution. Examples 333335
252, 253. Derivative of Area of Surface of Revolution. Areas of Sur
254.
faces of Revolution.
Volumes by Area
Examples
of Section. Examples .... 336339
340342
CHAPTER XXIX
Successive Integration
25525' Definite Double Integral. Variable Limits. Triple Integrals.
Examples . 343345
CHAPTER XXX
Applications of Double Integration
258262. Moment of Inertia. Double Integration, Rectangular Co
ordinates. Variable Limits. Plane Area as a Double
Integral. Examples 346350
26:5265.Double Integration, Polar Coordinates. Moment of Inertia
Variable Limits. Examples 350353
266. Volumes and Surfaces of Revolution, Polar Coordinates
Examples 353, 354
CHAPTER XXXI
Surface, Volume, and Moment of Inertia of Ant Solid
267. To find theArea of Any Surface, whose Equation is given
between Three Rectangular Coordinates, x, y, z. Ex
amples 355360
Xll CONTENTS
CHAPTER XXXII
Centre of Gravity. Pressure of Eldids.
Eorce of Attraction
270,271. Centre of Gravity. Examples 365369
272, 273. Theorems of Pappus. Examples . 369, 370
274. Pressure of Liquids. Examples . 370373
275. Centre of Pressure. Examples 373375
276. Attraction at a Point. Examples 375377
CHAPTER XXXIII
277. Integrals for Reference .... 378385
Index . . 386388
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
CHAPTER I
FUNCTIONS
x 2 +y =a 2
,
y =x 2
, y = tan 4 a?, y =e x
f
x=Vy, x = tan 1
y, x = log e
(yl).
a,r3 + 2q;l
x* + x*2x'
A rational function of x is an algebraic function involving no frac
tionalpowers of x or of any function of x.
The most general form of such a function is the sum of an integral
function and a rational fraction as, for example, ;
2 ,r x1+
3x 2x
2
rf
x +l
6. Explicit and Implicit Functions. When one quantity is ex
pressed directly in terms of another, the former is said to be an
explicit function of the latter.
For example, y is an explicit function of x in the equations
y = a? + 2x, y = Va + 1. 2
ax + c
y = X  2 .r,
y=f(x), or y = <f>(x).
A functional symbol occurring more than once in the same prob
lem or discussion is understood to denote the same function or
operation, although applied to different quantities. Thus if
f(x) = x* + 5, (1)
/(a + l) = (a + l) + 5 = a* + 2a + 6, 2
/(2) = 2 + 5 = 9, /(1) = 6.
2
4>(x, y, z) = x + yzy + 2,
s 2
If
then <f>(3,
l,l) = 3 + l(l)l + 2 = 27; 3 2
*(a, 0, 0) = a  b + 2 <K0, 0, 0) = 2.
3 2
;
FUNCTIONS 5
y = +(*), (i)
Here \p, the cube root function, is the inverse of cf>, the cube
function.
If V = a* = <Kx),
then x = log y = xp(y). a
v 2
From this we derive x = j = \p(y)
'
(4)
The notation ^> _1 is often employed for the inverse function of <j>.
if y=f(?), x=f~ 1
(y).
The student is already familiar with this notation for the inverse
trigonometric functions.
EXAM PLES
1. Given 2x* 2 xy + y = a 2 2
;
y = x Va x 2 2
.
6 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
ft
2. Given sin (a; y)~ m sin ?/
Ans. y = tan' 1
m + cos x
^3. Given /(a?) = 2^3^+^+2 ;
H. Given = (x 1)
F(x) 2 2
;
h. Griven.f(x) = ^t^l: }
find/(0), /(*)+/().
"
7 If

>sfey
show that the inverse function is of the same form.
X
8. If <f>(x) = , find the inverse function of <j>.
ax c
/ (a? + ft, y + ft) =/(, 2/.) + 2(aa? + by)h + 2(bx + cy) ft +f(h, ft).
FUNCTIONS
\m\n
11. Given (m,n)
\m w
<f>
(m, w + 1) + < (m + 1, ) = <K m + 1? + !)
?i
, ?/, z
x
The circle is the limit of a regular polygon, as the number of sides
is indefinitely increased.
xr ax
Lim A=0 (2 x
2
 hx + h ) =2x>. 2
12. Some Special Limits. There are two important limits required
in the following chapter.
LIMIT
Let the angle ADA' = 2 0. and let a be the radius of the arc ACA!.
From geometry, ABA' < AC A'
sin
that is, 2 a sin < 2 aO, ^ v
(i)
sin
that is, 2a0 <2 a tan 0,
fl
>e,
cos
sin
> cos 0. (2)
sin 9 ..
Hence Lini =0
Angle sin 6
5
36
= .0872605 .0871557
1 .0174524
5 = .0174533
180
10' .0029089
' =.0029089
1080
(1 + 1) = 2.488325
+ to) = 2.59374
(1
10
.
(1.000001) = 2.71&181000000
10 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The required limit will be found to agree to five decimals with the
last number, 2.71828.
By the Binomial Theorem,
e = 1+7 + %+ + + '
1 2 [3 4
1.
2) 1.
3) .5
4) .166666667
5) .041666667
6) .008333333
7) .001388889
8) 000198413
9) .000024802
10) .000002756
11) .000000276
.000000025
e= 2.7182818.
* For a rigorous derivation of this limit, the student is referred to more ex
tensive treatises on the Differential Calculus.
DERIVATIVE 11
13. Increments. An
increment of a variable quantity is any addi
tion to its value, denoted by the symbol A written before this
and is
if Ax =  2, then Ay =  36.
14. Derivative. With the same equation,
y =x 2
,
z = 10,
let us calculate the values of Ay corresponding to different values of
A.'. We thus find results as in the following table.
3. 09. 23.
2. 44. 22.
1. 21. 21.
0.1 2.01 20.1
0.01 0.2001 20.01
0.001 0.020001 20.001
h 20 h + 1C 20+ ft
The third column gives the value of the ratio between the incre
ments of ./ and of y.
tain^ from y = x2 .
dx
Increase x by Ax. Then the new value of y will be
= (x + Ax)
y'
2
;
Dividing by Ax, Ay =
Ax
2x+ ^
The limit of this, when Ax approaches zero, is 2x.
Hence, =2 x.
dx
The derivative of a function may then be defined as the limiting
value of the ratio of the increment of the function to the increment of the
variable, as the latter increment approaches zero.
y /()
Increase x by Ax, and we have the new value of y }
y'=f(x\Ax).
: .
DERIVATIVE 13
(f.i' A#
Geometrical Illustration. The process of finding the derivative
from y = x, may be illustrated by a squared
Let x be the length of the side OP, and y the area of the square
on OP.
That is. y is the number of square units Ay
corresponding to the linear unit of x.
When the side is increased by PP', the
area is increased by the space between the
y X
squares.
Ay_
That is, Ay=2xAx+(Ax)* =^=2x+Ax,
Ax
dy T A?/ X Ax
2x.
ax Ax p P'
value.
(c) Divide by Ax, giving
Ax
EXAMPLES
1 . y =2 3
.r 6 x + 5.
Increasing x by Ax, we have
y + Ay = 2(x + Axf6(x + Ax) + 5;
therefore, Ay = 2 (x + Ax) 6 (x + Ax) + 5 2 x' + 6x53
= (6 x  6) Ax + 6 x(Ax) + 2(A x)
2 2 3
.
14 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Dividing by Ax,
^ = 6x 6 + 6xAx + 2(Ax)
v
2
}
2
.
Ax
* = Lim A ^/ = 6x 2
6.
dx Ax
2. y =
x +1
x + Ax
y + Ay =
+ Ax + 1
x
x + Ax x Ax
Ay =
x + Ax + 1 z +1 (xf Axl)(x + l)
Ay = 1
Ax (x + Axfl)(x + l)'
^Lira
dx~
= _J:
^Ax (x + 1)
^ 2
3. 2/= Vx.
y \ Ay = Vx f Ax,
A?/ = Vx + Ax Vx,
Ay _ Vx f Ax V# _
Ax Ax
The limit of this takes the indeterminate form . But by
J
Az=0
dx Ax 2V
^4. y=x
4. 2/
4
2x + 3x4,
aj 
2 ^
dx
= 4x 4x +
3
3.
5. ?/=(xa) 3 ,
^/ = 3(xa) 2 .
dx
DERIVATIVE 15
= mo; % mn
11
it X >
da \nxf
dx 9
x = 2.VT.
*
+ cty "<* + *>*
= .r + a
2
10. ./
dx (j + a)
V ,=
(*!)"
dx _
dt
~
+l
dy _ 1
*12. ^/=V^T2 dx 2Vzr2
8 dy Zx%
13. y = x\ = '
dx 2
dy _ X
14. 2/=V ^, 2
dx Vcrx2
dx 1
15. s = _
dt~
2$
16. Show that the derivative of the area of a 'circle, with respect
to its radius, is its circumference.
"We shall now give some illustrations of the meaning of the deriva
tive.
16 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Thus, ^, at any point of a curve, is the slope of the curve at that
point.
DERIVATIVE 17
= x
2
For example, consider the parabola x2 = py, y
The slope
1
of the curve is =
dx 2p
For all points on the left of Y", x is negative, and hence the slope
is negative, the corresponding inclinations to the axis of X being
negative.
PP traversed
in the interval At. If the velocity were uniform during this interval,
As
it would be equal to
Similarly, vr and rr are the rates of increase of x and y respectively.
18 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
a
dv
dt
Ay = At^
Then we may write
Ax
'
(2)
Ax
At
DERIVATIVE 19
dy rate of increase of
dt ?/
Art. 18.
dx dx rate of increase of x
dt
That is,
velocity of shadow at any point Q_ dy
velocity of man dx
720
 feet per second
(oo X)
When the foot moves from Pto P', the top moves from Q to Q\
That is, if Ax = PP', Ay = QQ'.
In the same way as in Problem 1,
Ay
Ay _ At
Ax ~ Ax
At~
dy
And from this,
dy _dt
dx~ dx'
dt
that is,
velocity of top at Q_ dy
velocity of foot dx
dy _ x
From (3), See Ex. 14, Art. 16.
<^~V400;/
Hence,
velocity of top at any point Q = = (velocity of foot)
V400X 2
2x
feet per second.
V400^ 2
Aw
^
From these problems it appears that, while is the ratio between
follows that these rates must have the same sign ; that is, y increases
when x increases, and decreases when x decreases.
But if ^ is negative, the rates must have different signs ; that is,
ax
y decreases when x increases, and increases when x decreases.
This is also evident geometrically by regarding ^ as the slope of
a curve.
As we pass from A to B, y increases as x increases, but from B to
C, y decreases as x in
creases.
Between A and B the
increasing function.
If we take y
1
we, find 1
x dx
Here we have a decreasing function with a negative derivative.
Another illustration is Ex. 1, Art. 16,
y =2 3
ar  6 x + 5, ^
ax
=6 (a?  1).
When x is numerically less than 1, y is a decreasing function.
When x is numerically greater than 1, y is an increasing function.
22 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
" 
a
^
A
\
1
For example, consider the function y = which is continuous
for all values of x except x = a.
DERIVATIVE 23
in the function y =
2 4 2
Another form of discontinuity is seen ,
when a = 0. 2*+l
Here y approaches two limits, according as x approaches zero
through positive or negative values.
EXAMPLES
When one quarter, and when nine times, that of the man ?
Ans. When AP = 12 ft., and 32 ft.
Ans. When x2 =a 2
.
DIFFERENTIATION
dx
u instead of
dx
the symbol
dx
denoting " derivative of ."
Thus A^ ~r v)
^ t k e derivative of (u f v\ may be written (u\ v),
dx dx
i. ^=1.
dx
II.
dx
= 0. .
TTT
dx
( 4 }
dx
l
dx
26
DIFFERENTIATION 27
TTT
IV.
d
(r) = v
f duN .
h ?<
dv
dx dx dx
V d , ^ __ du
dx dx
V u
7
vi A/ ^ .
dx dx
dx\vj v2
VII.
dx
(vr)=nun ~ 1 .
dx
27. Proof of III. Let y = u\v, and suppose that when x re
ceives the increment Ax, u and v receive the increments Au and Av,
respectively. Then the new value of y,
y + Ay = u + Au + v + Av,
therefore Ay = Au{ Av.
Divide by Ax ; then
Ay _Au Av
Ax Ax Ax
Now suppose Ax to diminish and approach zero, and we have for
the limits of these fractions,
dy _du dv
dx dx dx'
d /
(u + v) = du
.
N
dx
,
1
dv
.
dx dx
d , ,
, ,
s du . dv ,
dw ,
dx dx dx dx
Divide by Ax ;
then ^/ = ^ + M + Au) ^.
Aaj Ax ( Ax
Now suppose Ax to approach zero, and, noticing that the limit of
u + Ait is u, we have
dy
 = v du ,
\u
dv
;
dx dx dx
,i
that is, d (uv)=v du
/ k
dx
,
\u
dv
dx
dx
\ . a
DIFFERENTIATION 29
d ,
dx
v
( uviv)
K )
as
d ,
dx
(uv w)=w
y
x
}
d ,
(uv)J + UV
K
dw .
,
dx dx
= w[ v du ,
\u
dv\ .
{uv
dw
]
dx dx dx
= vw du
dx
,
\uw
dv
dx
,
[uv
dw
dx
d (
I Wh u n \j =u 2 u3 un
du,
f u u z uA
x
... un
du

