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IJIRST International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 3 | Issue 04 | September 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-6010

Preparation and Characterization of Clay based

B. Sreelatha B. Praveen Kumar
M. Tech. Student Assistant Professor
Talla Padmavathi College of Engineering Warangal, Talla Padmavathi College of Engineering Warangal,
Telangana Telangana

The incorporation of fillers into a hybrid composite matrix has shown tremendous increase in longevity and achieving the desired
mix of tribological properties in dry sliding. The sliding wear performance of hybrid composites filled with clay particles was
studied in this paper. For this study, clay nano particles were synthesized by solution combustion process and size was found to
be 54 nm from X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Hybrid nano composite were synthesized by Clay nano particles and resin with
hardeners like (HY951) with appropriate amounts like 1 wt%, 2wt% and 3 wt% of clay nano particles. The wear performances
were studied by using pin-on-disc wear testing machine.
Keywords: Polymer-Clay Nanocomposite, X-Ray Diffraction, Pin-on-Disk


Epoxy resins have been widely used in many industrial applications such as construction materials, composites adhesives,
laminates, and coatings owing to their excellent mechanical properties, low cost, ease of processing, fine adhesion to many
substrates, and good chemical resistance [1]. Epoxy resins are the preferred matrix material since they possess better mechanical
and thermal properties. When particles added to polymers have proven to be effective in reducing the coefficient of friction and
wear rate of composites. The use of SiC as a filler material is known to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of
metalmatrix composites [2]. The effect of variants in sliding speed, time and applied load on the wear behavior of polymer nano
composites is studied by measuring the wear rate on pin on disk wear testing machine.
Epoxy Resin (LY556) is a modified liquid resin of low viscosity used in this study. It can be suitably formulated into high
strength adhesives, solvent free coatings and floor toppings. These formulations are generally used as room temperature curing
systems and it appearance clear pale yellow liquid. Hardener (HY951) is added to the resin at a ratio of 100:10,100:50 and these
acts as curing agents and also provides the best properties to the composites material. Polymers and their composites form a very
important class of tribo-engineering materials and were invariably used in mechanical components such as gears, cams, bearings,
bushes, bearing cages, etc. where wear performance in non-lubricated condition was a key parameter for the material selection


Materials Used
Epoxy Resin (LY556)
Hardener (HY951)
Glass Fiber
Reinforcing Clay Nano Particle
Synthesis of Epoxy/clay Nanocomposites

Fig. 1: wear samples with treated hardeners and clay particles

Synthesis of Epoxy/Clay nanocomposites are prepared by mixing of Epoxy Resin (LY556) with Hardener (HY951) of ratio
100:10, 100:50 for 1 wt% of Clay nanoparticles. For preparing nano-clay/Epoxy composites, both the resin and glass fiber with
desired proportion were carefully mixed under magnetic stirrer for half hour and ultra-sonication for another 20 min and then

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Preparation and Characterization of Clay based Nanocomposites
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 04/ 016)

pour it in a prepared wooden mould and cure it for 24hrs and then take it out of the mould and post cure it for another 24hrs.
Then the wear specimens are cut as per the dimensions as shown in the figure 1.
Wear Experimental Procedure
Wear Experiments have been conducted in the Pin-on-disc type friction and wear monitor (DUCOM; TL-20) with data
acquisition system, (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)) which was used to evaluate the wear behavior of the composite, against hardened
ground steel disc (En-32) contains hardness of 65 HRC and surface roughness of (Ra) 0.5m. It is versatile equipment designed
to study wear under sliding condition only. Sliding generally occurs between a stationary pin and a rotating disc.

