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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2017, pp. 312324, Article ID: IJCIET_08_01_035


Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=1
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
IAEME Publication

OPTIMAL PLANNING AND SCHEDULING OF


HIGH RISE BUILDINGS
Ch. Chowdeswari
M. Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering,
K L University, Vaddeswaram-522502, Andhra Pradesh, India,

D. Satish Chandra
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
K L University, Vaddeswaram-522502, Andhra Pradesh, India

SS.Asadi
Associate Dean-Academics, Department of Civil Engineering,
K L University, Vaddeswaram-522502, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Objective: The research aims an empirical study on the application of MSP in every
single aspect of a project from planning and scheduling phase. Irrespective of nature of
work, location or norms in an organization, all the members work on tasks that are varied
and involve people who do not usually work together but for the same objective. Methods:
A project may have a simple goal that may not require many people or a great amount of
capital or it may be complex to a certain extent, calling for various skills and excess of
resources. But, the common line is that every human can manage projects. Due to this, the
purpose of dealing with the project should not be only execution but the effective and
efficient execution of a project is essential which is needed to be emphasized. Construction
companies in India executes the project in a traditional way, this sometimes leads
uneconomical and tedious too. The traditional method is time-consuming and bit confusion
in execution. Findings: This paper will provide how to do planning and scheduling for a
building which is a multi-storied (G+8) with Microsoft Project (MSP) software by
observing the site conditions, labour productivity, and available resources with proper
utilization of time and resources. Application: This approach can be projected to similar
projects of the same size.
Key words: Microsoft Project, Planning, Scheduling, Time, Resources
Cite this Article: Ch. Chowdeswari, D. Satish Chandra and SS.Asadi, Optimal Planning
and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings. International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, 8(1), 2017, pp. 312324.
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Optimal Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings

1. INTRODUCTION
Every person is a manager of projects of their own life. From an employee to CEO of an
organization, from a student to administrator, we all do work on various tasks with different
deadlines1. Project management is the application of techniques, knowledge, and skills to the
activities of a task to reach the project necessities. It is a systematic ability to make success for the
organizations enabling to patch the project results to the goals of the organization and further to
compete in their respective markets. It also can be defined as the process of planning, scheduling,
organizing, monitoring and controlling of resources, protocols and procedures for achieving
specific goals. A project is an impermanent agenda planned to produce a distinctive service or
product through a clear start time and finish time2.

1.1. The importance of Project Management


The project will start from the right time, but it will proceed further, gets out of the track. Owing to
this, it is important to manage all the activities in a right way. Thus, project management plays an
important role in arranging the activities which are critical to the project and the process is called
as a task to function in an appropriate way. Project management supports the project in better
efficiency to deliver services.

1.2. The traditional approach of project management in the construction sector


In a traditional approach, a project can be completed in a sequence of steps. They are distinguished
in five developed components3:
Beginning Phase
Planning and Designing Phase
Execution and Construction Phase
Monitoring and Controlling Phase
Completion Phase
Every stage may not be there in all the projects since the developments can be aborted before
they reach the end. Specific projects will not monitor a hierarchical planning or controlling the
procedure, and certain projects will go over the stages 2, 3 and 4 for many times as per the
requirement.
It was common practice that most of the small scale construction organizations in India use
Microsoft Excel by representing main categories of summaries of activities. Unique colors will be
chosen for representing the process of activities, this lead to confusion and complexity in execution
of structural activities. Sample representation of activities in Microsoft Excel is represented in

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Ch. Chowdeswari,
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Figure 1 Sample representation of activities in Microsoft Excel

1.3. Microsoft Project (MSP)


Microsoft Project (MSP)
MSP) is a project management software program developed by Microsoft
organization, which is intended to help a project manager in any type of project to improve a plan,
to allocate resources, to track the improvement, to accomplish
accomplish the budget and to examine the
amount of work.
Budgets in a project are based on the assigned work and the cost of resources. Resources viz.,
labour, material, and equipment can be shared among the projects using a mutual resource pond.
Every resource has its individual calendar in which days and time are represented for the
availability. Resource assigned costs are calculated based on resource rates.
MSP application
ation can create critical path schedules and these can be resource leveled and task
networks are pictured in the form of Gantt charts4,5.