H
.
h u x u 2 ~u,
du n
dx
=u u 2 3
un+1 + Uju u
du*
ax
i
,
3 4
duo
u n+l ? H
ax
.
p. w^ . w n _!W n+1
du
n
dx
Thus it appears that if the rule applies to n factors, it holds also for
7il factors, and is consequently applicable to any number of
factors.
y = cu,
y + Ay = c(u + Aw),
Ay = cAw,
Aw
=
Aw
c
Ax Ax
du
dy
^ = c du
, or (cw) =
d, , x
c
dx dx dx dx
Then + Av w + Aw p
y
v+Av '
therefore Ay = * tt  ? = * M ~ "f
Aw Av
v w
and Aw_ ^ x ^x
Ax~ (y + Av)v
Since y = ,
v
therefore yv = u.
, .
DIFFERENTIATION 31
t>
By ttt
IV.,
dy
vf +
. dv
y =
du
dx dx dx
dy __ du u dv,
1
dx dx v dx
v
du
u
dv
therefore dy _ dx dx
2
dx v
then y + Ay = (u + Aw) n ,
and Ay = (u + A?*)' 1
un .
^
Ax
= (u* +u' u + m' ^ + a
N
1  n 2 8 2
... 1
)
'
Ax
Now let Ax diminish ; then, u being the limit of u', each of the n
~l
terms within the parenthesis becomes u n ; therefore
/
ax
= nun ~ l
dx
Or it may be proved by regarding this as a special case of Art. 29,
where u l7 u 2 and u n are each equal to u.
,
Then (O =u +u n ~ lC n 1 du
+ ... to n terms
dx dx dx
dx
Let y = u",
then if = up ;
Of) = (u
therefore p
KJ J K ).
}
dx dx
32 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
dx dx
therefore 4=!^*
~
dx q yq
l
dx
2
Substituting for y, uq gives,
P
dy _p up ~ du l
_p q~ l du
dx q p _pdx q dx'
u q
Let y = u~ m =: m
u
i
by T7T
VI.,
dy
/ =
dx
dx
s
u 2m
=
u 2m
dx
=  mic m  ,du 1
dx
Hence, VII. is true in this case also.
EXAMPLES
Differentiate the following functions
1. y = x\
* = !(*).
dx dx
(z )=4ar
dx
K
dx
4
=4ar>.
J
}
by
J I.
Hence, ^
dx
= 4^.
a
DIFFERENTIATION 33
2. y = 3 + 4aj
4 8
.
by III., making u = 3x 4
and u = 4# 3
.
(3^)=3(A byV.
= 34^ = 12^.
Similarly, (4 x3 ) = 4 (or) = 4 . 3 x2 = 12 a?.
Hence, ^= 12a
e2as
3
+ 12a = 12 (a? + a?
2
).
3. y = ** + 2.
dx dx dx
(,f) = ,i ;
by VII.
(2)=0, by II.
Hence, ^
dx
= 1**
2
4. y=3VxA +  +a .
y J K J K
dx dx dx dx ' dx
= 2*
3 I ^  2 (_1
* + _1 _ 3
'
x4
2x*
34 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
5. y = %
ar + 3
dy_ d / x + 3\
dx dx\x 2 {3
dfx+3\ (
2
+ 3)(, + 3)(, + 3)(^ + 3)
<toV<s + 3y (x + 3f
2 2
_ f + 3(x + 3)2x =
~~
36a;^
(z + 3) (> + 3)
2 2 2 2
Hence,
dy
= S6xa* m
(x + 3)
9 2
2
dx
6. 2/ = (x + 2)t.
6
dx dx
3 3(2 + 2)i
Hence,
dx 3(x2 + 2)3
7. y = (x + l)Vx*x.
2
^=A[(aj + l)(aJaOH
,
DIFFERENTIATION 35
[(rf + i)(#.)]
= (a
2
+ 1)  (X  )* + (*"  K)i
s 2
+ 1).
dx 2 dx
(x2 + l)=2x.
dx
= (j
2
+ 1) (3 x
2
 1) + 4 afo  8
a;)
=7 a;2 1
4
a;
2
2 (.r  xft
3
2{x  a>)* z
8. ^ = 3x 10
2a;6 + ar 5, ?
^ = 3 (10 a 9
4z 5 2
far )
10. y = (x + 2a)(xa) 2
, ^=3 (a a 2 2
).
S=
,
11. s,= (*ai)
3ic f
~ 2x
12 ' v= 2x 1
J
dy =
(xif dx (xiy
x dy a2
14. y = '
Va  x 2 2 dx (a
2
xf 2
15
(^a )^ 2
dy = 3aWx*a 2
dx
16
la x dy
x dx 2 xy/ax x 2
17. (x 2 + ax h a )(x ax + a = x* f aV + a
2 2 2
)
4
.
18. /'^A Y = ^ + 2a + a  2 4 2
.
19. ,
2 ^_ = 1+ 2
a= + <*)*& f= + a )(* + a )T
2 2 2 2 2
20. * (* (nt
2 ^
2 ~ 3) 3
<fy_6(3* +4Q(2; 2 3) 2 2
21 ^^
y
(
'
(? + 2) 2 '
dt (? + 2f
y
*
(2a3a) 9 '
dx (2a3a?) 10
dy_ n(xn + l)
24. <, = *(* + n)> N
ni
^ (ajn
+ n) l
aJ_a d2/  a'
25. </=
V2 aa;  oj
2 * (2 aa  x2)%
1 x 1
DIFFERENTIATION 37
*" ~~
* ~4 '
,7^
rfx Q x
3 4
^.4
cty
3
28. *=(*^2)JJ7i;
\ g=
d* 4 (ti + 1)1
t
31.
6 x2 4 6 * + dy_ 12 or
9
(4*+l) f * (4 + l) f
c7?/_  9a ) 4(2 3 3
33. y = (x + Vx 2
4 l) ("
n
Vx + 1  *),
2
cZ.V
te
= (,rl)(z+Vz + l). 2
38. A train starts at noon from Boston, moving west, its motion
being represented by s =9 f. From Worcester, forty miles west of
Boston, another train starts at the same time, moving in the same
direction, itsmotion represented by s' = 2 f. The quantities s, s',
are in miles, and t in hours. When will the trains be nearest to
gether, and what is then their distance apart ?
Ans. 3 p.m., and 13 mi.
When will the accelerations be equal ?
Ans. 1 hr. 30 min., p.m.
40. Given s =  + bt 2
; find the velocity and acceleration.
41. A body starts from the origin, and moves so that in t seconds
the coordinates of its position are
o
Find the rates of increase of x and y.
ds
vdHty
vn ,
, Ans. 5f + o.
DIFFERENTIATION 39
42. Two bodies move, one on the axis of aj, and the other on the
axis of y, and in t minutes their distances from the origin are
x 5= 2 2
f  6 t feet, and y = 6 1 9 feet.
3 3 3
that the accelerations at these points are as 2 3 4 : : .
du
du
d dx
TV
IX. log w=u
dx
i
X.
dx
a u
= log aau
e
dx
XI. *e" =e v
dx dx
d dv
YTi
XII.  "='// .du ,
,
h log e ?^ uv
dx dx dx
40 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
\_
u J u \ u J
Dividing by Ax,
^logA+^f^
Ax u J u \
CD
For, if we put
Au
= z,
i+
( fr=(i+ t:
du
dy i dx
dx u
. .
DIFFERENTIATION 41
36. Proof of X.
Let y = au .
Multiplying by y = au , we have
dy
dx
= loga t
au
du
dx
dx
n
y u
Multiplying by y =u v
, we have
dy
?
dx
ridu
vuv l
dx
hlog^^ v
dv
dx
. i
The method of proving X. and XII. by taking the logarithm of
each member, may be applied to IV., VI., and VII
This exercise is left to the student.
42 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
EXAMPLES
(See note, Art. 35.)
dy _ 6 (a; + 1)
1. y = log (2^ + 3 r%
dx 2 a? 2 + 3 x
3 y
dy _ _ 1 + log x
xlogx dx (x log x) 2
da 3x + 2 3a+2
5. # = log ax b dy _ 2 ab
aa? + 6 dx a2x'2 b 2
I. y = lo{ 3^ + 1 dy
'
+3 dx 3a + 10a;f 3
2
dy _ 2 (f  1)
eft ^4^j_^
8. y =aex x
,
2=(l + loga)a*e".
dy
10. y = (_ 1)*, =8 e
2x
(e
2x
 l) s
.
dx
Differentiate Ex. 10 also after expanding.
11. y = 6* +
x3
V , <fy
cte
= 24a10^
(xS) 2
&
2 dy
12. y=(3xl) 2 3x
e ,
3 (9 x2  l)e 3x \
dx
v
DIFFERENTIATION 43
13. y =x 5
5x ,
~JL =x 4
o T (o +x log 5).
da;
15. (x +e x
y= .r
4
+ 4 .rV + 6 xV" + 4 a* 3* +e 4 *.
18. Jog a
.i =a log x
.
..
Q x los: x i / ,
. ^ dy log x
<ty_ 1
20. y = log (Vx~HTa + Vx),
dx 2Vx* + ax
dy _ 2
21. y = log (2a+V4x*l), da V4r> 1
dy _ 1
22. y = log ^i^
+ +
a., 1 1
ax xVx + 1
23. y = x [(log x)  2 2
log x + 2], 4
UX
= (log X) 2
oa
24. r = log(VJ+7V,fc
i /
"''
S
/
^
 (x
.
+ a)* + (x  a)*
f
..'
26 = W ,r  1 + *'"' ''!
= 2 (,'?<)
i ,
'."'
+ 1 + <r" dx c"' + 1 + e""
44 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
lo x
87. y = log ,
L = 1 .
fly __ 4 a;
^"~^2V^T3
30. y = log (a + V2axa ) + 2
Va 4 V2 a a;
0> 1
dx 2(x + V2 ax  a ) 2
a;2 + l4V^ + 3a + l ;
2
dy = x2 !
31 v _,i og j
x dx x^/x^ + Stf + l
34. y = (ax>) x , ^=
ax
(ax 2
)
1
[2 + log (ax )]. 2
35. 2/ = x** 2
,
^ = 2+1
+ 21ogx).
ax* (l
ax
37. y = x< 10
* ^ * (w +
te V <^ 1} (log ,,)
io,
38 . ,(_ * rf ffL,Wi+ilg^A.
\x + aJ dx \x\aJ \x + a a x + a)
.
DIFFERENTIATION 45
XIII
d
dx
du
sin w = cos u
dx
dx dx
XV.
dx
tanw = sec 2
M
dx
46 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
cot u = cosec w
d du
XVI
dx
,
dx
o
2
XVII.
dx
see u= sec u tan %
dx
XVIII.
dx
cosec u = cosec u cot dx ?t 
XIX. versw=sm?t
ax ax
Aw
Hence, H
Ax
= cos
V
u + *g)
2
l^
An Ax
sin
Au
2
Lim AM=0 ^ = 1. See Art. 12.
T
TT
Hence,
dy
= cos a du
dx dx
DIFFERENTIATION 47
for u, ?/.
Then = cos()( r )
(l)
or
d
dx
cos?* = sin ?/[
f
V
du\
dxj
=sm d
dx
T tf
cos ?/ sm
tf
ete
.
v sm ?/
d
cos u
(to
.
t sm u
dn dv du
,
cos 2 b . . o
sec "
CfeB
d . c?u
cos u sm w
, eta dx
,
bv
J A L,
f?
3~ sec u = 5
= =
7
ax cos ?< cos u
= sec v tan
.
>/
du
dx
stituting ^ u for u.
EXAMPLES
1. y
u =3 sin 3x cos 2x 2 cos Sx sin 2x, ^ = 5 cos 3x cos 2x.
dx
2. y = log cos 2
x\2x tan a? 2
a?
,
^= 2x tan 2 #.
>i
4. u
?/ = log5
i /
(a
v
sm
2
cc + 6* i \
cos 2 a),
;
dy
dx
= 2(ab)
r
tan #
a tan x + 2
1
b
dv = sin
c
5. y = cos i
a log sec //)
(8 a) + a sin
\ ,
ot, ^
dv cos (0 a) .
cia;
7. 2/ = log tan (
aa? ^"j, ^ = 2a sec 2ax.
8. r = log& [sec
L tan 6 (sec
v + tan 0)y J
]
2
, = (sec 6 + tan ^ 2

'
dB tan
9. 2/ = cosecm ax cosec" bx,
^ = cosec ax cosec" bx (ma cot ax + n& cot bx).
dx
10. w = 2x 2
sin 2x + 2x cos 2# sin 2x, & == 4a2 cos 2a\
da;
^ = 8 tan x sec 2 3
a;.
dx

12 
 sin ?f cos x
' a;
'
dy
Tx V
2 sin x
DIFFERENTIATION 49
cos x dy sin a
14. y = log
cos (x + a) dx cos x cos (x + a)
15. y = sin 3
4.r cos 4 3x, ^ = 12 sin 2 4a; cos 3 3a; cos 7x.
dx
sin x 4 vers x dy
,
16. y = log
t !
, ^ = secx.
sin x vers a; dx
4
21. 7/ = (tan 3 cot a; a;) Vtana;,
dy
= 3sec a;
d*
2 tan* x
sin^fl )
22. y = log dy _ sine*
d0~"coscos0
sini^ + a)'
24. y =
da; 1 sin 4a;
sin 2 + i)
(
tan 2
dy 3
y = log
45 sW
25.
d*
2tan?l
50 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
oa
D. = a sin + b vers x
if dy

2 ab vers x
a sm x b vers x sm x b
; ;
]) ,
dx (a vers x)~.
2 tan x
28. sin 2 a;
1 f tan 2 aj'
1 tan
2
aj
cos 2 a*
tan 2 #
31. sin (m + n) x =
mx cos + cos mx sin wa;,
sin rase
34. For what values of 0, less than 90, is sin 6 f cos an increas
ing or a decreasing function ?
Find its rate of change when = 15. Ans.
vr
35. The crank and connecting rod and 10 of a steam engine are 3
feet respectively, and the crank revolves uniformly, making two
revolutions per second. At what rate is the piston moving, when
DIFFERENTIATION 51
the crank makes with the line of motion of the piston 0,. 45, 90,
135, 180 :
If a, b, x, are the three sides of the triangle, and $ the angle
opposite b,
x =a cos + V6 a2
sin2 6.
of x. Then sin
1
 = , sin
_1
(
]
 = We thus regard sin
1
x,
2 6' V 2y 6
cosec
1
x, tan
1
x, and cot
_1
.T, as taken between  and , that is, in
the first or fourth quadrants.
1
But cos _1 .r, and vers 1 a;, must be taken between and v,
sec x,
that is, in the first and second quadrants, which include all values of
the cosine, secant, and versine.
These restrictions are assumed in the following formulae of differ
entiation.
flu
XX. sin
dx VI  u2
clu
XXI. i^cosS< =
dx x i
52 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
du
dx
XXII.
dx ~l + w 2
du
dx
XXIII. d
dx
cot
, i
u
l+u 2
du
XXIV. sec
1
u
dx
dx V 1 2
du
d  dx
XXV.
dx
cosec
i
##
uVu 2  1
du
XXVI.
d
dx
vers 1 jl = dx
V2w
By XIIL,
'
cos
du
2// =
dx
du
dx
;
du
dy _ dx
therefore
dx ~ cos y
_
DIFFERENTIATION 53
du
therefore
dy_ dx
dx~ smy
But sin y = Vl cos' y = Vl uK
2
Hence sin y  = VI  u2 ,
du
dy_ dx
and
dx~ VI u 2
dx dx
du
therefore
dy _ dx
dx sec 2 ?/
sec
1
u= cos
1
,
u
d /1\ 1 du du
d _!
sec * u = d _,1
cos l  =
dx \uj u2 dx dx
dx dx u I
i ./
i V% 12
u
d 1 1 du du
d _! d ,
n 1
1
dx
:
w
f )
u 2 dx dx
,\/ir 1
^i +i
55. Proof of XXVI. This may be obtained from XXL Since
vers _1 w = cos 1 (1 w),
d /.
_ v du
vers
1
m = cos x
(1 u)
dx dx Vl(lw) 2
V2
EXAM PLES
!
1. y
^
= 4.1
tan x
5
9

