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# CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

PLANE FRAMES

## A frame is a structure composed of straight-line members. The members

may be connected by rigid joints, pin-connected joints and semi-rigid joints.
If all the joints are pins (which transmit no bending moments), the frame is
commonly called a truss. Rigid joints are capable of transmitting both
forces and bending moments.

A rigid frame is one in which some or all of its joints are rigid. Rigid frames
are usually statically indeterminate. Our study will be confined to
determinate plane frames. In a plane frame, all the members and loading
must be in the same plane.

## A frame is completely analyzed when its support reactions, and the

variations in axial forces, shear forces and bending moments along all its
members are found.

Frame with an
internal hinge

Rigid Frame

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-1

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Rigid Joints

At rigid joints, the ends of connected members must not only move together
vertically and horizontally but must all rotate by the same amount. A rigid
joint preserves the angle between members connected to it.

## In steel structures, rigid and pin-joints consist of welded connections and

simple bolted connections respectively. There is another type of connection
in between of these two extremes and it is called a semi-rigid connection
(the connection is neither rigid nor pinned, it is in between these two
extremes). In reinforced concrete structures, beams and columns are
usually formed together resulting in substantially rigid joints.

B B' C C'
P.I.

H P.I. P.I.

A D

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-2

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

FRAMES

## 1. Find the support reactions. (By using the equations of equilibrium

and the equations of condition if any).

## 2. Find the member end forces.

(a) Take each member and joint as free-body, find the axial force,
shear force and bending moment at the ends of the member
and joint.
(b) Each free-body diagram must show all external loads, support
reactions and possible internal forces acting on the member
and joint.
(c) A rigid joint can transmit two force components (V & N) and
a moment.
At a hinge, the internal moment is zero.

3. Plot the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams on an
outline of the frame.
(a) A common convention is to draw the bending moment
diagram on the tension side of the frame. (For reinforced
concrete frames, designers often draw the bending moment
diagram on the tension side. This allows the designer to tell at
a glance on which side of the frame steel reinforcement
should be placed.)
(b) The axial force diagram may be plotted on either side of the
member, with proper indication for tension and compression.
(Tension --- +ve, compression --- -ve)
(c) The shear force diagram may be plotted on either side of the
member but normally follows the convention used for the
bending moment diagram. (i.e. follows the convention of
plotting shear force and bending moment of beam). This can
be done by treating each individual member as a beam
element, plot the shear force diagram from the left end to the
right end of the member and draw the bending moments on
the tension side of the member.

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-3

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 1

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint.

10 kN
2 kN
B
C
6m

A
4m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-4

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:
10 kN
2 kN
B
6m C

A
HA V
MA A
4m

X = 0, HA = 2 kN

Y = 0, VA = 10 kN

MA = 10*4 + 2*6 = 52 kNm

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-5

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joint, and their member end
forces.

10 kN

40 40 B
B 10
10 2 2
10 2 C 2kN
40
40
10
2
B

Free-body Diagrams

A
2 kN 10 kN
52 kNm

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-6

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

## Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

10 10

2 2
-10 B + 2
B
C C

-10 A 2 A
Axial Force (kN) Shear Force (kN)

- 40

- 40

B C

A
- 52

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-7

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 2

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint.

A B

4m
C

12 kN
6m 3m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-8

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

MA
HA A B
VA

4m
C

12 kN
6m 3m

X = 0, HA = 0kN

Y = 0, VA = 12kN

MA = 12*9 = 108 kNm

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-9

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joint, and their member end
forces.

108 kNm B 36 B
36
A 36
12 kN 12 12
12
36
B
12

Free-body Diagrams
C

12 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-10

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

In order to draw the axial force and the shear force diagram of member BC,
we have to resolve the member end forces so that the member end forces are
perpendicular and along the member axis. This is because member BC is
an inclined member.

12
9.6 7.2
B
36

4 5

3
C
123/5 = 7.2
124/5 = 9.6

12

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-11

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

## Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

A B 9.6

9.6
Axial Force (kN) C

12 12
7.2
A B

7.2
Shear Force (kN) C

-108

-36
-36
A B

0
Bending Moment (kNm) C

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-12

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 3

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints C and E are rigid joints.

96 kN
C E
D
3m

48 kN

5m
B

F
4.5 m

A
3m 3m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-13

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

96 kN
C E
D
3m

5m
48 kN
B

F
4.5 m

VF

A
HA
VA
3m 3m

X = 0, HA = 48 kN

48*4.5 + 96*3 = VF*6, VF = 84 kN

Y = 0, VA + VF = 96 kN VA = 12 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-14

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

216 216 96 kN
C C E E
12 84
12 12 D 84 84
216
216
12
84
C E

48 kN
B

F
Free-body Diagrams 84

A
48
12

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-15

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

C E
-12 -84
D

-
B
-
F -84

-12 A

12 12 D
E
C

48
B
-84 -84
F

48

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-16

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

C 216 D E

216
B 252
216
F

A
Bending Moment (kNm)

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-17

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 4

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints C and E are rigid joints.