2. OBJECTIVES
The research aims an empirical study on the application of MSP in every single aspect of a project
from planning and scheduling phase and followed by monitoring and controlling phase. The
various objectives are
To study scheduling technique using Critical Path Method.
To reduce the total duration of the project.
To ease the work for the labour.
labour

3. METHODOLOGY
The research methodology was done by phases. It comprises four phases.
Phase 1:
Site Supervision
Observations at site
Labour productivity

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Optimal Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings

Phase 2:
Study of drawings
Constructability checks
Phase 3:
Basic ideas in the improvement of construction plan
Planning activities
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Scheduling activities

3.1. PHASE 1
3.1.1. Site Supervision
Site supervision includes the understanding of the site and working conditions at the project
location. In this activity, one should get to know the various works that are being executed at the
site, the degree of quality that is being followed, safety aspects, organization structure, rules,
policies adopted etc.
Generally, inspection persons should create certain that every of the subsequent things is
followed to:
a) That all workmanship and material are in unity with the specifications and the suitable good
practice;
b) The quality control testing of material is at standard level of workmanship; and
c) That all works are to be in accordance with the equal, alignment, dimension, and cross-
sections as identified in construction drawings and specifications.

3.1.2. Observation at the site


Observations at the site include knowledge of working procedures, specifications and practical
executions on site. These help to identify the different deliverables required for completion of an
activity.

3.1.3. Why is observation at the site required?


In preparation of a plan, observations carried out at site play a vital role, as they help to gather the
information regarding the following aspects

3.1.4. Material required


Observations made at site lists out the nature of the material required, the quantity of material
required, availability of material required in the market (off the shelf, prior order, import etc.). The
material required includes the list of major consumables, minor consumables and reusable
materials (like shuttering material). The list helps to identify the materials what company has to
procure and what to materials to contract.

3.1.5. Labour required


Amount and nature (skilled and unskilled) of labour required to carry out a certain task. Mainly
faced constraints in labour mobilization include the availability of construction labour, educating
the labour about companys working procedures, labour skillset etc.

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Ch. Chowdeswari,
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3.1.6. Tools, Plant and machinery required


The observations also include listing out the various tools and tackles, plant and machinery
required for successful completion of tasks. This identifies what tools and tackles, plant and
machineryy to buy, to hire and to contract.

3.1.7. Site conditions


ons and surrounding environment
These include the general site conditions like accessibility, safety procedures, climatic conditions,
work permits, labour working efficiency, constructability factors andand various other enablers like
the store, office, labour camps, water, electricity etc.

3.1.8. Identification
entification of various vendors
Based on the different type of works to be executed and material required at the site to complete
the activities, various types of vendors are identified. As per project requirements
requirements, contract
documents are drafted.

3.1.9. Estimating activity duration


In most scheduling procedures, each work activity has associated associated time length. These
durations are used extensively in getting ready a schedule.
schedule This duration are inferred from knowing
the productivity of labour/machinery
/machinery and the quantity of work to be executed. Labour productivity
is briefly explained under the subhead Labour productivity.
produc The quantity of the work to be
executed can be known from Bill of quantities (BOQs).

3.1.10. Labour productivity


Productivity in construction is regularly outlined as output for every Man-hour.
Man hour. As the labour
creates an enormous part for the development
development price and therefore the amount of Man-hours
Man in
acting a mission in construction is at a risk to the impact of administration than unit material or
capital, this productivity measure is typically denoted to as productivity of labour. But, it is
important
nt to notice that productivity of labour could be alive of the effectiveness of associate
degree package in using equipment,
equipment labour and assets to convert labor energies into helpful
productivity and is not a measure of the abilities of labour only. Construction ction output may be
represented in terms of useful entities or rupees. In the earlier case, labour productivity is related to
parts of product per Man-hour,
hour, for example, cubic meters of concrete placed per hour. In the later
case, labour productivity is recognized
cognized with the worth of construction (in constant rupees) per
Man-hour.
hour. Because of the varied nature of the construction industry, a single key for the complete
industry is neither substantive nor consistent. So, labour productivity at the site location ought to be
determined for computation of varied activity durations that successively helps in preparation of a
reliable arrange. Since the scope of activities is unlikely to be identical between completely
different comes, unit productivity rates are usually
usually utilized for this purpose. For example, the
duration of associate degree activity Did such as concrete formwork assembly can be predictable
as:

Where Air is the essential formwork space to assemble (in sq.. meters), Pij is the average
productivity of a typical cluster during this task (measured in sq.. meters per hour), and Nij is the
range of staffs appointed to the task. Illustration of various labour productivities discovered for
various tasks at the site,, the actual productivity
p at the site, and Illustration of Productivity Changes
Due to Learning are shown in [Table 1], [Table 2] and [Figure 2].