1 dt/
da;
o
5.r 2a? h 1
dy _ 3
2/ = sec x
dx ^V4x 9 2
3. y
u = sin
x 
7
^.V
dx
_ 1
 5)(2 
V(aj X)
dy _ 4
4. ?/ = vers 1 (8#
2
8# 4
),
da; VI  x2
5. 3/ = tan x
>
%_ a
1 , 1 1
DIFFERENTIATION 55
dy _ 3
6. y = tan *
(3 tail 0),
d6 o 4 cos 2
7. = sec 1 sec 2
dy_ 2
?/ 0,
dO Vsec 2 +1
9 dy _ 2
y = vers
1
8.
r + 1 dx * + l'
y=cot i *"+':'
dy 2a
9 .
er* e
2ax__ 2x
dx e e
dy _ 1
10. = cosec 1
*
//
*c a V8ar + 2b  1
11. // = tan x
( cot '
>
^ = 0.
5 6x + da;
12. y = cos
1
Vvers sc, = 4 Vl 4 sec a7.
13. y
J = o tan ? b tan
* *= (a'ftV ,

a 6 da; (a;
2
4a 2)<>2 +& 2
)
16. = sin f
ty _ 1 k 6 2 2
y ;
,
'
da; &a
+ ( a; 2
dy
18. y = sin
1
 * x x
e' 4 e dx e 4 e~
dy
19. y = cot '
1
.,  x 4 1)  cut" 1
(a;  1) 2
da; a; 4
56 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
21. 2/
= cos 1
^^2 x /^ % = V6ava^
22. 2/ =^ 2
sec 1 2V^ =l, ^/ =2 a; sec" 1 
2 da; 2
25. sin
1
x + sin 1 a = sin 1 (a y 1 x z
\x Vl a ). 2
1 mnxr
ol
27. vers
,2
*
a; +=2tan
2 =[
\\ +^2
_i , /a; 1
+3
28. tan
a6(l
"'tan** =
+ tanx)
^ fa
\b
^ \
J
_ ^ b
a
.
OQ = 2lQg
01 aj2a; + 5 14 _!^5
2
dy
= 12x 2 20
29 +tan .
'
^ ^ + 2, + 5 17^ & 54^F+3'
__ _ 4 a; x s
dy 4
3
Q1
31. 2/=sm
.
^ )^
.^(a^a
x i
2
dy =
 2\ x a / 2 2
3 V3 a a 2
y
^ a? V4 a  or 2
by a simple relation.
It is evident that = ,
Ax A#
*9
however small the values of Ax and Ay. As these quantities ap
proach zero, we have for the limits of the members of this equation,
ft=i
dx dx w
(i)
dy
That is, the relation between 2 and is the same as if they were
,.  .. dx dy
a
ordinary tractions.
For example, suppose
x=^~.
y +1
w
(2)
This is the same result as that obtained by solving (2) with refer
ence to y, giving
y =  1,
x
dy_dy^dz^ /on
dx dz dx
z^tfx .} 2 K)
dz dx
By (3),
%L = bz\ 2x) =  10x(a  x )\ 2 2
by (4).
dx
DIFFERENTIATION 59
dx dz _ dx _ ..
dz dx dx
EXAMPLES
In Exs. 14, find and thence by
dx
(1).
dy
i , ay ~^ dy _ (by k) 2 __ bh ak
by k' dx bh ak (bx a) 2
2. x = vl +siny, dy _ _ 2 Vl + sin y 2
dx cos y V2X 2
3. x = dy._(lflog;V ) 2 _ f
1 + logy' dx logy xy x 2
2z 2x
Va dx a 2
9 2' '
dy ee~*_
6. y = log, , = , = x
e + e~
z dx x
7. y=ze z +e 2z
, z = \og(xx 2
),
^/ =4 a)
3 6 ar> + l.
dec
8. ?/ = log !
, z = sec x f tan #,
62 fa
% a2
2
5 2
9. Differentiate (a?
2
+ 2) 2
with respect to 3
sb .
(7 7/
Let y = (x 2 + 2) 2 and , 2 == ar
3
.
n fi
It is required to nrl
find j*
dz
^=
cte
4aj(aj
2
+ 2), = 3a;
dx
2
.
= x(x + 2) = (x + 2)
2 2
dy
BJ w
(5)
dz 3x 2
3x '
x
; with respect
c to 
a
+
x
Ans. Sfc + l + \ 2
a;
/
cos x
with respect to
j ab (a 2 tan x b 2
cot x)
2
a sin x 2
b 2 2
cos x a 2
+b
14. Given x = 5 cos <f>
cos 5cf>, y 5 sin< sin 5<; find
ciaj
.
u.i?t.s.
dx
= tan 3 4>.
CHAPTER IV
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
For example, if y = %\
dx
1^=12^,
dxdx
dx dx dx
denoted by
J
^
dx2
That is, dry _ d dy
dx2 dx dx
2
dhj __ d d dy _ d d y
Similarly,
dx3 dx dx dx dx dx2
d 4y _ d d d dy _ d d 3y
4
dx dx dx dx dx dx dx3
01
62 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Thus, if y = A
dy_ = 4a3
,
dx
= 12a;',
dx 2
fry
== 24x.
dxs
dy ae ax fry _ae 2 ax . . .
fry
= a"e ax .
dec '
dx2 dxn
g = (l)a(aa + 6)*,
g= (1)(  2)a\ax + &),
2JL = (_ l)"na(aa!
dx 11
' + 6)"Bj1 
y
+
(ax

n+l
6)
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION 63
*fc =a 2
cos faa + 1) = a 2
sin few + ^\
dx
&= crcos fe + \= a 3
sin few +^\
i = a n sin /ckb H
(/"?/ .
f
, ?nr\
].
efo"
EXAMPLES
1. y = Za* 5 rt + 20 aror' + 2^ ^=
ax
120(0?  + 1).
a?
a^M
2 !/ = {x ^, 2
Q
= 20(x 2
l)(x 2 4:)i
ctx~
3. y = xr + x~ m ,
J '
da*
L [3 6 J9
5. =x 4
log a*,
_24
//
da5 X
= 4^_2)e*+(a,'l)e d 2y_
7. v
2x
. = 4 x(e x + *)
dx2
= ^_3^ + 3)ea d 2x
8. .,
,
:4ts e 2t 
df
dfr
9. / = log sec 0, 
6 sec 4 04 sec 2
(9
64 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
n
11. ?/ = tan _,
.
1
a?,
A2 = 24a<la;
^
2
)
>>
'
dx A
(1 + a;
2 4
)
^y_2(x aYx
d3 + ! ax + a 2)
2
,_ , a;
13. 2/ = logV^ + a + tan', (^ + y a
15. ?/ = a;e
x
(sma; cos a;)} 3 e x
cos a?, ^ = 4 a;e* cos x.
16. 2/ = e % tan ^+ 2
(tana;l) 2
^= 0.
l7
sinwg + coswa? ^+ ?^2/
+n 2
o.
19. 2/ =a 6
*,
^=
(XX
&w (loga) na6a! .
I
3n \n
20. 9
2/ = log(3a;+2),y
,
^ = (1Y + t==.
0*
da;
n
^ i
(3a; 2)
M
1
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION 65
1 l) n
\n
=1
fin.. (
23 i/
x 12
daT 2 L(aj1)"
+1
(x + 1)"*
oa
24. 3w
= 3a?4
2.r' + 3.r2
,
d"y
= ( l)
da?
,
K
1
. n
J
n
LH
~
\_( x + 2y
2
+1
(2a>l)+1
2"
13 2 " +1 3" +1
n
5 _ ^1 = ( \n\ f
26.
2x +x+l 2X +z
* 2.r'xl 1
On+1
da"
V ) L L3(xl) n+1 3(2 a? + 1)
x2 dry _ ( l)"
+1
4[w (x  n + 1)
27. y= +2
(x + 2) 2
'
dx n
(x + 2)'
l
4 (  i)" 01 " * + n)
= /ax + 1 \
2 a:c
d" y (
28.
\ax  1/ iy
^/
dx" (ax
d du
,
{ttV)
s
v+u dv m\
Tx =Hx <r
x
(1)
=
n
vi = dv
?
v2
d?v
o> '" vn =d v
dx dxr dx n
Uj
= du
dx
, u2
"
= cPu
dx 2
, un = u
dn
dx"
66 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differentiating (2),
d (uv) = u v +
2
 2 ihVi h VqVi + uv = u v + 2 u v
2 2 l 1
4 uv 2 ,
dx~
d
dx>
3
(uv) = u v + U V + 2 iu>v + 2u V + 0^2 4 uv
s 2 1 x x 2 3
= u v 4 3 w ^i 4 Sufis 4~ wy3
s 2 .
We shall find that this law of the terms applies, however far we
continue the differentiation, the coefficients being those of the Bino
mial Theorem ; so that
(XX
(uv) = UnV + WnlVl + ^T^
Z
Un2 2 \ 1 UU^O^ + UV n . (3)
dn
dx nK(uv),
J
it is also true for
dn+l
(uv).
dx n+iy
J
This exercise is left for the
student.
In the ordinary notation (3) becomes
n ~l n
n
d f N d u dn udv n(nl)d
ud*v 2
+ n dxn ~
.
nK(uv)=
,
}
v h
,
h
dx dxn l
dx [2 dxn *da?
. dud n ~ l
v ,
dnv
dx dx"* 1
dxn
EXAMPLES
1. Given 9y X s
sin 2 x ; find by Leibnitz's Theorem ^.
dx4
From (3),
(uv)
d*
 == u#) + 4 u^ + 6 u v + 4 w^ 4 2 2 ttv4 .
Cta?
^ = a;
3
, i<! =3 a?
2
, u2 = 6 a?, Wg = 6, u4 = 0.
v = sin 2 %\ 2 cos 2 x,
a?, v2 = 4 sin 2 x, v3 8 cos 2 a?
5
v4 = 16 sin 2 a;.
.
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION 67
<P
= 0.
^ = dx
!&/
4
, .r sin 2 x) sin 2 x + 46 2 cos 2 .r f 06 a; ( 4 sin 2 )
J 4 3 x3 ( 8
cos 2 ) + a?
3
16 sin 2 aj
 16 [(.i
3
 9 x) sin 2 x + (3  6 a ) 2
cos 2 ].
2. Given y = ** find 25
d.r"
Here u = e" x
, Mj = oe", u,^ = a n ~ l
e
ax
, un = ane ax
.
v = x, vl =l )
v.2 = 0, v3 = 0, .
^= (e**x) =a n ax
e x + m"" ^ =a 1 1 tl 1
e
ax
(ax + w).
3. , = ( . + i )V^ri; ^3(5^14,413).
d7?
8(l)*
a
1 ^^ ilo dA y
J=
J,l
X
Z X
,46,8
+ x^^x*)
6\
K ,31 /o , in c?
4
V 48(a;4l)(22 + 2x + l)
8. 9v
= ! =( 1)
ft * ! !
K
+ l) n+
> }
(a,+ 1)
3
dx n (x *
CHAPTER V
DIFFERENTIALS. INFINITESIMALS
derivative has not been defined as a ratio, but as the limit of a ratio.
We have seen (Art. 56) that derivatives have certain properties
of fractions,and there are some advantages in treating them as such,
thus regarding ^ as the ratio between dy and dx.
dx
Various definitions have been given for dx and dy, but however
defined, they are called differentials of x and y respectively. The
symbol d before any quantity is read " differential of."
For example, if y =x 3
, y+ Ay=(x + Ax) 3
,
and Ay = 3x 2
Ax + 3x(Axy+(Ax)\ ... (1)
dy = 3x 2
dx,
not in the sense that both sides ultimately vanish, but in the sense
that the ratio of the two sides approaches unity.
Thus dy=3x 2
dx, and ^ = 3x 2 ,
dx
So in general, if y =f(x),
Hence Ay = f'(x)Ax\eAx,
and as the term eAx diminishes more rapidly than the term f'(x)Ax }
we have
Ay = / '(a?) Ax approxim ately
or dy=f'(x)dx.
The second may be said to be the more rigorous of the two defini
tions, but the first has the advantage of being more symmetrical, and
better adapted to the various applications of the calculus to mechanics
and physics.
n~l
VII. d(u") = nu du.
IX. d7 log u
1
=
(l "
u.
Vlu 2
(l "
XXII. 7
,i
*.
tan
1
u = 
1 +U*
= du
XXIV. d sec
i
u
"VuY^l
, = du
XXVI. 7
il vers u
V2u
72 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(XX
X2 \ O
_ rif^l\
~  (x 2
+3)d(x + 3)(x + 3)d(x2 + 3)
ay
to, a
[x^T3j~ (z
2
+ 3) 2
~ (x + 3) dx  (x + 3) 2 xdx
2
=
(x 2 + 3) 2
_ (a;
2
+ 3  2 6 apcfa = (3  6  a
a;
2
a;
2
) cfa
(x + 3) 2
+ 3)
2
(a;
2 2
dy_ 3 6x x 2
dx~ (x \3) 2 2
EXAMPLES
Differentiate the following functions, using differentials in the
process
3. y= vVTT Va7^2, dy =
Wx'\ 1
~Z= rdx
Var 2
4. r = 5J2l*,
cos 3
^ = (2 +cosm^)sin^ S
4
tan 4
6> tair^+1'
From the definition it may be shown that the limit of the ratio of
an infinitesimal to one of the same order is finite, and to one of a
lower order, zero.
Equation (1), Art. 62, illustrates infinitesimals of different orders.
If we write it
dy = 3x 2
dx + 3x (dx) 2 + (dx)8,
T.
Lim x=0
= Lim
versa;
x
T .
x=0
1 cosx
sin'
2
*
siii
or
2
sc
== T

Lim x=0
l
1 /sinscV
+ cosa?y x J
1
I
a finite quality.
Hence by (1) versa? is an infinitesimal of the second order with
respect to x.
dx
(
2ahJ hl + 2bix = o,
dx
2
b x^
dx a 2y
cCylf
J  Hm3K b
2
fy x&S
dx V dx)
dx d.ca 2 y~ <i^f d2y 2
73
76 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
dx 2
a y ay
differentiatin g again, we may obtain
d3y _ 3 6\ '
dx8 a 4y 5
2a ydy + 2b xdx = 0,
2 2
dn
^ =
"hi*
giving , as before.
dx a 2y
EXAMPLES
Find the following derivatives.
1. (x a) 2 + (yb) 2 = c
2
,
2. x=y\og(xy),
dy_xy y 2
dx xy +x 2
3. (coB^=(8in^,
7 v ry '
gj = logBin* + <frtanfl
dB Iogcos0Ocotcf>
4. ax2 +2 hxy\by 2 = 1,
d
5. aa? + 2hx!r + bf = } /=x
dx
.
6.
.
tan
. ,
tand>
r
.
= w,"
rtd>
_x6
sin 2
:
d =
_x
2
d> 2 sin 2 Afcos
^v 2
. T*+ cos 2 0)z
<f>

o / \ i / s ch/ 2)/ x d2 )/ (x y) 2
9. ,W + 2r + l = 0,
(J
+ 2,eot.=^
10. e=crtr
diJ
= ?/
"~ logft
^y = %iog)
c? a; log ,
6' 2
(to (a; log b) 2
j
'
ii.
y
,
J=^r#
CHAPTER VII
a + ar +ar 2
f ar 3 f
1 r
When 
r 
> 1, Liin n=00 Sn = oo.
When 
r  =1, the series is also divergent.
* r
 
denotes the numerical value of r.
78
SERIES 79
con vergent.
"Without giving a rigorous proof of the theorem, we may regard
the given series as the difference between two series formed of the
positive ami negative terms respectively.
The theorem is then equivalent to this :
For example : 1 1
h (1)
2 3 4
is divergent (see Art. 70).
Series (1) is accordingly conditionally convergent.
69. Tests for Convergence. The following are some of the most
useful tests.
For Sn = #__, + u n .
80 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
For example,
^
1  + = + *
'
2 3 4
2 _3 4 _5
1 2 3 4*"
^2^3 4^
is divergent (see Art. 70).
1 + 2 + 3 + +
4 5
+ 6 + 7 + 8 + . . .
w
(1)
1+ I +
HHH +
* The proof of this
+
is omitted.
+ (2)
SERIES 81
T 2 T 4816
=1+1+1+1+1+ ...
L + ^+l+^
9P
+ ...
'
\P '
P p 4: S
2
a geometrical series whose ratio, , is less than unity.
The series (3) together with the geometrical series are standard
series, with which others may often be compared.
82 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
71. Cauchy's Ratio Test. This depends upon the ratio of any
term to the preceding term. In the series
u2 +u 3 H h un + un+1 +
(1)
this ratio is
Here the ratio ^ = r, and is the same for any two adjacent terms.
i
,

r<
, ,
1, or ?> 1.
< 1, or >1.
If now (1) is any series other than the geometrical series, the
ratio
Wi is not constant, but a function of n. The series is then
convergent or divergent, according as
Let Lim, =P .
SERIES 83
But since r < 1, the second member of (4), which is the geometrical
series, is convergent, and therefore the first member
Since r > 1, the second member, and therefore the first member,
must be divergent.
Thus the theorem proved for a series of positive terms.
is
u.n+l
l
Lim, <1.
If Lira,
U n+1 _ i
EXAMPLES
1. Is the following series convergent?
12 2 2
3.2 s 2
n
Applying (3), Art. 71, we have ^**
un 2(w + l)
1
2 (n + 1) 2
As this is less than unity, the given series is convergent.
Its limit is log, 2, as will appear later.
84 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
2
+ \3 + + \5 + By (3), Art. 71.
'
2 g
II
+ 10 2
10 3 10 4
+ By (3), Art. 71.
10
4 
l+ +
l H + By (1), Art. 70.
1 1 1 1
5 1 I 1 I
6. lf? +l ^
2 3 4
2 2 2 2
'*
7 . 1+ +* *
L? L Ji=
9 1+I+A.+
_r 5"r ,
i
+ Compare with (3), Art. 70.
'
2 10 n2 + l
10.
1 4i_ + 1
Compare with (3), Art. 70.
1 + Vl 1 + V2 1 + V3
12. sec^see^+sec^sec^ +
2 3 4 5
POWER SERIES 85
14.
1 +1 2+1 ,
3 +1 4+1 ,
OS
12 +1 22 +l '
'
32 +l
. i
+l
.19
42
t '
1 +1 2 +1 3 +1 4 +1
+ l~ "2 +l~t S + l~ "4 + l +
15. t f
2 2 s
l
2+l + 3l 4 l + 5 l
16.
2^1 + 33_1 + 43_1 5 S_
Answers
Exs. 2, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, convergent.
Exs. 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, divergent.
Exs. 8, 12, oscillating.
a + a x + a # + a$?
x 2
2
\ ,
1_ t+ I*_ t +
12 li 1$
a {)
+a x + a#?\
x \a nx
n
\ , (1)
UnX anx
an x
Lim. = Lim, = a?Liin BS
nl
86 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

