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Design of Heat Transfer Equipment

Types of heat transfer equipment

Type service
Double pipe exchanger Heating and cooling
Shell and tube exchanger All applications
Plate heat exchanger
Plate-fin exchanger Heating and cooling
Spiral heat exchanger
Air cooled Cooler and condensers
Direct contact Cooling and quenching
Agitated vessel Heating and cooling
2 Fired heaters Heating 2/1/2016
Some more terminology
Exchanger: heat exchanged between two process streams

Heaters and coolers: where one stream is plant service

Vaporizer: if a process stream is vaporized

Reboiler: a vaporizer associated with distillation column

Evaporator: if concentrating a solution

Fired exchanger: if heated by combustion gases

Unfired exchanger: not using combustion gases

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General equation for heat transfer across a surface is

Q = heat transferred per unit time, W

U = the overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2oC

A = heat-transfer area, m2

Tm= the mean temperature difference, oC

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Resistances to outside
heat transfer


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Uo=overall coefficient on outside area of tube, W/m2 oC

ho=outside film coefficient, W/m2 oC

hi =inside film coefficient, W/m2 oC

hod=outside dirt coefficient, W/m2 oC

hid=inside dirt coefficient, W/m2 oC

kw=thermal conductivity of wall material, W/m oC

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The overall coefficient is reciprocal of the overall resistance

to heat transfer, which is the sum of several individual

resistances. Individual resistance is the reciprocal of
individual HTC.

do ln
1 1 1 di d o 1 d o 1

Uo ho hod 2k w di hid di hi

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Magnitude of hs depends on:

nature of the process (conduction, convection, radiation,

condensation, etc.)
Physical properties (density, heat capacity, viscosity, thermal

Fluid flow rates

Physical arrangement of exchanger

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Typical design procedure
1-Define the duty: 2- Physical properties required: density,
Q, Fs, Ts viscosity, thermal conductivity

5-tm 4-trial value of 3- Type of

6-Calculate area OHTC (U) exchanger
required Q UATm
9-Calculate the OHTC 8-hi and ho
Uc U 1 1 1 d ln dd d o

i o 1 do 1
Uo ho hod 2k w d i hid d i hi
11-Optimise: repeat steps 4-10

10-Calculate p
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To select a trial value of U
Select a trial Value of U for given fluids.

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Fouling or dirt factor
Deposit of nonmetallic material on heat
transfer surface is fouling

Heat transfer resistance is increased which
require over design of exchanger

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Shell & Tube Exchangers
Large surface area per unit volume

Uses well established fabrication techniques

Can be constructed from a wide range of materials

Easy cleaning

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Selecting TEMA Type Heat Exchangers
Tubular Exchange Manufacturers Association

The general descriptions of the three major TEMA classes are:

TEMA C - General Service
TEMA B - Chemical Service
TEMA R - Refinery Service
TEMA R is the most restrictive and TEMA C is the least stringent.
TEMA B and TEMA R are very similar in scope.
TEMA R requires a greater minimum thickness for some components.

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Straight Tube, Fixed Tube-sheet, Type BEM, AEM,
NEN, Etc.

This TEMA type is the simplest design and is constructed without

packed or gasketed joints on the shell side.
The tube-sheet is welded to the shell and the heads are bolted to the
On the NEN heat exchanger, the shell and the head is welded to the
Typically, a cover plate design is provided to facilitate tube cleaning.
This TEMA category, especially the NEN, it is the lowest cost TEMA
design per square foot of heat transfer surface.

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Less costly than removable bundle designs
Provides maximum amount of surface for a given shell and tube diameter
Provides for single and multiple tube passes to assure proper velocity
May be interchangeable with other manufacturers of the same TEMA type
Shell side can be cleaned only by chemical methods
No provision to allow for differential thermal expansion, must use an
expansion joint
Oil Coolers, Liquid to Liquid, Vapor condensers, reboilers, gas coolers
Generally, more viscous and warmer fluids flow through the shell
Corrosive or high fouling fluids should flow inside the tubes