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Optimal Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings

Table 1 Productivity observed on site conditions

S. No Description of work Rate/Man-hours Comments


1 Formwork 5 Sq.m Incorrect
2 Cement Plaster 2.31 Sq.m Incorrect
3. Concreting (Columns 0.2 Cu.m Correct
& Shear walls)
4 Concreting (Beams& 0.89 Cu.m Correct
Slab)
5 Gypsum plaster 2.24 Sq.m Incorrect
6 Brickwork 0.7 Cu.m Correct
7 Laying Reinforcement 1.48 Kgs Correct
(Beams & slab)
8 Laying of floor tiles 1.5 Sq.m Correct
9 Bar bending (stirrups) 57.44 Kg Incorrect

Table 2 Actual productivity at the site


S. No Description of work Rate/Man-hours
1 Formwork 2 - 6 Sq.m
2 Cement Plaster 5 - 10 Sq.m
3. Concreting (Columns & 0.2 Cu.m
Shear walls)
4 Concreting (Beams& Slab) 0.89 Cu.m
5 Gypsum plaster 10 - 12 Sq.m
6 Brickwork 24 Cu.m
7 Laying Reinforcement 10 - 15 Kgs
(Beams & slab)
8 Laying of floor tiles 7 - 10 Sq.m
9 Bar bending (stirrups) 12 18 Kg

Figure 2 Illustration of Productivity Changes Due to Learning

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Ch. Chowdeswari, D. Satish Chandra and SS.Asadi

3.2. PHASE 2

3.2.1. Study of drawings


Study of drawings plays a significant role in the planning of activities. In this course of action,
various drawings are identified like Superstructure architectural drawings, Structural drawings,
Tile floor layout plan, Door & window schedule, Internal drawings, Reflected ceiling plan, MEP
drawings etc. This study helps to recognize the various activities involved in delivering a project.
In this course of study of drawings, firstly, all the activities are recognized and then the
sequential order of the activities is deduced. This helps to identify the inter-dependency of the
activities and its associated trade. This sequential inference of the activities helps in constructing a
WBS which is to be adopted for the successful completion of the project.
By the study of drawings, not only the sequence of activities is known but also the various
materials required, trades involved and special agencies (like waterproofers) to be employed can be
identified.
Some of the details inferred from the study of drawings are
Site grade elevation, finish floor level, and building location footprints coordinated with the
other disciplines are identified.
Geometrical information of various items used is known.
The sequence of zoning can be deduced.
Coordination of MEP drawings with civil drawings is known.

3.2.2. Constructability checks


Constructability is a project management procedure to analyze construction process from start to
finish, during the pre-construction level. It is to spot the difficulties before a project is truly
constructed to cut back or stop errors, cost overruns, and delays.
From drawings and practical observations at working site, the space utilization of labour doing
a particular task can be known, by this figures, one can assess the number of workers or crews that
can work simultaneously for completing a task and can also check the different works that can be
executed in the space available.

3.3. PHASE 3
3.3.1. Planning of activities
List out all the activities included in the project.
Identify the total time required for project completion.
Identify the individual time required for each activity.
Make adjustments based on project deadlines.
Estimation of resources.
Allocate resources for all the activities.
Next leveling of the resources should be done.
Estimating cost and effort.
Based on the plan generated squeezing/relaxing of the resources should be done.
Identify milestones within the project element.

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Optimal Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings

Identify separate projects or sub-projects


sub between the milestones.
Identify the interfaces between projects or sub-projects.
sub
Identify the information requirement for each of these events, projects, sub-projects,
sub interfaces
etc.
Identify the highest responsibility
esponsibility levels requiring the information.
The determination of project planning is to confirm that the final result is accomplished on
time, within the economy,, and shows quality. After drafting the plan, the plan must be re-run
re along
with the drawings,
gs, this process helps to identify the incorrect sequence or omission of activities if
any. This processs is illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Risk Management Paradigm

3.3.2. WBS
WBS is defined as deliverable-focused,
focused, hierarchical grouping of project elements that organizes
and defines the total project scope.
Deliverables are tangible, measurable parts of a project which cannot be further broken-down.
broken
Task is not a WBS element but a set of tasks produce a deliverable. Some of the last WBS
elements could
uld be tasks, but most probably it is not considered. The Phases and their criteria in
WBS are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Phases and criteria in WBS


Level Description Criteria
1 Sub-project phase A self-determining,
self determining, deliverable end product requiring processing
of multi-tasking
multi having large volume of work
2 Task phase A recognizable and deliverable major work comprising one or
more work packages
3 Work package phase A sizeable, recognizable, measure, cost-able
cost able and manageable
work item/package of activities
ac
4 Activity phase Recognizable lower level jobs, operations or process, which
consumes time and resources
5 Operations phase A lowest day-to-day
day day tasks, or process which is part of an
activity

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3.3.3. Why create a WBS using deliverables rather than traditional WBS (trade-wise)?
In general, a Project is broken down into various sub-projects or breaking down the project into
various levels of deliverables until it reaches single deliverable.
WBS can be broken down in many ways depending on the requirement of the project. Of such,
creating a WBS based on trade (which has been followed traditionally over the past years) is
shown in the Figure 4and Figure 5. Breaking down WBS into trade-wise has gone all wrong
because it holds good only for certain level of planning where there were contractors to take only a
particular sub-head. The advantage of this type of WBS is that a whole sub-head can be contracted
to a single contractor, so the distribution for contractor or project team members this would hold
good. But this breaking down has a big flaw i.e., it doesnt cover interdependencies between
different trades. Also, this type of breakdown cannot be adopted in Microsoft Project as it creates a
loop while planning activities which are under different sub-heads.WBS based on trade is shown in
Figure 4 and Figure 5.