x Li  m^ < 1, or 
a; 
Lim, >i;
1 + 2x + 3x + 4lX 2 3
\ tnaT1 + (n + 1) a? +. (2)
Here = , Lim,,^, = 1.
an n + 71 +1
Hence (2) is convergent or divergent, according as
EXAMPLES
Determine the values of the variable for which the following
1. l +x+x +x 2 s +
2.
x x
J^j_^_ +
,
^ +
12 23 34
/v* /y3 rW*
+'+ +  + .
3.
,2^3 4
5
A Xs
X x 7
3 + 5~7 + '
, .
4 
X
POWER SERIES 87
.1  + 1T3 ~ + 1n
3 7
 .r* .i 3 T> .r
5 .r + ^
,
,
, ,.
+ ,
7. m3 />v*
1 + =+'.
V )"* }'
7. : x
2 i [6
3 6
Q a . sc a*' .
12 12 II
EXPANSION OF FUNCTIONS
= l_ + ^_ x +
a;
3 ...
(1)
1 +x
By the Binomial Theorem
(x+ a) = a + 4 a x+ 6 a + 4 ax + x*.
4 4 3 3
EXPANSION OF FUNCTIONS 89
from (5), /
iv
(0) = 234^ E = G^,
li
log(l+x)
+^^J
/v?2 /yiO /yi4 /yi5
iog(iM)=*f +!!+!.
EXPANSION OF FUNCTIONS 91
EXAM PLES
Expand the following functions into power series by Maclaurin's
Theorem
3
t x4
1. e
x
= 1 + x + r + ' :
4 ' H Convergent for all values of x.
\2 3 4
2*^
2 sin x = x + 'X ~
X'
H
Convergent for all values of x.
[3 [5 [7
,2 ,4 6
+ "O* 1 )!" 2 )
^3^3 + ... Convergent when \x\ < a.
[3
2 3 4
Q . . ,
1 .r '
,
1.3 a?
8
1 3 5 x7 .
VI XT
Expanding by the Binomial Theorem,
/' (a;) = 1 +aar>+ bx + cx + 4 6
,
a = , 5 = , c^
1 3 5
where ' '
,
2* 24' 2.4.6'
/" (x) = 2 ax + 4&c + 6ca + 3 5
2
14. S ec* =l+ +
 f+.
sinh x =
2
,
'
cosh x =
2
,
'
tanh x =
eHe'
, show that
3 5
x 2 r
18. tanh x = x 4 77
3 15
,xiAl
cos as 4 V 1 sin x,
e
x v/ 1 _ cos _ y/ _ 1
a sin ^ #
5
in = 2r^^4*
3
2 25
V2 2 [3'
1^
log 2 =0.6931,
log 3 =1.0986,
log 4 =1.3862,
log 5 =1.6094,
log 6 =1.7917,
log 7 =1.9459,
log 8 =2.0793,
log 9 =2.1972,
log 10 = 2.3025.
It is only necessary to calculate directly the logarithms of the prime
numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, as the others can be expressed in terms of these.
We have from Art. 77,
lo g 2 = log(l + l)=li + i+....
For log
1 +x log (1 + X)  log (1  x)
1x
x3 a* ar _ ar _ 4
_
=X .v ,
+
,
(a 2~
.t .
}
2 3 4 3 4
J
~ .333333 i =.333333
3
1
33
.037037
33 3
= .012346
1 _ .004115 1
=.000823
3"'
53 5
1 1
.000457 . = .000065
37
1 1
.000051 r
3"
= .000006
3 ,J
9
.34657
2
.69314
1 +x 1 +
Any number may be put in the form T an(j \ Q(T 3
i+i
Find log 5 from i
log 
. 5
=!log '4
1
a slowly converging
I=
series.
taa>l = l! + H + ..,
tan" 1 1 = tan" 1
 + tan  1
3'
1 1 1
from which
4 2 3 2s
+5
'
25 7 27
+
EXPANSION OF FUNCTIONS 97
and 7T = 3.14159 ..
tan
1
1 = 4 tan 1 tani
5 239
/(x + ft)=/(x)+/'(x)A+/"(x)+/"'()+.
dx dx dz dx
Jy J K } K J
dh dJi dz dh
therefore Af(
dx ^ h)= JKJ
JK x + f (x '+ h)
J
dh
d j., , 7N dA . dB 7 . dC.o ,
dD JS ,
dx dx, dx dx dx
By Art. 84, the first members of these two equations are equal to
^=
dx
B, B = ^.
dx
dB_2f 1 d A
2
l
p_
dx 2 dx2
dC=3D,
dx
j) =~
[3
~
c
dx 3
EXPANSION OF FUNCTIONS 99
Then A =/().
Hence =^ =/'()
f(x + h) = sin (x + h) ;
/
iv
= sin x.
(a;)
re.
100 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
EXAM PLES
Derive the following expansions by Taylor's Theorem :
h2 h3
1. cos (x + h) = cos x h sin x 7F> C0S x + 75 s i n ^ +
3. (x + /i)
7
= x + 7a;7 6
7i+ .
n (n 1)
4. (x + 7i)
w
= af + nxn~
1 x
h + +
h h2 h3 A4
5. log (a; + h) = log x
7
\
a?
7Tl>
2 ar
+ 3^Js~T^4
ar 4 ar
+ '
6. + h) = tan + h sec
tan (a; a;
2
a; 4 7r sec
2
a; tan x
^
/' ,
W + r'W + ...
f" (x)
12. / /{) /'(*) +
1 + aJ 1 + 05 (1 + *) 2
1
x3 f'"(x)
+
(1 + *) 3
[3
13. If 2/= /(#), show that
y
da; ^cto2 [2 ^da:3 [3
EXrAXSIOX OF FUNCTIONS 101
J K
ba J
Let OA = a, OB = b. Then
ba PM
At some point of the curve, as R, between P and Q, a tangent can
be drawn parallel to PQ. Call OK=x 1
. Then the slope of the
tangent at R is/'(a^), which equals tan QPM.
Hence HS~f(a) =f(Xl
where ), a < x, < b. . (1)
CL
91. Another Proof. The following method of deriving (2), Art. 84,
is important, in that it may be extended to higher derivations of
f(x), as appears in Arts. 92, 93.
Let R be defined by
f'(a f Bh) R = 0.
Hence =f (a + f
<f>'(x) x) (a) xE,
4>"(x)=f"(a + x)B (3)
Also <f>'
(x) = 0, when x = 0.
Hence <f>"
(x) = 0, for some value, x2 between
, and x1} that is, be
tween and h. Writing x2 = Oh, we have from (3),
f'(a + 0h)E = O.
Substituting this value of E in (1), we have
Let
+(x)=f(a+z)f($xfXa)f"(a) * /^(a)^
<fr
n
(x) = 0, when x = x n where , < xn < xn_u
that is, where xn is between and h.
I*
Lim, = 0,
which is evidently satisfied for all values of x.
Lhn_ \* (1)!L=11
U (i + Bxy J
=[ =Ffe)]= !
Lim h (a+M.
t(a + h)
There is no difficulty in determining this limit immediately, when
the numerator only, or the denominator only, is zero or infinity ; or
when one is zero and the other infinity.
We will now consider the cases where, for some assigned value of
x, the numerator and denominator are both zero or both infinity.
The fraction is then said to be indeterminate.
Thus, = j
x2

l
 , when x = l.
LinL,_,
z 2
+.t2 = TLim^i x +2 = 3 .
[
* _1
x*l Vhl 2
106
INDETERMINATE FORMS 107
Again,
2 =r
, when x = 2.
a z1 1
T . a; 2 T . (a;  2) (V 1 + 1)
Vai11 g'2
= Lim^Val + 1) = 2.
As another illustration,
008 2g = ?.
= , whenfl
cos 0 sin 4
cos 6 sin 2 2
"But Liui ep ~
_zr
4 cos 6
cos 2
7 7 Lim e _zr
sin
(9
:
;r~ w
~4 cos^siu^
(9
.
fl
:
(9
97. Form < yen fraction, taking the derivative of the given numerator
for << new numerator, and of the given denominator for a new denomi
nator. T/>> value of this new fraction, for the assigned value of the
variable, is /la limiting value of the given fraction.
Suppose the fraction ^ ' , when x = a, that is, <f>(a) =0, and
= o. *W
 By Art. 95 the required value of the fraction is the limit of
. as h approaches zero.
 h)
where 6 and X
are proper fractions.
108 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
4 h) = h<f>'(a 4 Oh) = (a +
<t>(a <fr
f
flft)
*
t
Hence Lim ^^ = M
which is the theorem expressed by the rule.
that is, the process expressed by the rule must be repeated, and as
often as may be necessary to obtain a result which is not indeter
minate.
For example, let us find the limiting value of the fraction in
Art. 96.
$(x) x2 l 0'
y,>
xp\x)
/ = ^
2x
= 2'
, when 05 = 1.
q
Thus the required limiting value is 
Z
For another example, let us find the limiting value, when x = 0,
e* __
e _2x
1 COS C
= , when a; =0.
i// (a?) 1 cos a?
<'(<e) _ e e~* _
x
when x = 0.
ij/'(x) sin a; 0'
when x = 0.
xj/"(x) cos a?
EXAMPLES
Find the limiting values of the following fractions for the assigned
values of the variable.
3.
a ~ , when x = 0. Ans. log 6 a.
_1
.r tan .T
when x = 0. 4?is. 2.
5
108(^4 8 + 6) when* = 2. ^n S . 2.
log cos (# 2)
6
wlog(x + l) wh enx = 0. 4&
> g.
XT Jj
vers fl
when = 0. Ans. 0.
sin 2 '
sin^ + )l
when0 = ? ^4??s. 
log sin 2
6
6
10. 5^= when a =6. ^w. ^+J2S .
b
a b"
,
1 log 6
log >g log.6
when a = 6. Ans.
a b b log b
^2ar' + 2xl
110 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
faumsntans wh en z = 0.
13> Ans. 2.
nsmx sin7ix
,
14.
A
tan nx n tan x
n sin x sin nx
;
;
,
wnen?i =
,
^
l.
A
Ans.
xsec 2 ^ tana;
sin x x cos x

15.
c m sin x sin mx ,
when x = A0.
, A
Ans.
m m s
(x 1) e + + 1) e~
x x
(a; 4
eto
16. + e" 
log sec 2 x af
&)=M^ = when z = 0.
\f/(x) cot x oo
1
sin 2 a;
6'(a?)
7?H=
y(x)
=
cosec^a?
a;
a;
= a'
, A
whenx0.
a; = A0.
\\>"(x) 1 1.
GO
J
.
x
For example, find the value of
~ 2x =,
But (tt2x)J taiix=
v
7r
when = J.
cot a; 0' 2
^
i//(.r)
=
cosec 2 a
~2
,
= 2j when **
2
1 1
when x = 1.
log X X 1 ,
p,,4.
But
1 1
= b 1 log =  a; ,
when x = .,
1.
1 1) log x
.
log sc x (a;
^
'
= ___=4 when
11+fcg.
a = 1.
= = .
'
when x =l c
*(*) 12 + 1 2
a? a;
Take the logarithm of the given expression, which will have the
form  or The limiting value of this logarithm will determine the
oo
given function.
For example, find the limiting value of x*, when x = 0.
This takes the form 0.
Let y =x x
;
iLLA = x = 0, when x = 0.
ij/'(x) _1_
x2
Let y = (l + ax)x,
log y = lpg (! + ax = % )
when * = 0.
a;
y v y
= !
= a, when x = 0.
f
^' (a) 1
EXAMPLES
Find the limiting values of the following expressions for the
assigned values of the variable.
1. log(lHaj), when a; == 0.
= Ans.
x or 2
2. 2 X tan 3 a; = 00
when # 00. Ans. 3.
2T
4.
'g tan "*, when a' = 0.
log tan &#
*
5 '
when x = 0. = ^ns.
6*
2x? 2x tan a;
sec 3 x 7T 5
6. when x ~2* Ans. 3'
sec o x
fx
2
+ x\\ when x = 1. Ans.
3
V 2 J
tan 7T
8. (cosec0) when 6 ~2* Ans. vz
7i'
9. (tan0) cos< >
when 0: "2" Ans. 1.
0: _
(9 7r
10 when "4" Ans. e 3
c"\i
when x = 0. Ans. abc.
13. (a
z
+ z)x, when x = = 0. Ans. ae.
xZ
* / cos ax 4 cos bx\ 1
when a; = = 0. Ans.
\ 2 J
CHAPTER X
MAXIMA AND MINIMA OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
clx
d
when (slope) < 0. (1)
dx
114
MAXIMA AND MINIMA OF FUNCTIONS L15
But *
dx
Iv
(slope)J
*
= ^f^\ =
dx\dxj lW %
and (1) becomes \ < 0.
efar
Hence when ^=
dx
0, and ^<
dx2
0, . (2)
when $y >
\ 0.
dx2
Then ^ = a*4a?^&
da;
(4)
fH* 4 
<5 >
Putting ( 4) = 0, s?  4 + 3 = 0,
a;
whence
^ = X  4a? + 3 =
c s
 1)(*  3).
dx
dx
dx
2
Hence we conclude that y is a minimum when # = ; a maximun
o
when x = 2 ; but neither a maximum nor minimum when x = 4.
As this method does not require %,
2
it is preferable to thai
dx
of Art. 102, when the second differentiation of y involves much work
118 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
EXAMPLES
1. Find the maximum value of 32 a; x 4
. Ans. 48.
2. 2X s 3 x 12 x + 12.
2
Ans. x = l, gives a maximum 19.
x = 2, gives a minimum 8.
2
3. 2 x3 11 ic
2
+ 12 x + 10. ^4ns. a? = , gives a maximum 13Jf
x 3, gives a minimum 1.
9 a3
4. 3 +9 (a #) 3
. ^tfts. x = 3a ,
_._
gives a
maximum :
'
= 3a
"..
, . 9 a3
minimum
.
# gives a .
4 16
5. (xl)(x2)(x3).
A
4ws. a> = 2o
V3
1
= gives a
,
maximum
2 3V3"
1
x =2 \ = ,
gives
a minimum
V3 3V3
6. 2 (3 a? + 2) 3 # 2 4
. 4ns. aj = 2, gives a maximum 80.
^^^t ^
~
7. Show that has no maximum nor minimum.
x 1
= a2 . . (ab)12
x gives a minimum ^
a b ,
a
n
a;
/ y*
is
ne
9
10. Show that the greatest value of cos 2 + sin is .
8
. ,
;
sin 2 $ + sin 2 f
 6 )
are  and 
,
3 / 2 2
2
14. Show that the least value of 2
a tan 2
f b cot
2
is the same as
that of ere** + &V", and equal to 2 ab.
15. y
J = ^ a ~x ) . u4?is. A minimum when x = 
a 2x 4
16. 2/ = (.rl)%r + 2) 3
.
17. 7/=02) 5
(2z + l) 4
.
Hence if ^=oo,
dx
those given by
''"
=0.
dx
120 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Then
dy_ 25
dx
3(xcy
hence we have
Y
dy
oo , when x = c.
dx
dy b
Then = oo when x = c.
dx
3(c) 8
dy
But as ^ does not change sign when x = c, there is no maxi
dx
mum nor minimum. The corresponding curve is shown in the figure.
Y
MAXIMA AND MINIMA OF FUNCTIONS 121
EXAMPLES
Find the maximum and minimum values of the two following
functions:
1. y=(x + l)i{*oy
Ans. A minimum when = 5;
x a maximum when a; = ;
a minimum when x = 1.
2. y = (2xay(xa)*'
Ans. A maximum when x = ; a minimum when x = a.
* The rigorous form of Art. 93 may be used here without any change in the
context.
122 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
/(a) = 0.
/(aA)/(a)=/"(a)/''(a)+....
similar reasoning will show that for a maximum we must also have
iv
f'"(a)=0 and f (a)<0;
and for a minimum
/"'(a)=0 and f lv
(a)>0.
du
:>.i'(4.t)(10.t) 2 = 0,
dx
from which we find that u is a maximum when x = 4. Hence the
required parts are 4 and 6.
y=i
The volume of the cylinder is
7r:r?/ = 7rX 2
(6 x).
a
Let r OP, the radius of the sphere x = OR, the radius of base ;
x2 jg y2 =r2
i
.
2 ttx 2y = 4 7rx Vr x 2 2
.
4 irx Vr x2 2
is a maximum,
when x V?*2 # 2
is a maximum
and xy/r
2
x 2
is a maximum,
when its square i^x
2
x 4
is a maximum.*
x 2
+y = 2
i*, (2)
Differentiating (1), ^L = y
dx
+ X dx % (3)
Substituting in (3),
dx
=y =*
y y
x = = , y =  , as before.
V2 V2
In some problems this method has some advantages over the first.
5. Divide 48 into two parts, such that the sum of the square cd
one and the cube of the other may be a minimum. Ans. 42f, 5.
6. Divide 20 into two parts, such that the sum of four times the
reciprocal of one and nine times the reciprocal of the other may be
a minimum. Ans. 8, 12.
10. A person being in a boat 5 miles from the nearest point of the
beach, wishes to reach in the shortest time a place 5 miles from that
point along the shore; supposing he can run 6 miles an hour, but.
row only at the rate of 4 miles an hour, required the place he must
land. Ans. 929.1 yards from the place to be reached.
15. (a) Find the altitude of the rectangle of greatest area that
can be inscribed in a circle whose radius is r.
Ans. rV2; a square.
(b) Find the altitude of the right cylinder of greatest volume that
can be inscribed in a sphere whose radius is r. Ans. ^
V3
16. (a) Find the altitude of the isosceles triangle of greatest area
(b) Find the altitude of the right cone of greatest volume inscribed
in a sphere of radius r, Ans.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA OF FUNCTIONS 127
17. (a) Find the altitude of the isosceles triangle of least area
circumscribed about a circle of radius r.
19. Find the point of the line, 2x + y = 16, such that the sum
of the squares of its distances from (4, 5) and (6, 3) may be a
minimum. Ans. (7, 2).
20. Find the perpendicular distance from the origin to the line
 i
f  = 1, bv & the minimum distance.
J rinding ' Ans.
a b '
'
Va + &* 2
nation is inversely as the square of the distance from the light, and
directly as the sine of the inclination of the rays to the floor.
Ans.
V2
27. At what point on the line joining the centres of two spheres
must a light be placed, to illuminate the largest amount of spherical
surface ?
Ans. The centres being A, B ; the radii, a, b ; and P the required
point; AP :PB =a?:b
2 2
s
.
34. Find the altitude of the least isosceles triangle that can be
circumscribed about an ellipse whose semiaxes are a and b, the base
of the triangle being parallel to the major axis. Ans. 3 b.
dy
The derivatives,
dxdy
, , thus derived, are called partial deriva
dx
=3x 2
f 4 xy, the ^derivative of u.
= 2x 2
3y 2
, the ^/derivative of u.
EXAMPLES
Derive by partial differentiation the following results
xy du . du
1. V.
'
+y
2. 2 = (ax + 2 2
bxy + off, (to +)*_(.+)*
132 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
o / \/ \/ \ du . du . du ^
4.