96 kN
C E
D
3m

5m
48 kN
B

F
4.5 m

A
3m 3m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-18

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

96 kN
C E
D
3m

5m
48 kN
B

F
4.5 m

A
HA V
MA A
3m 3m

X = 0, HA = 48 kN

Y = 0, VA = 96 kN

48*4.5 + 96*3 = MA, MA = 504 kNm

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-19

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

288 288 96 kN
C 96
C E E
96 96 D
288
288
96
C
E

48 kN
B

F
Free-body Diagrams

A
96 48

504

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-20

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-96 C E
D

B
-
F

A
-96

96 96

E
C D

48
B

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-21

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-288

0 E
-288
C D

-288 B

A
-504 Bending Moment (kNm)

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-22

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 5

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and C are rigid joints.

15 kN/m
50 kN
B C

2m
20 kN
D
6m

2m
E

A
8m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-23

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

15 kN/m
50 kN
B C

2m
20 kN
D
6m

2m
E
VE
A
HA
VA
8m

X = 0, HA + 20 = 50, HA = 30 kN

50*6 + 15*8*8/2 20*4 VE*8 = 0
VE = 87.5 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-24

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

15 kN/m
50 kN B
32.5
180 180
20 40 40 87.5
C
20 20
32.5 30 32.5 B C 20
20 87.5
180 87.5
40
180 40
30 32.5 87.5
20

B C
20 kN
D

E
Free-body Diagrams
87.5
A
30
32.5
Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-20 -20
-32.5 - -87.5
B C

D -
-
E -87.5
Axial Force (kN)
A
-32.5

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-25

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

2.17m
32.5
30 20
B C

20
D
-87.5
E
Shear Force (kN)
A
30

2.17m
180 -40
-40
B C

180 D
215.2
E

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-26

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 6

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and D are rigid joints.

30 kN

B D
C

3m
10 kN
E
8m

3m
F

5kN/m A
3.5m 3.5m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-27

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

30 kN

B D
C

3m
10 kN
E
8m

3m
F

VF
5kN/m A
HA V
A
3.5m 3.5m

X = 0, HA + 10 = 5*8/2, HA = 10 kN

5*(8/2)*(8/3) + 30*3.5 - 10*(3+2) VF*7 = 0
VF = 15.5 kN

Y = 0, VA + VF = 30 kN, VA = 14.5 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-28

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

30 kN

26.7 26.7 B D 10 30 30
B C
10 14.5 10 10 10
10 14.5 C 15.5
14.5 15.5 15.5
26.7 30
26.7 30
14.5
10 10 15.5
B D

10 kN
E

F
Free-body Diagrams

15.5kN
5kN/m A
10kN
14.5kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-29

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

## Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

Determination of the position of zero shear force and the maximum bending
moment of member AB.

5x/8 kN/m

M 14.5 26.7
14.5
V
B
10
x

## Free-body Diagram for Part of Member AB

intensity of the triangular load = (5x/8) kN/m. Set V = 0, and determine x.

To determine the position of zero shear force (i.e. V = 0 kN), take moment
Y = 0, (5x/8)*(x/2) 10 = 0, x = 5.66 m

## To determine the value of maximum moment of member AB, consider

M = 0, M + 26.7 + (5*5.66/8)*(5.66/2)*(5.66/3) 10*5.66 = 0
M = 11.0 kNm

## To determine the position of zero moment of member AB, we have to use

trial and error method to solve a cubic equation. Consider the free-body
diagram for part of member AB. Set M = 0, to determine x

## M = 0, 26.7 + (5*x/8)*(x/2)*(x/3) 10*x = 0

0.1042x3 10x + 26.7 = 0
Solving this equation by trial and error, we get x = 2.93m.

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-30

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-10 -10
B - D
-14.5 -15.5
C

E -
-
F
-15.5

-14.5
Axial Force (kN)
A

14.5 14.5
B C D
10
-10

-15.5
5.66m

E 10

F
2.34m

10

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-31

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-26.7 -30
-26.7 C D
-30
2.93m

B
24.3
E

F
11.0
2.34m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-32

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 7

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint and joint C
is an internal hinge of the frame.