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Removable Bundle, Externally Sealed Floating Tube-sheet,
This design allows for the removal, inspection and cleaning of the shell circuit
and shell interior. Special floating tube-sheet prevents intermixing of
fluids. In most cases, straight tube design is more economical than U-tube
Floating tube-sheet allows for differential thermal expansion between the
Shell and the tube bundle.
Shell circuit can be inspected and steam or mechanically cleaned
The tube bundle can be repaired or replaced without disturbing shell pipe
Less costly than TEMA type BEP or BES which has internal floating head
Maximum surface for a given shell diameter for removable bundle design
Tubes can be cleaned in AEW models without removing
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Fluids in both the shell and tube circuits must be nonvolatile, non-toxic
Tube side passes limited to single or two pass design
All tubes are attached to two tube-sheets. Tubes cannot expand
independently so that large thermal shock applications should be
Packing materials produce limits on design pressure and temperature
Intercoolers and after-coolers, air inside the tubes
Coolers with water inside the tubes
Jacket water coolers or other high differential temperature duty
Place hot side fluid through the shell with entry nearest the front end

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Removable Bundle, Outside Packed Head, Type

This design allows for the easy removal, inspection and cleaning
of the shell circuit and shell interior without removing the
floating head cover. Special floating tube-sheet prevents
intermixing of fluids. In most cases, straight tube removable
design is more costly than U-tube designs.

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Floating tube-sheet allows for differential thermal expansion between
the shell and the tube bundle.
Shell circuit can be inspected and steam cleaned. If the tube bundle has a
square tube pitch, tubes can be mechanically cleaned by passing a brush
between rows of tubes.
The tube bundle can be repaired or replaced without disturbing shell
On AEP design, tubes can be serviced without disturbing tubeside piping
Less costly than TEMA type BES or BET designs
Only shell fluids are exposed to packing. Toxic or volatile fluids can be
cooled in the tubeside circuit
Provides large bundle entrance area, reducing the need for entrance
domes for proper fluid distribution
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Shell fluids limited to non volatile, non toxic materials
Packing limits shell side design temperature and pressure
All tubes are attached to two tube-sheets. Tubes cannot expand
independently so that large thermal shock applications should be
Less surface per given shell and tube diameter than AEW or BEW

Flammable or toxic liquids in the tube circuit
Good for high fouling liquids in the tube circuit

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Removable Bundle, Internal Split Ring
Floating Head, Type AES, BES, Etc. -
Ideal for applications requiring frequent tube bundle removal for
inspection and cleaning. Uses straight-tube design suitable for
large differential temperatures between the shell and tube fluids.
More forgiving to thermal shock than AEW or BEW designs.
Suitable for cooling volatile or toxic fluids.

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Floating head design allows for differential thermal expansion between the shell
and the tube bundle.
Shell circuit can be inspected and steam cleaned. If it has a square tube layout,
tubes can be mechanically cleaned
Higher surface per given shell and tube diameter than pull-through designs such
as AET, BET, etc.
Provides multi-pass tube circuit arrangement.
Shell cover, split ring and floating head cover must be removed to remove the tube
bundle, results in higher maintenance cost than pull-through
More costly per square foot of surface than fixed tube sheet or U-tube designs

Chemical processing applications for toxic fluids
Special intercoolers and after-coolers

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Removable Bundle, Pull-Through Floating Head, Type AET,
BET, etc.
Ideal for applications requiring frequent tube bundle removal for
inspection and cleaning as the floating head is bolted directly to the
floating tube-sheet. This prevents having to remove the floating head
in order to pull the tube bundle.
Floating head design allows for differential thermal expansion
between the shell and the tube bundle.
Shell circuit can be inspected and steam or mechanically cleaned
Provides large bundle entrance area for proper fluid distribution
Provides multi-pass tube circuit arrangement.
Suitable for toxic or volatile fluid cooling

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For a given set of conditions, this TEMA style is the most expensive
Less surface per given shell and tube diameter than other
removable designs

Chemical processing applications for toxic fluids
Hydrocarbon fluid condensers
General industrial applications requiring frequent cleaning

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Removable Bundle, U-Tube, Type BEU,
AEU, Etc.