r = AVx
/ T +#>
.
2 ,
?/
2 w
y
dr
dx
= x dr
dy
5. m = log (x + ace + 3 2
?/ foci/
2
+ 3
c?/ ), a \ y = 3
dx dy
x du du
6. % = +z + ,
ii , .
a +2/
,
+2 du = A0.
,
z x y ox oy dz
xy
e du du
^ + ^ = + 2/ iN
vt . , .
7 t *= ' 1 w (
a;
)


e
x
+e , ,
y ofl? a?/
8 . M = l 0g ^l + 2tan^,
a; 4 2/ 2/
*
ox
+ *+
oy x~ + y
=  ^ l
12. u= e z sin y + e y
sin a?,
2+ = e2x + e2 + 2 e + *
" * sin (*+*)
^) (fr)*
sm 2x +
da;
, o
sin 2w
du
a?/
.
f sm o2z
.
du
dz
=2.
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 133
Hence
dx
is the slope of the curve APB at P.
PT, the tangent to APB in the plane APNM, and PT, the tangent
to CPD in the plane CPNL.
It is evident from the preceding article that the equations of PT
are
6V
,
and of PT,
*"*'* #<*&> X =X '
(2)
.
^ denote the values of &, $? , respectively, for (x', y' z').
ax' dy' dx dy
134 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
 z,==d  x )+ ~ y,)
6 (x '
z {y (3)
W'
For (3) is of the first degree with respect to the current variables
x, y, z, and is satisfied by (1), and also by (2).
x
x'y i/' , ...
jn = ?^ = K
(zz')
y ' (4)
v J
d^_ dz^_
dx' dy'
The angles made by the tangent plane with the coordinate planes are
equal to the inclinations of the normal to the coordinate axes.
dj_ dz[
?
_1
dx' ' dy'
dz; w (5)
dx dy'
dz
dx
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 135
(DM!)
For the inclination of the tangent plane to XY, we have from (7),
=v(IJ + (SJ
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equations of the tangent plane and normal, to the
sphere x 2 y 2 + z = a2 at (V, y,' z').
,
dz _ x dz _ y t
y
dx z' By z
Hence =
dz'
dx
x'
z'
,
dz'
Oy
= y'

;
z'
1 = ^ 1 =  1,  = 2 = . Ans.
x' y' z' x y' z'
3x 2
y + 2z = 0,
2 2
at (x', y\ z').
^^ = y^ = z ~ z
'
Ans. 3xx'yy'+2zz' = 0,
3 a;' y' 2z'
x2
+ 2y + 3z =20, 2 2
Similarly,
J
is the result of three successive differentiations,
dyd.r
two with respect and one with respect to y. It will now be shown
to x,
that this result is independent of the order of these differentiations.
*\ n
In other words, the operations and are commutative.
dx dy
. That is,
dydx dxdy dydx 2 dxdydx dx*dy
to prove that
fe)"Sfe>
Supposing x to change in (1), y being constant,
Ay\Ax) Ay Ax
A (*^\ = f( x + Ax y + A
Ax\Ay)
> y) f( x + Aa: > y) f(x > y + A ^) + f fa y) .
Ax Ay
Hence
/A\ A/Aii\
(3)J
Ay\AxJ Ax\Ay)
The mean value theorem, (2), Art. 90, may be expressed in the
form
As
= f'(x+0>Ax), where u =f(x). 0< 6< 1.
138 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
= fx {X + &1 '
AX V) =fyx(X + ^' AX V + $rAy) '
Similarly, ^=f(
Ay
x ,y + B^Ay),
Taking the limits as Aaj, A?/, approach zero, and assuming the
functions involved to be continuous,
fyx(%,y)=fxy(%,y)
mi
That
,
is, =
d fdu\
ay\axj
d fdu\
dx\&yj
or
d u
__
ay ax
2
d u
= _
2
ax ay
d 3u
= d
2
fdu\ = d2 fdu\ = &u
Thus 2
dydx dydx\dx) dxdy\dxj dxdydx
d d 2u \ d d 2u \ d 3u
= f f
dx\dydxj dx\dxdyj dx 2 dy
dx ay
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 139
EXAMPLES
A erlfy
dx dy
=
dy dx
in Lxs. lo.
1. u = ax + l) /
!
, 2. w = fBylog?. 3. ?* = (a; + y) e*.
ay + bx y
4 4
d a d u d*u
4. u = a.x* f 6 Saf^ + 8
c?/
4
,
dx2 dy 2 dx dy dx dy dx dy 2 dx
oxdy
.
2/
odhi
2
dy z
1/ y
8. , = ,= tan' 2  r tan 5, ^ =
n / ,. , \ a d 2q ,
1 dq .
2
1 d q A
2
d> r 5?' r2 d#
10. u = log (e
*
+ e" + <*) t4V = 2e^+ 3 .
dxdydz
11. i^ztan 1
,
dar
+ dy + dz = o.
?/
10
12. u
i /".>,
= log (ar ^
f y + z ),
2 2
d 2ii
dx
+ :
2
. d 2u
t=2
dy
+ dz
,
d 2u
2
1
x2 \y 2 \z 2
*
= e0,9,0
* " V *
io 999,00').
 yze 999 ? 1%,
U IV
13. u + z.cre + afyV, ^ ^
+ er + e 2
.
K y) K J)
dt dt dt
Cj7/
ox
= 3 x y 6 xy 2 2
,
= x 6x
fi?f
dy
z 2
y.
dn
aii
in (2) and (3) is called the total derivative, and du in (4) the total
differential, of u.
We proceed to show that (3) and (4) are true for any function of
x and y.
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 141
and A x u, A L/
u, the partial increments, when x and y vary separately,
let
= f(x, y),
u x and y being functions of t.
u'=r\x + Ax,y),
u"=f(x + Ax,y + Ay).
Then Axm = u' it,
A u' = w"
y
m',
Ait = u" m.
Hence Am = A m + A,.M
x
r
At Aa A Ay At
Taking the limits of each member, as At, and consequently Ax, Ay,
approach zero,
clu
= dudx du dy
(5)
K }
dt dxdt dy dt'
since the limit of u' is u.
du = dx + dy
J w
(6)
dx dy
dt
~ dx dt dy dt dz dt'
^
and ri = ^rl< + ^dy + ^dz (8)
ox dy dz
du
ox
,
tfaj = d,
7
tt _
cht
dy
dy = dw,
, , du
dz

,
cZz = d u,
1
z
that is, the total differential of m is the sum of its partial differentials.
142 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
If in (5) we suppose t == x,
du^du 3udy_
and (5) becomes
dx ox
+ By dx
(9)
,
whence =
du
dx
du
dx
+ du dv
dy dx
. ,
h
du dz
=
dz dx
/iAN
(10)
'
EXAMPLES
Find the total derivative of w by (5) or (7) in the three following :
1. u=f(x,y,z), where x = t
2
} y = 1?, z.
2 t 4 ^ t
2
 2
dt dx dy t dz'
2. w = log (x ~ y
2 2
), where x = a cos t, y = a sin t.
^ =  2 tan 2
dt
t.
h = ^+(2xl)^ + (3x*2x)^.
(
v K )
dx dx dy dz
+x
'
2
da? 1
6. u = ax + 2 6y + cy
2 2
,
du = 2 (ax + &?/) da; + 2 (6aj + c#) dy.
v y
8 u = l
rr
sin i( x + y) du = sinydxsmxdy m
9 . v. = ax + ty + cz + 2/#2 + 2
2 2 2
graj + 2 fta#,
du =2 (ax + hy+gz) dx + 2(hx + by+fz) dy + 2(gx +Jy + cz)dz.
11. ?/ = tan 2
a:tair?/tairz, du = 4uf^ + ^_ + __^_\
\sin2a; sin2y sin 2zy
If the variable t in (5) and (7) denotes the time, we have the re
dA =
dt
c ,db
 sin^l
2 dt
,
V
b

2
sm^lA
dc
dt
. be
2
cos AA dA
dt
15. In Ex. 12, at what rate is the side opposite the given angle
increasing ? Ans. 8.63 in. per sec.
+ (*,y)=o (i)
du _ du da dy
dx dx dy dx
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 145
But by (1) x and y must have such values that u may be zero, that
du du dy _
Hence = 0,
dx By dx
du
and ^
dy = __
_ dx
(2)
dx du
dy
dx
J?
 3 a^ + 2 ar, f?
= 2 &y + 3 *y.
o.r dy
dy
= 3.iy+ 2ay = 3ay + 2y 2
By (2)
cfa 2^ + 3a^?/
2 " 2z 2 + 3a*/'
In the same way find the first derivatives in the examples of Art. 67
to f(x+7i,y+k),
+
i /i2
* /( ^ +2J
^ f(x > *>+"/<* + .. (2)
where (h
V dx
h&
dyj
) is to be expanded by the Binomial Theore m, as
if h and k~ were the two terms of the binomial, and the result
dx dy
ing terms applied separately tof(x } y).
+ (*s +
*S
+,
s)
i
^^ f> +: 
EXAM PLES
1. Expand log (a? + h) log (y + A).
T
Let
. ,
u =/(.i\ y)
N
= log x log y,
i i
d>/
dx
= a^y = ,
ay
x
los:
a;
,
d?< losr
?/
2
d 2 ?? _ log?/ 32 m _ 1 d' u _ log re
?
2
d.r ar dyda; scy* dy~ y
i loga5+
logy
. .
,
4 log?/ H
a; *& xy 5
2y
2/
2. (a + A) 3
(y + A) = xY + 3 A.r y + 2 fc^y
2 2 2
+ 3 h xy + 6 AAa; y + A~V +
2 2 2
sin(a;y) + .
CHAPTER XII
dy
By (1), Art. 56, = _ (1)
dx dx
dy
By Art. 56,
dry_dL dy_d_dy dy
(3),
dx2 dxdx dydx dx
d 2x
d dy _ d 1 dy 2
From
dy dx ~ dy dx ~
(1),
(ax*
dy [dy,
d?x
d2y _ dy2
dx2 ~
(2)
dPj[_dL d^_dL
W
fdx\ 3
d^y dy
Similarly,
dx3 dx dx 2 dy dx 2 dx
2
fd x\
2
_ dx (Px
d d 2y \dy 2) dydy 3
From (2),
dy dx 2 dx^ 4
dy
fdrx^ 2 _ dx d x 3
148
CHANGE OF THE VARIABLES IN DERIVATIVES 149
dy d*y effy
dx dar dx?
By
J " Art. 56,'
(3),
v
*
dx
= **.
dz dx
Similarly, we find
Then *V = 3z ^.2
dx dx
^
dx
=3
6 f*Y+
\dxj
18**^ + 3*^.
dxdx dx 2 3
150 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
in terms of 2 a _Jl
where a; is a given function of z.
dz dz 2 dz 6
This is changing the independent variable from x to z.
dy
By dy _ dy dz _ dz
(3), Art. 56,
dx dz dx dx
dz
d fdy\
d*y dL fay \dz _dz\dx)
=
dx2 dz \dx )dx~ dx y
dz
2 2
dx d y dy d x
dz dz 2 dz dz 2
dy _ dy dz
dx dz dx
But
dx _ Z
2 dz _ z~ 2
dz~ '
~dx~~3'
d 2y _ d_ fdy\ _ d_ fdy\ dz
dx2 dx\dx) dz\dxjdx
From(l),
v *(&\u.(f**!i r*\.
" dz\dx) S\ dz 2 dz)
Similarly, S#(V.
dar dz \darj dx
From (2),
v h */*3t\ = */V^ 6z^^+ 10z~^
2
dz\dx J 9\ dz" dz 2 dz
Hence SU
dx3
A(r*S* 6r^+10 *+$L\
27 V c?2
3
dz 2 dz
1
EXAMPLES
Change the independent variable from x to y in the two following
equations
1. 3 (W **  *W= 3
0. 4s. *5s + &= 0.
yiry dx\dxj dsccfcc dy dy 2
TTFW' y
iK ^2^Y=eos**.
da;
2
Veto:/
v
'cfo3 dxdx 2
Change the independent variable from x to z in the following
equations
,J
'/.' ./' 'A'' (for C?Z
J
das' 1 + a^rfx (1 +z) 2 2
ciz
J
152 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
^ s .
4^12^f9^2/
dr dr dz
= 0.
8. ^^ + 6^ 4
+ 9^ + 3^ + 3
2/ = ^^, a; = e*.
da; dx dar da;
^ d?
+ d**
+2/ *'
to express
dx
 and
dy
in terms of
dr
and
dO
, where x, y, are rec
du _ du dr ,
du dO ,^ .
dx dr dx d6 dx
du_dudr dudO ^x
dy~drdy <j$dy
U
The values of
dx
,
ay
,
oxdy
, , are now to be found from the rela
Differentiating, we find
dx r 8y r
86 _ y _ sin 6 86 _ x _ cosfl
dx x2 + y r '
8y x2 +y 2
r
8u
dx
= cos08u
dr
sin 6
r
8u
86
,
//IN
(4)
8u
= sm0
8u
+ cos
8u * . 6 /trx
(5)
8y dr r 86
121. Transformation of
dxr
A
8y 2
from Rectangular to Polar Co
*\
8rv
L _ 8_(8u\_
CS
q 8 (8u\_ sin 6 8 (8u\ ,*.
(8v\_
8 2
q8 h sinfl 8 u
2
sin fl da ,o\
8r\8x)~ dr 2
8r86 r2 8$
K)
r
=
dhi
dx 2
ad u
cos 2 6
dr2
2
2 sin
r
cos dhi
drdd
,
1
sin 2
r
2
d
d$
2
u
2
,
1
sin 2
r
du
dr
d 2u _
2 a dhi 2 sin cos d2u cos 2 d 2u cos 2 6 du
dy 2 dr2 r drdO r2 dO 2 r dr
2 sin cos du
.(5)
d$
c%
^ 2u . d 2u
dhi _ d5 2
u . 1 du . 1 d 2u
2 2 2 2
dx dy dr r dr r d&
:
CHAPTER XIII
If u=f(x,y),
we find that a necessary condition for both (a) and (6) is that
ox
= 0, and = 0,
dy
when x = a, y = b.
155
156 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
that is jrf(
ox
x ' ^ = > wnen x =a > V =b>
T f(%, V) = 0, when a; = a, y = b.
dy
also
6SY<SS
\dy oxJ dx dy 2 2 < 2>
?!f o ^ ^u
dx '
dy '
dz
and (^L\< d u d u 2
2
2
\dx dy) dx dy 2
MAXIMA AND MINIMA OF FUNCTIONS 157
2
d u
For a maximum <0, and A<0;
dx2
d2u d2u dh
2*
dx dx dy dx dz
d2u d 2u d 2u
where A = 2'
dx dy dy dy dz
d 2u d2u d2u
dx dz dy dz dz1
EXAMPLES
1. Find the maximum value of
u = 3 axy xP y3 .
Here ^
dx
= 3ay3x =3axSy
dy
2
,
2
.
^j2
=_6flj a
> zi2
=  a6 y> r~^ =Sa"
dx dy dx dy
whence x = 0, y = 0; or x = a, y = a.
t,
dx
= 0,
dy
= =
, 0,
dx dy
3ct,
= n6
d u