Figure 4 WBS of a building

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Optimal Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings

Figure 5 WBS of a single flat works

3.3.4. Scheduling of activities


The Schedule links the scope, work estimates, and deadline into a network of sequential tasks.
Must Manage: Parallelism (tasks can be undertaken at the same time)
Dependency (task has an effect on succeeding tasks)
Tools and techniques for Scheduling
Critical Path Method (CPM).
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Gantt Chart
ETVX How do you track tasks
Planning separate task expressed as ETVX
Entry Criteria
Before starting
Tasking
Validation
Exit Criteria
After finished

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Ch. Chowdeswari,
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ETVX of an individual task and Networking


Net of activities by CPM in MSP is shown in [Figure 6],
[Figure 7], [Table 4]

Figure 6 ETVX of an individual task

Figure 7 Networking of activities by CPM in MSP

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Optimal Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Buildings

Table 4 Networking of activities by CPM in MSP

Task Mode Task Name Duration Start Finish Predecessors Successors


Auto Scheduled Building Mon Sat
504 days
5/18/15 12/24/16
Auto Scheduled Sub-structure Mon Thu
64 days
5/18/15 7/30/15
Auto Scheduled site identification &
Mon Tue
layout 2 days 4 Survey
5/18/15 5/19/15
Auto Scheduled setting out corner points
Wed Wed
& marking 1 day 3 5 Survey
5/20/15 5/20/15

Auto Scheduled excavation upto hard Thu Fri


20 days 4 6 Excavation
strata 5/21/15 6/12/15
Auto Scheduled marking of footing & Sat Sat
1 day 5 7 Survey
grid lines 6/13/15 6/13/15
Auto Scheduled Soling & PCC Mon Fri
5 days 6 9 Civil
6/15/15 6/19/15
Auto Scheduled Footings Sat Wed
10 days
6/20/15 7/1/15
Auto Scheduled Reinforcement Sat Thu
5 days 7 10 Civil
6/20/15 6/25/15
Auto Scheduled Shuttering Fri Mon
3 days 9 11 Civil
6/26/15 6/29/15
Auto Scheduled Concreting Tue Wed
2 days 10 13 Civil
6/30/15 7/1/15
Auto Scheduled columns upto plinth Thu Mon
10 days
beam 7/2/15 7/13/15
Auto Scheduled Reinforcement Thu Tue
5 days 11 14 Civil
7/2/15 7/7/15
Auto Scheduled Shuttering Wed Fri
3 days 13 15 Civil
7/8/15 7/10/15
Auto Scheduled Concreting Sat Mon
2 days 14 16 Civil
7/11/15 7/13/15
Auto Scheduled Protective coat for RCC
members with coal tar Tue Wed
2 days 15 17 W/P
epoxy or bituminous 7/14/15 7/15/15
paint
Auto Scheduled Filling/Backfilling upto
Thu Fri
plinth bottom 2 days 16 18 Excavation
7/16/15 7/17/15

Auto Scheduled Casting of plinth beams Sat Sat


7 days 17 19 Civil
7/18/15 7/25/15
Auto Scheduled Filling/Backfilling upto
grade on slab bottom Mon Mon
1 day 18 20 Excavation
7/27/15 7/27/15

Auto Scheduled Grade on slab Tue Thu


3 days 19 25 Civil
7/28/15 7/30/15

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Labor productivity must be given extreme importance in calculating the activity duration and
reliable plan, and knowing the well-founded methods in the computation of various labor
productivities and for its improvement.
The relationship between the tasks and their interdependencies should be known.

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Ch. Chowdeswari, D. Satish Chandra and SS.Asadi

Identification of various drawings required for the execution of works, and listing out various
activities involved in a project and their sequential order should be prioritized.
Creating a Plan and the key elements of a plan like WBS, activity duration, and their dependencies
etc. should be implemented from the basic idea of planning.
Critical path and critical activities of the project should be identified and Scheduled based on
Project start date and Project end date.
WBS should be created based on the project deliverables and the advantages of creating a WBS
using deliverable over WBS created on the basis of trade.
It is important to crosscheck the drafted plan with the drawings.
Activity durations, their allotment should be assessed correctly.
Defining the predecessor/successors relationship between activities and their constraints and
understanding the techniques involved in Scheduling. And the last is to identify the risks involved
while planning by following certain analysis or techniques like SWOT analysis
What was mistaken?
What is the probability?
What will the loss be?
What one can do about it?

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