Especially suitable for severe performance requirements with

maximum thermal expansion capability. Because each tube can
expand and contract independently, this design is suitable for
larger thermal shock applications. While the AEM and AEW are
the least expensive, U-tube bundles are an economical TEMA
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U-tube design allows for differential thermal expansion between the shell and the tube
bundle as well as for individual tubes.
Shell circuit can be inspected and steam or mechanically cleaned
Less costly than floating head or packed floating head designs
Provides multi-pass tube circuit arrangement.
Capable of withstanding thermal shock applications.
Bundle can be removed from one end for cleaning or replacement

Because of u-bend, tubes can be cleaned only by chemical means
Because of U-tube nesting, individual tubes are difficult to replace
No single tube pass or true countercurrent flow is possible
Tube wall thickness at the U-bend is thinner than at straight portion of tubes
Draining of tube circuit is difficult when mounted with the vertical position
With the head side up.
Oil, chemical and water heating applications
Excellent in steam to liquid applications
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Range: 16 mm to 50 mm

Common size: 16 mm-25 mm

OD and wall thickness shall be specified or nominal size

Lengths: 1.83 m, 2.44 m,3.66 m,4.88 m,6.10 m,7.32 m

19 mm OD is good starting value

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A. Equilateral triangular P1

B. Square

C. Rotated square P1

A & C give higher HTC

A & C give higher P.D.
C is for fouling liquids(Easy mechanical cleaning)
Tube pitch=1.25OD
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One tube pass

Two tube pass

Three tube passes

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Tube bundle diameter depends on:

Number of tubes

Number of tube passes

Estimate of Bundle Diameter can be obtained from Eqn.

Nt=number of tubes

Db=bundle diameter, mm

do=outside tube diameter, mm

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1 / n1
Db d o

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Direct flow across the tubes

Increase heat transfer

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Mean Temperature Difference
T1 T1

t2 shell
T2 t2 T2
t1 t1
Heat transferred
Heat transferred T2
t2 t1

t1 T1 T1

T1 t2 T2 t1 Tlm
T1 t1 T2 t2
T t T t
ln 1 2 ln 1 1
T2 t1 T2 t 2

Counter-current Co-current
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tm Ft tlm
Ft f ( R, S )
T1 T2 t2 t1
R ,S
t2 t1 T1 t1

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R = (ms X CP,f ,s / mt X CP,f,t)

S is a measure of the temperature efficiency of the exchanger.

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The following assumptions are made in the derivation of the
temperature correction factor Ft, in addition to those made for the
calculation of the log mean temperature difference:

1. Equal heat transfer areas in each pass.

2. A constant overall heat-transfer coefficient in each pass.
3. The temperature of the shell-side fluid in any pass is constant
across any cross-section.
4. There is no leakage of fluid between shell passes

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Design Considerations: STE Fluid
Allocation: Shell Or Tubes
Where no phase change occurs,
Fluid Temperatures
Operating pressure
Pressure drop
Stream flow rates

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The more corrosive fluid should be allocated

to the tube-side. This will reduce the cost of
expensive alloy or clad components.

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The fluid that has the greatest tendency to foul the heat-
transfer surfaces should be placed in the tubes.

This will give better control over the design fluid


The higher allowable velocity in the tubes will reduce

Also, the tubes will be easier to clean.
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Fluid Temperatures
If the temperatures are high enough to require the use of
special alloys placing the higher temperature fluid in the
tubes will reduce the overall cost.
At moderate temperatures, placing the hotter fluid in the
tubes will reduce the shell surface temperatures, and
hence the need for lagging to reduce heat loss, or for
safety reasons,
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Operating Pressure

The higher pressure stream should be allocated to the

tube-side. High-pressure tubes will be cheaper than a
high-pressure shell.

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Pressure Drop

For the same pressure drop, higher heat-transfer

coefficients will be obtained on the tube-side than the
shell-side, and fluid with the lowest allowable pressure
drop should be allocated to the tube-side.

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Generally, a higher heat-transfer coefficient will be obtained by
allocating the more viscous material to the shell-side, providing the
flow is turbulent. The critical Reynolds number for turbulent flow
in the shell is in the region of 200. If turbulent flow cannot be
achieved in the shell it is better to place the fluid in the tubes, as the
tube-side heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with more