dx
2

2
a, d2
u a
by
= ba,

2
d2u
dx By
= 6o a,
t + vl + t 1 (1)
a2 fr c
2
c a2 b
1
. A 2a.
2
2 2 \
50a52/
From
dx
= and
dy
= 0, we find, as the only values satisfying
x= , y = which give
V3 V3
^ 9 '
fy
2
9 '
da% 9
'
.,;
As these values satisfy (2) and (3), Art. 123, it follows that xyz is
a maximum when
, _ a _ b c
~
a 3 V3 V3
The maximum value of xyz is
3v3
ar + y + + x 2 z xy
2
z
2
a minimum. A #= 2 y=,1 = 1. i
Ans. , 2
3 3
3tt
25
<r.
2
^+ z/
2
+i
8. Find the maximum value of afyV, subject to the condition
2x + 3yt4z = a Ans.
10. Divide a into three parts such, that their continued product
may be the greatest possible.
dx
= ay2xyy = 2
0,
oy
= axx*2xy = 0.
Note. When, from the nature of the problem, it is evident that there is
m n p m + n+p
12. Divide 30 into four parts such that the continued product of
the first, the square of the second, the cube of the third, and the
fourth power of the fourth, may be a maximum.
Ans. 3, 6, 9, 12.
3
13. Given the volume a of a rectangular parallel opiped ; find
when the surface is a minimum.
Ans. When the parallelopiped is a cube.
is a minimum.
^ <*, + *, + **), <* + *+*>,
Ans.
4 A 2
a2 + &2 + c 2
^ +S2
+ S1
2 2
Ans.
*
a b c 3V3
u = mx^z
,
ax + by + cz
minimum value of u.
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
Y
f 2a
162
CURVES FOR REFERENCE 163
8 a3
126. The Witch of Agnesi, y =
a2 44 a 2
b 3
f V
s
3 axy = 0.
The point A, the vertex of
the loop, is
fSa S_a\
\2> 2/
The equation of the asymp a o
tote MN is
a
x + y + a = 0.
3 a tan 6 sec 6
l + tan 8
164 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
OL=OL' = a.
Y
The line LL' is the latus rectum ; its middle point F, the focus
OFM, the axis of the parabola ; A the middle point of OF, the vertex.
CURVES FOR REFERENCE 165
a 2 y= x 2 , ay 2 = x3 .
166 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
y= sm<sm3<.
2. 2. 2
a;
3
+y 3 a3 
The equation is
POLAR COORDINATES
135. The Circle, r = a sin $.
136. "
The Spiral of Archimedes, r = aO.
In this
curve r is
proportional
to 6. Lay
ing off
r = OA,
when
= 2tt,
then
0B = 2 0A, OC = SOA.
The dotted portion corresponds to negative values of 6.
In this curve r
varies inversely as
0. The line MN
is an asymptote,
which the curve
approaches, as 6
approaches zero.
Since r=0 only
when = oo , it fol
but if we suppose
negative, / decreases
as 6 numerically in
creases. Since r=0
only when 0=x:,
it follows that an
infinite number of
retrograde revolu
tions from A is re
ameter, a) as it rollsupon
an equal fixed circle OA.
Or it may be constructed
by drawing through 0, any
line OB in the circle OA,
and producing OR to Q and
Q', making BQ=RQ'=OA.
The given equation fol
2
142. The Equilateral Hyperbola, r cos 2
The origin
is the
centre, of the
hyperbola,
and the in
itial line OX
is the trans
verse axis.
If Or is
taken as the
initial line,
the equation
of the hyper
bola is
2
r sin 2 6= 2
.
2
r=a 2
cos 2 0.
r2 =a 2
sin 2 6.
CHAPTER XV
DIRECTION OF CURVES. TANGENTS AND NORMALS
PTX=<j>, PT'X=cf>',
tan<fr f
 tan<
tan/= ft.
(i)
v
l+tan<'tan< '
a* + 3^ 13, . . .
(2)
2y 2 = 9x. . . .
(3)
Differentiating (2),
^
dx
=  = ? forP, tan< = 2
3*
y 3
dy 9
From (3), =?forP, tan <f>'
=
dx 4cy
17
Substituting in (1), tan/ 1=70 33',
EXAMPLES
1. Find the direction at the origin of the curve,
(a 4 b )y = x (x  a)  b x.
i 4 4
Ans. 45 with OX.
the curve, y
2
+ ay = 2 ax. Ans. f 1, V ( 4, 11)
y
1
= 1 , at the point (a, a). Ans. , 2 a.
Li (X X Li
5. Show
parabola (Art. 129),
that the sum
#
iii
+ =
2
of the intercepts of the tangent to the
y
2
a2 , is equal to a.
6. Show that the area of the triangle intercepted from the co
ordinate axes by the tangent to the hyperbola,
2 xy =a 2
, is equal to a2 .
7. Show that the part of the tangent to the hypocycloid (Art. 132),
2 2 2
a 3
, intercepted between the coordinate axes, is equal to a,
'
7
+ 2 ' 3 2~ '
y
2
= ax, 2 x2 +y =6
2 2
,
y
2
= 2 ax + a 2
, and #2 = 2 %+6 2
,
1
4ns. tan
V2
148. Equations of the Tangent and Normal. Having given the
equation of a curve y=f(x), let it be required to find the equation
of a straight line tangent to it at a given point.
.
But since the line is to be tangent to the given curve, we must have,
by Art. 17,
m = tan (f>
dx'
(
^ being derived from the equation of the given curve y =f(x),
If we denote
ii m\
this by
dx'
, we have, substituting m = ^
dx'
in
equation (1),
yy'=%(**), (2)
dx'
For example, find the equations of the tangent and normal to the
circle x2 + if = a 2 at the point (x', y').
,
tw
= , from which & =
y dx' y'
xx' \yy'=x' 2
+ y' = a
2 2
.
yy'=,(xx'),
X
which reduces to x'y = y'x.
EXAMPLES
Find the equations of the tangent and normal to each of the three
following curves at the point (x'} y')
1 . The parabola, y
2
= 4 ax.
Ans. yy' =2 a{x + x'), 2a(y y')+y'(x x ) = 0. r
2. The ellipse, ^2
+^ = 1. 2
a b
Ans. ^ + WL = 1, b x'(y
2  y')= a y'(x 
2
a?').
5. Find the equations of tangent and normal at the point (V, y')
Ans. ^^
x y
= 3, 2xx' + 5yy' = 2x' + 5y'2 2
.
:
Ans. x + 2y = ka, y = 2 x 3 a.
8. Find the equation of the tangent at the point (x', y') to the
curve, Xs y + xy = a
2 3
.
10. :c + y = 2e xy
, at (1, 1). Ans. 3y = x{2, 3^ + y = 4.
\aj \bj a b
x2
+ y 3y =
2
14:, parallel to the line, 7y = 4:X + l.
Ans. 7 2/ = 4# + 43, ly = 4 x 22.
13. Find the equations of the two normals to the hyperbola,
4 x2  9 y + 36 = 0,
2
parallel to the line, 2 y + 5 x = 0.
^[?is. 8y + 20 =65.
a;
* The limits of this work allow only a brief notice of this subject.
180 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
at an infinite distance.
We have found in Art. 146, for the intercepts of the tangent on the
coordinate axes,
dy dx
Intercept on
dx
OX x y x
dy
a= ii~
2
^ x,
t x.
Intercept on
, ^
OTTr = dy
x =y 2 ax
= ^y
y '
dx y 2
Intercept on OX = , Intercept on OY = .
x y
dy _bx_
2
bx
 b 1
dx a 2y a V^2 _2 a2
\/i
X2
b
y = ,
x.
a
y = V  ^=
a
*?(l  f)i=
a\ arj
*(l*.
a\ 2x 2
y = , the asymptotes.
EXAMPLES
Investigate the following curves with reference to asymptotes
x3
1. ? = 32  Asymptote, ?/= z.
,
3 a
2. y
3
= 6x 2 5
or . Asymptote, a; + y = 2.
3. The cissoid (Art. 125) y 2 = ^ Asymptote, a; = 2a.
182 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
4.
3
a?+ =a ?/
3 3
. Asymptote, x + y = 0.
5. (a? 2 a)?/ = x a 2
Asymptotes, # = 2 a, x + a =
3 3
. ?/.
Then tanPQP = ^ =
RQ r + A> rcos A0 Ar + 2rsin 2
^
sin A0
A0
.
sin A0
Ar
f r

sin
A6
2
A0 2 A0
d0
Polar subnormal
= r cot Y = dr
xb
dO
tan ^tani/r
and tan I a)
1 + tan i// tan ^
r = asin20, (2)
tan20 = l.
184 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The curves are that in Art. 144, and the same curve revolved 45 c
EXAMPLES
1. In the circle (Art. 135), r a sin 6, find if/ and <.
constant.
5. In the cardioid (Art. 141), r = a (1 cos 0), find <, ^, and the
polar subtangent.
Ans. <f>
=
z
; if/
= 
z
; subtangent = 2 a tan  sin
z
2
9. Show that the spiral of Archimedes (Art. 136), r = ad, and the
reciprocal spiral (Art. 137), rO = a, intersect at right angles.
r =: m sec ,
2'
r = n cosec 2'

12. Find the angle of the intersection between the circle (Art. 135),
r = a sin 0, and the curve (Art. 144), r = a sin 2 6.
Ans. At origin 0 ; at two other points, tan 1 3 V3 = 79 6'.
13. Find the angle of intersection between the circle (Art. 135),
r = 2 a cos 6, and the cissoid (Art. 125), r = 2 a sin tan 0.
Ans. tan 1 2.
14. At v% hat angle does the straight line, r cos 6 = 2a, intersect the
circle (Art. 135), r = 5 a sin 6 ? ^ tan
_, 3
4
Show
15. that the equilateral hyperbolas (Art. 142), r2 sin 2 6 =a 2
,
/cos 26 = b 2
, intersect at right angles.
186 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Ans. 2 sin 1
PQ = PQ arcPQ
PR arcPQ* PR '
since
Lim _p_e_ =1 ,
arcPQ
Lim^=l4m^
P# PR
T . As c?s
Ax dx
ds
Hence sec< =
dx'
or
dx V [dxj
^ = Lim ^ = Lim
ar
sec \b
r = Lim sec FOR
RQ RQ
^ = Lim
RQ
J.
As
As As A0
A0 AF T
ds
.
sec ^
Y = Lim
T As
==
ds d9
(i)
RQ dr dr
dO
Hence = Vl+tan
V' + <J,
2
^ i/>
(2)
r
<l_'l*<]r_ . .
/'*'
(3)
Vctf
188 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
It may be noticed that these relations (1), (2), and (3), are cor
rectly represented by a right triangle, whose hypothenuse is ds, sides
dr and rdd, and angle between dr and ds, \p.
Suppose ^ >
oar
0, that is, ( > 0; in other words, the derivative
dx\dxj
)
189
190 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We then have the case of the second figure, where the slope de
creases as P P
we pass from 1 to 2 The curve is then concave down
.
wards.
^=
dx2
(1)
when J=
dx2
oc
d 2y_
Here 3(2a>).
dx2
Putting this equal to zero, we have for the required point of in
EXAM PLES
Find the points of inflexion and the direction of curvature of the
five following curves
1. y=(riy.
Ans. x= ; concave downwards between these points, con
V3
cave upwards elsewhere.
2. y = x*  16 x" + 42 x  28 x. 2
3. a 4y = x (x a) + a x. 4 A
a r>
a?
5. The curve, y
a? + 3 a*
Ans. [3a, j, (0,0), (3 a, ); concave upwards on the
6 y = a4:Xx a
4t
'
m
y=
*. Ans. x = 2a.
7.
T
(x a) 2
8.i/ = (# 2
f a?) e
x
. Ans. x = and a; = 3.
10 .
gy
+ g)U. ^ . .
11. aV = a  6
(Art. 134). Ans. x=% ^21  3 V33.
6
CHAPTER XVII
CURVATURE. RADIUS OF CURVATURE. EVOLUTE AND
INVOLUTE
gent and the arc described by the point of contact. In other words,
it is the angle described by the tangent while the point describes a unit
of arc.
Suppose the point Pto move in the circle AQ.
Let s denote its distance AP
from some initial position A }
and
<j> the angle PTXmade by the tangent PT
with OX.
Then as the point moves from P to Q, s is increased by PQ = As,
and <f>
by the angle QRK= A<.
As the point describes the arc As, the tangent turns through the
angle A(.
194 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
form, '
is then equal
^ to
As
But
arc PQ = CP (angle PCQ) ;
that is,
As = rA<f>, ^ =
As r
1
Then its curvature is
A<j>
=
~ 50'
As
in circular measure = 1
50
8' 45".
161. Variable Curvature. For all curves except the circle the
curvature varies as we move along the curve. In moving over the
arc As, * is the mean curvature throughout the arc. The curva
As
ture at the beginning of this arc is more nearly equal to *, the
we take As.
shorter
Hence the curvature at any point of a curve is equal to
L<ini As=o

