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Ch a p te r 2 : N e t w o r k M o d e l s

By the end of this section of the practical, the student should be able to:

Describe the layers of the OSI and TCP/IP model.


Relate the seven layers of the OSI model to the four layers of the TCP/IP
model.
Name the seven layers of the OSI model, in order. Use a mnemonic.
Describe the packaging units used to encapsulate each layer.
Name the physical devices or components that operate at each layer.

2.1 Introduction
This lab will help to develop a better understanding of the seven layers of the
OSI model. Specifically as they relate to the most popular functioning networking
model in existence, the TCP/IP model. The Internet is based on TCP/IP. TCP/IP
has become the standard language of networking. However, the seven layers of
the OSI model are the ones most commonly used to describe and compare
networking software and hardware from various vendors. It is very important to
know both models and be able to relate or map the layers of one to the other.
An understanding of the TCP/IP model and the protocols and utilities that
operate at each layer is essential when troubleshooting.

2.2 OSI Model and TCP/IP Model


Use Table 2.1 to compare the OSI layers with the TCP/IP protocol stack. In
column 2, indicate the proper name for each of the seven layers of the OSI
model corresponding to the layer number. In column 3 and 4, list the TCP/IP
layer number and its correct name. In last three columns, list the term used for
the encapsulation units, the related TCP/IP protocols and utilities that operate at
each TCP/IP layer.

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2.3 OSI Model Characteristics and Devices
List the seven layers of the OSI model from the top to the bottom in Table 2.2.
Give a mnemonic word for each layer that can help you remember it. In last
column, list the keywords and phrases that describe the characteristics and
function of each. In Table 2.3, list the seven layers of the OSI model and the
encapsulation unit used to describe the data grouping at each layer. Also list the
networking devices that operate at each layer, if applicable.

Note:
Mnemonics can help students to remember the OSI model
layers. Two examples are listed one to read from the bottom
up and the other from the top down.

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Table 2.1
TCP/IP
TCP/IP TCP/IP Layer Encapsulation Protocols at
OSI no. OSI Layer Name TCP Utilities
no. Name Units Each TCP/IP
Layer
1.
2.

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Table 2.2

Mnemonic
Layer Key Words and
Name
no. Description of Function
Read from bottom Read from top

1.

2.

10
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
Table 2.3
Layer Encapsulation Unit or Logical Devices/Services/Applications that
Name
Number Grouping Operate at this Layer
1.
2.

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2.4 Network Model Activity
This activity requires the students to demonstrate that they have learned the
network model topic. This approach needs the students to discuss in the group
or 4-5 members find their own resource and come out with their own style to
explain about this topic. The lecturer/instructor only acts as a facilitator.

Group 1 (OSI Activity)

1. Discuss about OSI model.


a. What happen in each OSI layers?
b. Example for each layer (email, TCP, IP, cable, etc.)
2. Give a mnemonic word or create a sentence in order to help you easy to
remember the OSI model sequence
3. Draw your own OSI model in order to help you explain to your friend
about OSI model.
4. Explain/Present to the class the outcome from this activity

Group 2 (TCP/IP Activity)

1. Discuss about TCP/IP model.


a. What happen in each TCP/IP layers?
b. Example for each layer (email, TCP, IP, cable, etc.)
2. Give a mnemonic word or create a sentence in order to help you easy to
remember the TCP/IP model sequence
3. Draw your own TCP/IP model in order to help you explain to your friend
about TCP/IP model.
4. Explain/Present to the class the outcome from this activity

Group 3 (OSI vs. TCP/IP Activity)

1. Discuss the overview of OSI model and TCP/IP model.


a. What is the different between of the OSI model vs. TCP/IP?
b. What are the similarities of this model?
2. Explain/Present to the class
a. the outcome from this activity (OSI vs. TCP/IP)
b. the analogy of OSI model (sending a letter)

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2.5 Self-Review Questions
1. List layers of the internet model?

2. What is peer to peer process?

3. How does information get passed from one layer to the next in the Internet

model?

4. What are header and trailers, and how do they get added and removed?

5. What is the difference between a port address, a logical address and

physical address?

6. Name some services provided by the application layers of the Internet

model?

7. Match the following to one of five Internet layers.

i. Route determination
ii. Flow control
iii. Interface to physical world
iv. Provides access to the network for the end user
v. Packet switching
vi. Reliable process to process data transportation
vii. Network selection
viii. Routing
ix. Provides user services such as email and file transfer
x. Transmission of bit stream across physical medium.
xi. Communicates directly with users application program
xii. Error correction and retransmission
xiii. Mechanical, electrical and functional interface
xiv. Responsibility for delivery between adjacent nodes
xv. Reassembly of data packets

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