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Stream Flow Rates

Allocating the fluids with the lowest flow-rate to the

shell-side will normally give the most economical

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Design Considerations: STE Fluid Velocities
Liquids Vapors
Tube side Vacuum
Process fluids 50-70 m/s
1-2 m/s Atmospheric pressure
4 m/s maximum 10-30 m/s
1.5-2.5 m/s
Shell side
0.3-1 m/s
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Liquids Gas and vapours
High vacuum
Viscosity <1 mN s/m2
p = 0.4-0.8 kN/m2
p = 35 kN/m2
Medium vacuum
Viscosity is 1 to 10
p = 0.1 x absolute pressure
mN s/m2 1 to 2 bar
p = 50-70 kN/m2 p = 0.5 x system gauge
Above 10 bar
p = 0.1 x system gauge pressure
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Tube-side Heat-transfer Coefficient And
Pressure Drop (Single Phase)

Heat transfer
Turbulent flow
Heat-transfer data for turbulent flow inside conduits of uniform
cross-section are correlated by an equation of the form:

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Nu = Nusselt number = (hide/kf),

Re = Reynolds number = (utde/) = (Gtde/),

Pr = Prandtl number = (Cp/kf)

hi = inside coefficient, W/m2C,

de = equivalent (or hydraulic mean) diameter, m

= (4 x cross-sectional area for flow/ wetted

perimeter )

= di for tubes, 2/1/2016
ut = fluid velocity, m/s,

kf = fluid thermal conductivity,W/mC,

Gt = mass velocity, mass flow per unit area, kg/m2s,

= fluid viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature, Ns/m2,

w = fluid viscosity at the wall,

Cp = fluid specific heat, heat capacity, J/kgC.

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a = 0.8.
b = 0.3 for cooling
= 0.4 for heating.
c = 0.14 for flow in tubes.

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A general equation that can be used for exchanger
design is:

where C = 0.021 for gases,

= 0.023 for non-viscous liquids,
= 0.027 for viscous liquids.

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Butterworth (1977) gives the following equation,

Where St = Stanton number = (Nu/Re Pr) =

And E = 0.0225exp(-0.0225(ln Pr)2)
This equation is applicable at Reynolds numbers
greater than 10,000
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Hydraulic Mean Diameter
For turbulent flow in a duct of non-circular cross-section,

the hydraulic mean diameter may be used in place of the pipe diameter
and the formulae for circular pipes can then be applied without
introducing a large error. This method of approach is entirely

The hydraulic mean diameter DH is defined as four times

the hydraulic mean radius rH. Hydraulic mean radius is defined as the
flow cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter:

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Some examples are given.
For circular pipe:
DH = 4(/4)D2 / ( D) = D
For an annulus of outer diameter Do and inner diameter Di :
DH = 4 ( ( Do2 /4) - ( Di2 /4) ) / ( (Do + Di) ) = (Do2 - Di2)
/ (Do + Di) = Do - Di
For a duct of rectangular cross-section Da by Db :
DH = 4 DaDb / ( 2(Da + Db) = 2DaDb / (Da + Db)
For a duct of square cross-section of size Da :
DH = 4 Da2 / (4Da) = Da
For laminar flow this method is not applicable, and exact expressions
relating the pressure drop to the velocity can be obtained for ducts
of certain shapes only.
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Laminar flow
Below a Reynolds number of about 2000 the flow in pipes will be
Providing the natural convection effects are small, which will
normally be so in forced convection, to estimate the film heat-
transfer coefficient given equation will be used:

where L is the length of the tube in metres.

If the Nusselt number given by above equation is less than 3.5, it
should be taken as 3.5.
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Heat-transfer factor, jh:
It is often convenient to correlate heat-transfer data in terms
of a heat transfer jh factor.
The heat-transfer factor is defined by:

The use of the jh factor enables data for laminar and turbulent flow
to be represented on the same graph.

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Equation can be rearranged to a more convenient form:

Kern (1950)define the heat transfer factor as:

The relationship between jh and JH is given by:

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Tube-side pressure drop
There are two major sources of pressure loss on the tube-side of a
shell and tube exchanger:
The friction loss in the tubes and
The losses due to the sudden contraction and expansion

and minor source of pressure loss :

flow reversals that the fluid experiences in flow through the tube
The tube friction loss can be calculated using the familiar equations
for pressure-drop loss in pipes. (see fluid mechanics).

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The basic equation for isothermal flow in pipes
(constant temperature) is:

where jf is the dimensionless friction factor and L' is the

effective pipe length.

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The flow in a heat exchanger will clearly not be
isothermal, and this is allowed for by including
an empirical correction factor to account for
the change in physical properties with
Normally only the change in viscosity is considered:

Values of jf for heat exchanger tubes can be obtained from Figure.