As
7
as
CURVATURE. RADIUS OF CURVATURE 195
at P. This can be
VL
easily proved. / p!v
At P the circle and AJ \
p=
ds
^ m
(1)
ds
dcf> d<f>
dx
Also, tand> = ^,
dx
<f> = tan 1
^\
\dxj
2
dx'
Differentiating, ^>
dcf>
= ^ (2)
dx 1+ (^y
\dxj
Mm
3
2
Hence P= ^ d 2y
^
dx2
.
Kf)t
dtf
Differentiating, *_**, ^ = _J
Substituting in (3), we find
a(4 a +9x)i
P==
Wa
ds_
d* do
We mayJ write p
H
d<f> d
dO
* *'
06 dO
198 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
dr r dr
dO ld$)
'dr\ _ rd r 2
d$J
.2,2^Yr
\d0)__
dO 2
dcf>
Substituting,
dO dr
dO
.2,[dr
\dO.
Hence P = (1)
^y d0 2
EXAMPLES
Find the radius of curvature of the following curves :
1. y = (xl) 2
(x2), at (1, 0) and (2, 0). Ana. p =\ and L
2 Y2
2. ?/ = log x, when a; =f Ans. p = 2.
6. The ellipse, t.
ar
+ 1 = 1.
b
Am. P = W+ a 464
**)* .
x* + y + 10 x 4 y + 20 =
2
is constant, and equal to 3.
4 3
dx dx \dxj
pCOS cji
d 2y~
dx 2
Hence dy
dx
1 +
~y =2/ + d*y
(2)
2 2
dx dx
CURVATURE. RADIUS OF CURVATURE 201
y 4 ax.
Here J a?x ?, ^ = crx '
dx '
dx2 2
/3
?
= i(2) 3
.
OC=2a = 2 0F.
202 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
of the ellipse, 9 2
+2 =1.
a2 b
2
= _b
2
dy x d 2y
2
= __&*_ #
dx ay dx2 a 2y
(Art. 66)
x3
a3 a2
aa
 b*
y
b
s
s
a2
M b2
'
;
7
'
In the figure F and _F' are outside the ellipse, but if the eccentric
ity is decreased, so that a < b V2, these points fall within the ellipse.
= y h p cos <f>.
*
Differentiating with
respect to s,
da _ dx dp
ds ds ds
ds ds ds
coscppsincp^. (2)
Substituting in (1),
d^ dp
(4)
ds ds
+ M?Y
daV fdp\*
0T
(d*y = (dp
fdp\
dsj \dsj \dsj ' \ds J \dsj'
where s
r
denotes the length of the arc of the evolute m&asured from
a fixed point. Hence,
ds ds ds\ J
P (7
3 3, is equal to the corresponding included arc of the evolute CC X Z.
170. From the two properties of Arts. 168 and 169, it follows that
the involute AB may be described by the end of a string unwound
from the evolute UK. From this property the word evolute is
derived.
It will be noticed that a curve has only one evolute, but an infinite
number of involutes, as may be seen by varying the length of the
string which is unwound.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the coordinates of the centre of curvature of the cubical
parabola (Art. 130), ahj = x\ a< lg x< ^_9^
2
6ax 2 a4
(Art. 128), y = e

+ <T).
Ans.
^ins. a
= xx^^/ 2_ a 2
ya j p == 2y.
relation a + 3
/3 (as + y).
( + j8)* + (  P)*=2a\.
6. Given the equation of the equilateral hyperbola 2 xy a 2
,
(+/^(a/?)3 = 2al
f = _  x (X
. Ans. 4096 asa + 1152 a + 27 ^ = 0.
2 2
CHAPTER XVIII
value of
dx
also is the same for
,
must all have the same values, respectively, taken from the equations
of both curves : and must have different values.
dx"
172. When the Order of Contact is Even, the Curves cross at the Point
of Contact ; but when the Order is Odd, they do not cross. Let us dis
tinguish the ordinates of the two curves by
Let OM=a, MM =
1 h.
F
>
R^rT
p^ ^^ _
.
y%~
or . F s
^y^
rs
/
//
//
//
/
' /
/ Qs QyY
/
/ /
// p
7
2
J M9 M Mj X M. M Mi
a \o
^(a)^'(a)V"(a)V"() (1)
13
208 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
For sufficiently small values of h the sign of the lowest power de
termines that of the second member, and hence the sign of PQ Y X
will
remain unchanged when li is substituted for h, giving PQ 2 2, as in
the first figure.
Thus when the contact is of the first order, the curves do not cross
at the point of contact.
Again, suppose the contact of the second order ; then
 *"'()]  r ()] +
=i V "'()
+ jj
[+"()
= +
The equation of the straight line, y ax b, having only two
arbitrary constants, can satisfy only two of these conditions. Hence
a straight line can have contact of the first order with a given curve,
and cannot, in general, have contact of a higher order.
The equation of the circle x2 + y 2 \ ax + by + c = 0, having three
arbitrary constants, can satisfy three of the conditions. Hence the
circle may have contact of the second order with a given curve.
Such a circle is called the osculating circle.
Similarly, the parabola, whose equation contains four constants,
may have and the general conic, whose
contact of the third order ;
tices, that no circle tangent at these points would cross the curve at
the point of contact. Hence, by Art. 172, the order of contact is
y =/()
(xa?+(ijby=^ (1)
210 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(2)
HW +(y  b)d
A= (3)
dx 2
dy
dx
1 + f^V"
1
dx
From (2), x a = (5)
c^y
2
dx
1 iff
dx
(6)
dx ) 2
dy
dx
x\_ \dx \dx)
Hence a x ,
h = y+
.
fTs
()
d*y
2
>
^f' 2
dx dx
and
Wt (8)
2
C#
ORDER OF CONTACT. OSCULATING CIRCLE 211
circle but since the osculating circle bv definition has contact of the
;
second order with the given curve, these quantities will have the
same values if derived from the equation of this curve y=f(x), and
applied to the point of contact.
By comparing (7) and (8) with the expressions for a, ft,
and p, in
Arts. 163, 165, it is evident that the osculating circle is the same as
the circle of curvature.
^
dx
= 0.
dyfdy
3
* x[ ']
from which tlL = f\ .
dx* im(<&\*
\dx)
(xaf+(yby=r\
Thus we obtain, both for the curve and the circle, the same ex
EXAMPLES
1. Find the order of contact of the two curves,
y = x?, and y = 3 x 3 x + 1.
2
y =x 3
, y = 3 x 3 x + 1,
2
'
= 6aj3,
dx dx
d2y_
bX = 6,
dx> dx2
^=
da?
6,
'
d3y_
dx?~
= 0.
When x = 1, ^
dy
dx
= 3, in both curves
2. Find the order of contact of the parabola, 4?/= a?2 and the ,
y = x + l + a(x l) 2
,
xy 3x 1? Ans. a 1.
The quantity a which remains constant for any one curve of the
series, but varies as we pass from one curve to another, is called the
tf + b = tf
2
m
= ax f
.
y
a
y = ax + m (1)
and y = (a + (2)
a +h
From (1) and (2) as simultaneous
equations, we can find the inters
tion of the two lines. Subtracting (1) from (2),
216 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
= to hm
,
a(a + A)
or = (3)
x= m (2a + h)m . . . . . (4 )
,
m 2 m
ar a
y
2
= 4 ma?,
which, being independent of a, is the equation of the locus of the in
tersection of any two consecutive lines, that is, the equation of the
required envelope.
The figure shows the straight lines, and the envelope, which is a
parabola.
f(x,y,a) = 0,
which, by varying the parameter a, represents the series of curves.
To find the intersection of any two curves of the series, we com
bine
f(x,y,a) = Q, (1)
ENVELOPES 217
/(.r,2/,) = (4)
Thus equations (1) and (4) determine the intersection of two con
secutive curves. By
eliminating a between (1) and (4) we shall
obtain the equation of the locus of these ultimate intersections,
which is the equation of the envelope.
y = ax + m
.
= x 
a2
dn'
in which the variable parameter is x', the quantities y', ~, being
dx'
functions of x'. Differentiating (1) with reference to x', we have
\dx'
y=y + , ,
dx' 2
dy'
x = x'
dx' HSf\
d 2y'
dx' 2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the envelope of the series of straight lines represented by
y 2 mx f m 4
, m being the variable parameter.
Differentiating the given equation with reference to m,
= 2^ + 4m 3
.
y
2
= a (x a), a being the variable parameter. Ans. ky2 = x2 .
ENVELOPES 219
y = ni (x 2 a) a s
. Ans. 21aif = 4 (x 2 a) 3
.
by = ax tan <j> (a
2
b) 2
sin <j>,
,+=i a)
a cr
ab =k 2
, (2)
2
calling the constant area nk .
K
a
+ &1,
k 4
(3)
b da + a db = . (6)
= 2 2 W
(7)
a b
4 x 2y 2 = &4 .
8. Find the envelope of the circles whose diameters are the double
ordinates of the parabola y
2
= 4 ax. Ans. y 2 = 4 a (a + x).
l 9
2 2 2
when a +b= fc. 4ns. #3 + 2/
3
=& 3
.
11. Find the envelope of the circles passing through the origin,
y = 4 ax.
2
whose centres are on the parabola
Ans. (x + 2a)y 2 + x? = 0.
ENVELOPES 221
a~ o
13. Pind the envelope of the ellipses whose axes coincide, and
such that the distance between the extremities of the major and
minor axes is constant and equal to k.
CHAPTER XX
INTEGRATION. STANDARD FORMS

2zdx = :c
2
, and not j 2x = xr.
223
224
In other words,
differential is <^{x)dx
/d is
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
the inverse of
definition of
; the symbol
I

d,' and not of
<1>(x)dx is
dx
I 2 x dx = x* + 2, or I 2 x dx = x 5,2
as well as
J
2 x dx =x 2
;
In general
J
2 x dx =x + 2
(7,
it follows that
it follows that 
aclu =a j
dw.
That is, a constant factor may be transferred from one side of the
I. frcfeJfL.
J nf1
II.
Jy = logu.
III.
J
Ca*du= ,
log a
/e"du = e
u
.
[
V.
r
. I
j cos u du = sin u.
IX. 
sec u tan udu = sec w.
X.
J
cosec u cot icdu = cosec w.
XI. j
tan it du = log sec u.
XIII. j
sec u du = log (sec w + tan w) = log tan f
7T
 +2
, tfc
XIV. I
cosec u du = log (cosec u cot w) = log tan 
<S ^txt
XV. C du = tan
j
1 1 u
,
,
i
or = 1
cot
,_i1 u

J vr + a a a 2
a a
S XVI.
vvt ua
C ^ du = 1log 1 a
\X
,
J vr a? 2 a

u\ a
i
, or = log
2 a
,
a +u
XVII.
XVII. f
I =
Vcr u2
= sin *
a
, or = cos l

a
XVIII. r_J?^=
du_
log (u+v^tf)
/ VV a 2 y
ATT AT
XIX. C
I
WU
sec _1 ,
J '<*.
or = cosec
J M Vw _ a
2 2 a a a a
"
f V2 aw w =
r/
XX. vers '
^ 2 a
:
To derive I.,
therefore
n+1
= f(n + l)u n du = (n + 1) Cu n du, by (c), Art. 185.
u n+l
=
/ u
n
du
n +1
,j
d i
log u = du
u
/
v l
du =
u
=oo
EXAMPLES
Integrate the following expressions
1. CaHkx.
j
A
<hr = '
+ C, adding the constant of integration C, according to
2. C(x 2 + l)hdx.
_l (a;
2
+ l)f _0g_+l}j
2 3 3
2
3
r (a; a )cfa = l %3a  3a )(fo
2 2
/
2 2
'
J x*3a x 3 J 3a x
2
a;
3 2
6.
*/
f(aj 2 2)Vcto= ^ +
10
}
4
8
o
2* + 4
<7.
7. f(a^2) 3a?da; =
^~ 2 )
4
0.
y 8
INTEGRATION. STANDARD FORMS 229
CI \ }\
3
7
9ctiv$ ,
9oU x ,
~
2a
3
10 (7 *F 4 /
Y. 4a# 12 a , ,
11,4a*',
v *a ^
13a* 7a* 5^
11.
^ + i^+
jyi + aJlY(to = 6 + 12**3ar* + 0.
12.
J
fcil ^ = ^^ + S
32,log y+ a
7/ 3 2
J xi 7 4
6
14.
JV + 1)
5
x2 da; = (
a?3
+ 1 ) + C.
n
15. j%.x~ + 6)Wi\ 16. C(ax \b) dx.
log dx
23. dx. 24. j (a 10 x)
f. e
x
\xe x
25 
$\J^zf + *
e
2x
da. 26.
/( sin5 cos (9 ^6>.
27. f(e + 2
* sin 20)(e 2 + cos 20)d0.
30. f(sinm w
f cos 0) sin cos 6 dO.
1
sin a fa da
34
r 35
'
J(l + x~) tan 1 a
36 
/iSri log(4 * 3> +c 
37
Jfffi^ = ^^
2 4
1(
33
J 2xl 3 2 2 4 V y
INTEGRATION. STANDARD FORMS 231
6 a s 2
on
39.
Cost f b ,
dte =
ax
+ .
1
log n
(&as + a)\ + r\
,
C.
,
J bx + ;
a b
,
b~
40
J
C^LtJ^ civ =  4
x a 3
+ 2
2 
1
+a 8
log (  a) + G.
41 .
f ( r
+ flV <& = f + 2 as  fcc + (a  &)'9 log (x + 6) + <7.
y .17 }
42. f + ^ (
A '
f
<*b =  + 2 oas + 7 a * + 8 a 2 2 3
log (x  a) + C.
J xa 3
188. Proof of III. and IV. These are evidently obtained directly
from the corresponding formulae of differentiation.
EXAMPLES
.
f(^ + a* + 3b*ydx=^.+ i^ l^f
5 log a 2 log b
&e 4x 7a
, r I j , ,
1 /2a 2 9a 3 , 18a 6
fa
4.
J
I
%&*
L cto =
4
6 e3
2
h C
232 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
7. C(e x
\ + \dx. 8. fte
tan
* sec 6> e nan0) sec 0d<9.
sec
V ;
J e
2*
J J log(6 2 )
log (a m b p )
v ;
J 21og6 log (a&) 2 log a
INTEGRALS BY V. XIV.
189. Proof of V. XIV. It is evident that V. X. are obtained
directlyfrom the corresponding formulas of differentiation.
To derive XI. and XII.,
tan udu = 
= log cos u log sec u.
J cos u
/, udu= J cot
,
I udu = log sin
(* cos
:
sinw
i
u.
/
cosec udu=
 ,7
J
Tcosec w (
I i
cot
cosec u cotu
z* 4 cosec w)
l
aw
By Trigonometry,
2 sirr 
cosec u cot u = 1 sm :
cos u
a
=
o u
2
it
= tan u
.
2,
2 sin cos
_
,
1.
Cf sm 3o x + cos o x
I
sin 
sb\ 7
ax cos 3  aj
\
. sin 5
x
+ 2cos^+C.
J
sm *
m
1 cos n! cto = m cos ^ + n sm ^ +
m n
C.
\ J
o
3. 
CI 4sin mx dx =
J COS' 0KC
:
1
(tan mx
7
??i
,, ,
J \cos6 smdj J
c>
8. I
J
f*
vers
^y = cos x 2 log (1 4 cos #) 4 C.
sm./;
da;
y
r seorf
n J
=1 , ,,, tan 4> + b) + a
a sin + & cos < a
234 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
s
+ 2Iog*1 + csin
+ f+a <
15.
\. Isin2 a?
Csin*xdx = *^+a
4
1a
lb.
J
Ccos^