Fig. 2(a): Wear testing machine Fig. 2(b): Pin on disc set up

The disc rotates with the help of a D.C. motor which has speed range between 0-2000 rev/min with wear track diameter 50
mm-180 mm, which could yield sliding speed of 0 to 10 m/sec. Load is to be applied on pin (specimen) by dead weight through
pulley string arrangement. The system has a maximum loading capacity of 200N.
Dry sliding tests were conducted at ambient conditions of temperature and humidity with different normal loads (5N, 10N)
and sliding velocity of 640 RPM. Prior to each test, the composite specimens was rubbed over a Sic abrasive paper of 144-grade
to ensure proper intimate contact between the sliding face of the specimen and stainless steel counter face. Before each test, the
wear track on the disc was refreshed by pressing on abrasive paper (silicon carbide water proof, grade 800) for few minutes to
ensure same initial condition.


XRD Pattern of Clay Nano Powder

Fig. 3: XRD pattern of clay nanopowder

According to the Debye-Scherers equation

Where D Average size of the particle [nm]

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Preparation and Characterization of Clay based Nanocomposites
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 04/ 016)

--Wavelength of the radiation [A]

Diffraction angle [degree]
Full width half maximum (FWHM) of the peak [radians]
From the above formula obtained average crystalline size is 54.08 nm.
XRD Pattern of Epoxy/Clay Nano Composites
The Figure 4 shows the analysis of clay nano powder and composites with 1wt %, 2 wt % and 3 wt % nano clay powders and
pure composite with fiber reinforcement using XRD. Black peaks indicates the clay nano particles, blue colored peaks indicates
the epoxy composites and the other are fiber reinforced composites with 1%, 2% and 3% clay nano particles.

Fig. 4: XRD Pattern of Epoxy/clay nano composites

A small peak is observed from the figure 4 at =9.53 it shows the presences of clay nano particles in the composite. It clear,
the peaks of pure and weight percentage of clay particles are similar. The intensity of pure nano composite diffraction peak is
high and its intensity increased by 15 to 20%. The clay powder peak intensity is very low than other phases. Between these two
phases the composite with 1wt %, 2 wt %, and 3 wt % nano clay intensities are varying.
Wear Performance of Epoxy/Clay Nano Composites
In general, the friction and wear properties do always describe the whole Tribological system rather than a material property
alone. When the filler ratio is 1wt %, 2 wt % and 3 wt %, the wear rate becomes lower at 2 wt%, due to the presences of clay
particlesin the composites. It is seen that the clay filled nano composites show good performance in wear resistance. The wear
rate of epoxy decreased from 0.237 to 0.042 nm at load 25N and travel at 3.64km as compared to 2 wt % reinforced nano
composites. The highest wear rate is seen with pure epoxy composite and lowest wear rate is at 2 wt % of nano composite.

Fig. 5: Wear rate with respect to nano clay

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Preparation and Characterization of Clay based Nanocomposites
(IJIRST/ Volume 3 / Issue 04/ 016)


The XRD results shows that the intensity of non-functionalize Nano clay composite are lesser than the functionalize Nano clay
The wear test was conducted on pure epoxy, 1 wt %, 2 wt % and 3 wt % of Nano clay composite with various load and time.
The results shows that pure epoxy having higher wear rate whereas 2wt % Nano clay composite is lower wear rate among them.
The 2 wt % of nano clay composite wear rate is lower due to hardness is higher than pure epoxy, 1 wt %, 2 wt % and 3 wt %
nano clay composites. Where wear rate is inversely proportionally with hardness of the nanocomposites.

[1] WalidNaous., Xiao-Yanyu., Qing-Xin Zhang.,Kimiyoshinaito., andYutakakagawa. 2006. Polymer physics. J. Pol. Sci. Part B. 44 (2006), 1466-1473.
[2] Ferhat Gul and Mehmet Acilar (2004). Effect of the Reinforcement Volume Fraction on the Dry Slide Wear behavior of Al-10 Si/SiCp, Composites
Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Technique, Composite Science and Technology, 64(1314): 19591966.
[3] Bucknall, CB (1990) Toughened plastics. Applied Science Publishers, London.

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