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The pressure losses due to contraction at the tube inlets, expansion at
the exits, and flow reversal in the headers, can be a significant part of
the total tube-side pressure drop.
There is no entirely satisfactory method for estimating these losses.
Kern (1950) suggests adding four velocity heads per pass.
Frank (1978) considers this to be too high, and recommends 2.5
velocity heads.
Butterworth (1978) suggests 1.8.
Lord et al. (1970) take the loss per pass as equivalent to a length of
tube equal to 300 tube diameters for straight tubes, and 200 for U-
tubes; whereas
Evans (1980) appears to add only 67 tube diameters per pass.

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The loss in terms of velocity heads can be estimated by counting
the number of flow contractions, expansions and reversals, and
using the factors for pipe fittings to estimate the number of
velocity heads lost.
For two tube passes, there will be two contractions, two
expansions and one flow reversal.
The head loss for each of these effects is: contraction 0.5,
expansion 1.0, 180 bend 1.5; so for two passes the maximum
loss will be

2 x 0.5 + 2 x 1.0 + 1.5 = 4.5 velocity heads = 2.25 per pass

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From this, it appears that Frank's recommended value of 2.5 velocity
heads per pass is the most realistic value to use.

Viscosity Correction Factor
The viscosity correction factor will normally only be significant
for viscous liquids.

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Coefficients For Water
The equation below has been adapted from data given by
Eagle and Ferguson (1930):

where hi= inside coefficient, for water,W/m2C,

t = water temperature, C,
ut = water velocity, m/s,
di = tube inside diameter, mm.

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Shell-Side Heat-Transfer And Pressure
Drop (Single Phase)

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Kern Method

Bell or Bell-Delware Method

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The shell equivalent diameter is calculated using the flow area
between the tubes taken in the axial direction (parallel to the tubes)
and the wetted perimeter of the tubes;

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1. Calculate the area for cross-flow As for the hypothetical row of

tubes at the shell equator, given by:

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2. Calculate the shell-side mass velocity Gs and the linear velocity us:

where Ws = fluid flow-rate on the shell-side, kg/s,

= shell-side fluid density, kg/m3.
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3. Calculate the shell-side equivalent diameter (hydraulic diameter),

4 free flow area

wetted perimeter


4 PT2 do2 / 4 square


4 PT2 3 / 4 do2 / 8 triangular
do / 2
Where De = equivalent diameter in m

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4. Calculate the shell-side Reynolds number, given by:

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5. For the calculated Reynolds number, read the value of jh, from
graph for the selected baffle cut and tube arrangement, and
calculate the shell-side heat transfer coefficient hs from:

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6. For the calculated shell-side Reynolds number, read the friction
factor from graph and calculate the shell-side pressure drop

where L = tube length,

IB = baffle spacing.
The term (L/lB) is the number of times the flow crosses the tube
bundle = (Nb + 1),
where Nb, is the number of baffles.

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Heat Exchanger Shell Side Design
Bell Method
Flow pattern
Bells method
In Bells method the heat-transfer coefficient and pressure

drop are estimated from correlations for flow over ideal tube-

banks, and the effects of leakage, bypassing and flow in the

window zone are allowed for by applying correction factors.

Heat-transfer coefficient

The total correction will vary from 0.6 for a poorly designed
exchanger with large clearances to 0.9 for a well-designed
hoc, ideal cross-flow coefficient
Fn, tube row correction factor
Fw, window correction factor
Fb, bypass correction factor
With sealing strips
Where no sealing strips are used, Fb can be obtained from
FL, Leakage correction factor
Shell and bundle geometry
Pressure drop
Cross-flow zones
The pressure drop in the cross-flow zones between the baffle
tips is calculated from correlations for ideal tube banks, and
corrected for leakage and bypassing.
Pressure Drop ideal tube bank
pressure drop
The number of tube rows has little effect on the friction
factor and is ignored.
Fb , bypass correction factor for
pressure drop
Bypassing will affect the pressure drop only in the cross-flow

The correction factor is calculated from the equation used to

calculate the bypass correction factor for heat transfer,
FL, leakage factor for pressure
Window-zone pressure drop
End zone pressure drop
Total shell-side pressure drop