2
a;
7
cfe = 
2
,
\ sin 2 x
4
.
1
^
C.
17. .
( vers 2a; dx. 18. j sin
2
x cos 2 x dx = + C.
J J x 16
in
19.
f.sin mOa sin nOn dOn =
I
. , sin

(m n)0 '
sin(m
^
+ %)0+
J ,
n
C.
2 (m n)
)
J 2 (m f w)
\
2{m n)
+ ttt r~ + ^"
2(mjw)
J ,
,
21. j
'
) f !
f C\
J 2(m w) 2 (m+n)
on
22.
J
Tcos K
 t> a? cos 2
j
o (&:= sin 3 x .
1
sin 1 x
14
,
\
n
C.
6
INTEGRATION. STANDARD FORMS 235
nA
24.
Tsm
I .r sin 2 x
.>
sm 3o .r
7
dx = 246
cos a; cos 4 a; cos 2 sc , ^
f C.
J 10 8
27. ^ = tan0sec0 +
Jf 1 + sm
O. 28. f^.
J vers
30 VI + sm x dx = C I
cos a; cfce
2 VI sin +
,
a; C.
J V 1 sin .x*
c_!_ = i
J + a a .72 2
r^^ = i f_W = i taa i
a
it ia i
?L 1 (] a
cr \aj
To derive XVII.,
du
I = I SID1.
J Va 2 < ^ }_'_!! a
\ a2
236 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
"
To derive XIX., K
du
/du 3;:;:
1 r
I
a
_ 1 SeC _ ,u '
wVw a
2 2 uJ u ly?_ a a
1
a^a 2
To derive XX.,
du
/du C a
vers"
^/2au u 2 J \u u2
\2
* a 2
or
Since tan1 ^ = 7r
cot 1
^,
a 2 a
To derive XVI.,
u2 a 2
2 a\u a u + aj
hence
du 1 Cf du du \
/ u2 a 2
2aJ \u a u + a)
 a) ~ log (M + a)] =
h [log (w
hi
log
:
J ir~ a 2 a J \a u
2
a +u
= A [log (  u)  log (a + )] = A
j a
log
a
a +U
To derive XVIII.
Then u2 a = z2 2
,
2udu = 2zdz;
therefore
du dz du + dz
z u u+z
Hence f^ =
(
C d " + (fe = log (u + z) ;
EXAM PLES
3. I
====== = sm *
\ C.
J VT25^ 5 2
dj;
4. P = I log (5 + V25 ar  4) +
a; C.
5.
^
f
r? 'r
V5 a^ + 1
=
Vo
log (ars/5 + Voa?+l) + 0.
238 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
&
J312x 2
12 2a?l^
dy C dw C dx
/ 12 f+
3*
g
'Jm<; 2 3
q
'
J 3^5*
^ V3* 2 2 '
J V2  3 a 2
.
J V3~a^T2
dx = lsec^+G
13. C
^ ^V9ar 4 2 2
dec
= vers lx
2 a? '
^
/:V ma? a?
2 m
h C.
15. f ^ =sec 1
g2 + g
J&VaV16 4
16.
^ = 1 vers
dx
f _====r vers"
_, 1
l x
8
V7 4 2 a? a?
2 7
da;
17. P = sin" 1
log Vx + C.
J a?V4 (log a?) 2
"1 +a
18
/SS^ = i l0g(^ +9)
^i
tatl
J4a?2 5
a
8 4V5 2x+V5
3 ~2
a;
=  3 V9  x 2sm ^+C. 2 l
Jf V9a?
20. da?
2 3
INTEGRATION. STANDARD FORMS 239
x
_ ___ = ^ ^T4 f 3 log (x + V.^+4) +
JfV .r + 4
21. c?.r (7.
22. C 5x
J V3.r9
1
dx = 5 V3 X  9 
3
s
V3
log (a V3 + V3 ^  9) + C.
23.
J cr siu + 6 cos 6 6
rf = Ltaii'gg4 + C.
Jf1 +
24.
cos <#> y2 V2
26. f 2J_^1
S
 = ^Iog(3cos2s+V9cos 2
2a;4) + (7.
*^ Vo cos
/
1'
2 .1
4 sin 2 i "
Ja* + 6a?+13 J (x + 3/ + 4 2 2
29.
Jf v/8 + 4 a; 4 .r
**
= f
J
_ **
 l) 2
^sin'g^
2 3
+ C.
a 9 (2 jc
30. f
'a
r7x
a7+ 2
= Jl.
V3
W (3 a?  2 + V9ar> 12 + 6) + C. a;
240 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
31. f *5 = 4,tani^4?+C.
J x2
2 ar 3 +5
 a?
a;
V31
A /si V31
V31
/' dx
32. , when a = 4 ; when a = 6 ; when a = 8.
or ax + 9
1
33. *? = tan^^^J + a
Jf(a> + a) + 2
(a; + 6) 2
Va + & 2 2
Vet + 2 1
b'
O/i
34.
r
I
^ ^= =
=== 1
 sm 1
1 4 JB 1
+n
.
C.
eos2ecW sin2e
35. = log
Jfsin 20+msin20 2m & m + sin2
2
+a
dx  
=smi 2x a b +C.
36.
JfV(aa)(& a) a&
tani(^ + +
*L = 2 a &)V3 +a
Jf
37.
a) (a? + by
(x + af(x
(a? 6V3
a /q
V3(a6)
( _ m* 3
a b 2
CHAPTER XXI
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION. CONSTANT OF IN
TEGRATION
Then AA = PMNQ.
AA > y Ax, and AA < (y + Ay) Ax,
r>y>
Ax
and
AA
Ax
< y + Ay.
Hence
rl_A
= Lim AA .'/
dx
In case the curve descends from to Q, the P above inequalities
will be reversed, but the result will be the same.
241
242 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Hence A= j
ydx= i f(x)dx.
Let
Cf(x)dx=F(x) 0}
.thatis, A when x = a.
To determine G, A= when x = a.
o 3
.
Substituting in (3),
"
3 3
EXAM PLES
1. In the curve of Ex. 1, p. 24, show that P OJIP, = ~'
Also P M M P = ^
1 1 2 2
3. Find the area included between the witch of Agnesi (Art. 126),
the axes of Xand I", and the ordinate x = 2 a. Ans. ircr.
An s. (ft
2
e + e _1 e~ 2
)
A 633
244 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
8. Find  Va~ x 2
dx, by means of the curve y = Va x2 2
, circle
about 0, radius a.
A =  Va  x +  sin  + C,
2 2 1
where C is independent of x.
Hence A= i ydx j Va 2
sc
2
cZas = Va
*
2
a,*
2
+ ^ sin 1  + (7.
10. Find J
V2 ax x 2
dx, by means of the curve y = V2 ax x' 2
.
Ans.
J
CV2axx* dx= X
^
2
V2aaa 2
f
2
sin" 1
^^
a
+ C.
Ex. 1. Determine the equation of a curve through the point (4, 3),
at every point of which the slope of the tangent is equal to the recip
rocal of twice the ordinate of the point of contact.
SIMPLE APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION 245
By the hypothesis
dy_ 1
dx 2y
from which 2ydy = dx.
Integrating, y =x+ a (1)
2= 8
y
2
= x h 5. '
Here rj
}
dv==gdt.
dt
Integrating, v = gt+C.
v = 0+C, C=Vq.
246 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Hence v = gt\ v .
Since v = ds
(Art. 18), ds = gtdt\ % dt.
tit
Integrating, s =  gt + v$ + C.
2
O=0, and s =  # + v2
is the complete solution.
^= dt
0, and
dt *
dx
at is, r = i< cos a, ^ = gt + v sin a.
dt (*5
EXAMPLES
Find the equation of the curve whose subnormal (Art. 146)
4.
has the constant value 4, and which passes through the point (1, 4).
Ans. y 2 = 8x + 8.
5. Find the equation of the curve whose subtangent (Art. 146)
is twice the abscissa of the point of contact, and which passes through
the point (2, 1). Ans , x = 2y 2
.
the angle between the radius vector and the tangent is half the
vectorial angle. Ans. r = 6(1  cos 6).
to the axis of Y is 3 1 3.
2
Find (a) the distances traversed parallel
to each axis in t seconds (b) the distance traversed along the path
;
s = +3 3
(b) t t.
14. When the brakes are put on a train, its velocity suffers a con
stant retardation. If the brakes will bring to a dead stop in 2 min
utes a certain train running 30 miles an hour, howfar from a station
should the brakes be applied, if the train is to stop at the station ?
CHAPTER XXII
INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
a*2o* =
1
2.t
2
+1 '
x' +l a^ +l
2a5 3tf

4
+l Qx
z oo .
\
_2ar3 + 3a 2 +l
'
X* + X~ X* + XT
The degree of the numerator of the new fraction will be less than
that of the denominator.
The entire part of the mixed quantity is readily integrable, and
thus the integration of any rational fraction is made to depend upon
the integration of one whose numerator is of a lower degree than the
denominator.
240
250 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
(x a x) (x a ) (x a )
2 3
(x an ).
x a + &V 1, and x a b V 1,
whose product is (x a) + b
2 2
, a real factor of the second degree.
It follows that any polynomial may be resolved into real factors
of the first or second degree, and only such factors will be considered
in the denominators of fractions.
There are four cases to be considered.
First. Where the denominator contains factors of the first degree
only, each of which occurs but once.
Second. Where the denominator contains factors of the first
degree only, some of which are repeated.
Third. Where
the denominator contains factors of the second
degree, each of which occurs but once.
Fourth. Where the denominator contains factors of the second
degree, some of which are repeated.
x2 +6x8 ,
/ Xs 4 x
m
.
sume
.r + .r 8= x2 +6 8 .v AB C ; ^
where ^1. 5. C are unknown constants.
Hence + 6a>8 =
aj* 1 2,2 (?
x3 4:X x 2 xi2 x
r x* + 6xS dx = ^ 2) _ 2 log
and 1()g (flj (flJ + 2) + 2 log
2 ).
= log^^
8
(a + 2)*
fix) = A tfx)
(x a) <f>
(a?) x a

<f>(x)
Hence &* = A + (x  a) ^M
This being an identical equation is true for'all values of x.
252 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
4 + 128^
4(2)
4128 = _ 2
4(2)
To find C, substitute x = 0, omitting the factor x.
EXAMPLES
The constant of integration C will be omitted in the examples in
this chapter, and the following chapters on the integration of func'
tions.
J x 3#j2 3 2 #1
2 f
(x*+x+l)dx = l
1
(x + l)(x3r
*Ja?4a? + + 6 12 a; * (o;2) 28
3
r(zo+iydW = i loy , (2^ + i)(2^i)
INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS 253
_1, (8al)(88)
"
J (2asl)(3irl)(3*.2) 18 (2.il) a
6 / as + ta
(fa= _^L^lo g (to _ ) +*_,log (ax6).
J (CKB 0)(OSE CI) GO 0 CIO (T
oV &v ;
J (x+d)(x + b) ba ' ab
9 r y = i log fr+io'fri) 1
J (oV ft
2
)
(6\r a2) 2 a6 (ax b)(bx j a)
12. C >^m:L_
J1j;>17a !
+ 4.;
198. Case II. Factors of the denominator all of the first degree, and
some repeated.
a3 +l 7
ax.
J x(x
(xiy
a? +l =A B C D
x(x I) X
3
x 1 x 1 x 1
x? +l _A ,
B G D
x(xXf x (xiy (xiy x1
Clearing of fractions,
Xs
+ 1 = A(x l) + Bx + 3
Cx(x  1) + Dx(x  1) 2
Hence A + D = l, (1)
= SA+C2D = 0, (2)
3A + BC+D = 0,
4=1.
Whence A= 1, 23 = 2, (7=1, D = 2.
Therefore (f 
+ *) =   +
x(x 8
1) x (xiy (x  1) 2
x1
1
+* 1 i_
1+
Hence f dte== logs 21g>(l)
Jfjc(a; 1)8 (.x 1) x
(x1)* 2
= ;
.r
~rr
2
+ log*
. ,
EXAMPLES
' ar ar 2 2x' x a;
r 23 
2
a*dx
aftfc;
= 23a; .It
1
lQ
a; a?
(a  
J + l)(aJ l) 4(a? 1) 8 +1 3
a;
3.
J
f
x\ ar
*^=_1
_ +
44 h
4
4)2
)'
x2
ar 4 4 ar9
*
4
r (19 xS2)dx 1 3 2 a; 3
j g
J (4;/ + l;(2a;3) 2
4(2 a;
3) 4 4.i +l
f
g
J(9ar4/'
^
=
18(9 ar
*
4)
+J_l 0g8 ^2.
216 3 x +2
fa , a2 3 aas .
t
2
a?
".':/ a; a
7. f ' 
J
'* = , + W**l  J* + 8 log (, _ 1).
256 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
9
"
C xdx
J(aj_4aj + 1)
= 2x ~ 1
6(a _4x + l)
+ 2
6 V3
x2 + V3 W\_2W
10 f + a + &)
(*
3
_(_V_ + J*\
J (a+a) (x + 6)
2 2 "
(a6) 2 V + a x + b)
. 3 a& 2 b 3
, / .
N . a3 3a6 2
t
, , , N
fx(x2 + 4)
w
We assume 5x + 12 = A Bx+C
^+ 4)  + +y 4
.
, ,
/,
(1)
N
a?(ar a; a;
and in general for every partial fraction in this case, whose denomi
nator is of the second degree, we must assume a numerator of the
form Bx + O.
Clearing (1) of fractions,
A + B = 0, 0=5, 4 A = 12.
Whence .4 = 3, B = 3, 0=5;
therefore
5 a; + 12 3,3^+5
x(x 2 + 4) 03 x2 +4
f3+s fe= _ 3 r^. +6 r
a2 + 4 J x' +i Ja? + 4
log(^ + 4) + ?tan^.
1 ' :
*
Hence f
'*'/"
Vn dx = 3 log . + r,
tan_1 %
r (2x2 3x3)dx
J (xl)(.r2.i' + 5)'
2a?3x3 1 3.v2
(a l)(jr 2# + 5) a? 1 x2 2x + 5
r *3x2)dx = r (3x3)dx C dx
J g*2x + 5 J x*2x + 5 J x*2x + 5
= log(^2 + 5) + tan a;
1 ^i
r <2*>3xS)dx =1 (*2s+5)t
^2 tan =
l
i l,
J _ l) (^ _ 2 2 + 5)
(., a?  + 2
. (x + o.f + b ~J {x + ay + W J (x + a) + b
2 2 2
J b b
258 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
EXAMPLES
32 x>
r32_ +3 7
8 a;
3
A (
1,
+ 3V3tan
"
J 4 ar + 3a? 4^ + 3 V3
+ 2V2 tan J
/ (2saQ(to ^l l0 &. (^l)(^ + 2)  1
'
J x4 +ar
9
2 6 (+iy V2
x
'4^30 + 1, t _6l +
:
* ""2^"
2rf + rf 2 a?
 + 3V2tan 1
(aV2).
r rfdx x3 1 x1,1,tan _i *
^Tl + 2
i
4
J^I=3 + I
,
l0g
'
B
x + a2 x2 + b
*
C x dx
5 =x+ ft
3
tan 1 a3 tan
J (x + cr) (x + &) or b~ V
2 2 2
a )(x
(per
a,
2
Zr>
J (a+5 )(5 + a ) 2 2 '
a6 a&(l a) 2
,
_i x 3
8
J a;(ar
9
 6 a? + 13) 26 jc
8
13
1