15 kN/m
30 kN
B C

4m
A D

6m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-33

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

15 kN/m
30 kN
B C

4m
A D
HA HD
VA VD
6m
30*4 + 15*6*6/2 VD*6 = 0
VD = 65 kN

Y = 0, VA + VD = 15*6 kN, VA = 25 kN

## Consider the free-body of CD,

65
HC
C

D
HD
65
HD*4 = 0, HD = 0 kN

X = 0, HA + HD = 30, HA = 30 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-34

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

## 120 120 15 kN/m

30 kN B C
25 25 65 65
25 30
B C 65
120

120
25 65
30
B C

Free-body Diagram
A D
30 25 65

-25 -65
B C

- -

A D
-25 -65

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-35

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

1.67m
25

30
B C

A D -65
30
Shear Force (kN)

1.67m

120
B C
120
140.9

A D

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-36

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 8

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and C are rigid joints,
and joint E is an internal hinge of the frame.

20 kN
3m

B F E C
3 kN/m

4m
A D

4m 4m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-37

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:
3m 20 kN

3 kN/m B F E C

4m
A D
HA HD
VA VD
4m 4m

20*3 + 3*4*4/2 VD*8 = 0
VD = 10.5 kN
Y = 0, VA + VD = 20 kN, VA = 9.5 kN

## Consider the free-body of ECD,

VE
HE E C

D
HD
10.5
HD*4 = VD*4, HD = 10.5 kN

## Consider the whole frame,

X = 0, HA + HD = 3*4, HA = 1.5 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-38

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

20 kN
18 18 10.5
B B C 10.5 C10.5
10.5 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5
F E 10.5 42 42 10.5 10.5
9.5
18 42

18 42
9.5 10.5
10.5 10.5
B C
3 kN/m

A Free-body Diagrams D
1.5 9.5 10.5 10.5

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-39

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

## Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-10.5 -10.5

-
-9.5 -10.5
B F E C

- -

A D
-9.5 Axial Force (kN) -10.5

9.5 9.5

-10.5 F
10.5
B E C

-10.5 -10.5
0.5m

1.5
A D 10.5
Shear Force (kN)

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-40

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-42
-18
-18
F
-42
B E C
10.5
0.5m

0.375
D
A Bending Moment (kNm)

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-41

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 9

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and E are rigid joints, and
joint D is an internal hinge of the frame.

40 kN

B E
C D

5 kN/m
4m
6m

1m 2m 3m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-42

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

40 kN

B E
C D

5 kN/m
4m
6m

F
HF
VF
A
HA
VA
1m 2m 3m

5*4*4/2 + 40*5 + HA*2 VA*6 = 0
3VA HA - 120 = 0
3VA = HA + 120 (1)

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-43

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

## Consider the free-body diagram of ABCD,

40 kN
VD
B HD
C D

HA
VA

40*2 + HA*6 VA*3 = 0
3VA 6HA - 80 = 0 (2)

## Sub. (1) into (2)

HA + 120 - 6HA 80 = 0
HA = 8 kN (3)

3VA = 8 + 120
VA = 42.7 kN

## Consider the whole frame,

Y = 0, VA + VF = 40 kN, VF = -2.7 kN
VF = 2.7 kN ()

## Consider the whole frame,

X = 0, HA + HF = 5*4, HF = 12 kN

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-44

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
40 kN
2.7
48 48 8 8
B B E E8
8 42.7 8 8 42.7 8 8
42.7
C D 2.7
2.7
48 8
48 8
42.7 8 2.7
8
B E

5 kN/m
F
Free-body Diagrams 12 2.7
A
8 42.7

-8 -8
-42.7
B - E 2.7
C D

- +
F 2.7

-42.7

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-45

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

42.7 42.7

2.7 2.7 E
B C 8
-8 D

2.4m
F
-12

A -8
Shear Force (kN)
-48

-5.3 E
-48 B C 8
D 8
14.4
2.4m

A
Bending Moment (kNm)
HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-46
CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

## Tutorial 3 (Analysis of Frames)

Find the support reactions, and draw the axial force diagram, shear force
diagram and bending moment diagram for the frames shown below.

Q1.
6 kN/m

C D
2.5m

30 kN
B

5m
2.5m

A E
6m

Q2.
50 kN 40 kN
1.5m 2m 1.5m
E is an internal hinge

B C D E
4m

15 kN/m
6m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-47

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q3.
60 kN 30 kN

B C D E
6 kN/m

5m
F
A
3m 3m 3m

Q4.
24 kN
E 20 kN
2m

D
B C
2 kN/m
4m

3m 3m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-48

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q5.
20 kN
10 kNm 6 kNm
B
C D E

C is an internal hinge
2 kN/m

4m
A F

2m 1m 1m
Q6.
15 kN/m

C D E F G
3m

E is an internal hinge
65 kN
B
3m

A H

3m 5m 5m 2m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-49

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q7.
10 kN/m
30 kN
C D E

3m
B F

3m
A G
3m 3m
B, D & F are internal hinges

Q8.
2 kN/m

B C D
C is an internal hinge
4m
6m

E
3 kN/m

A
3m 3m

## HD in Civil Engineering Page 3-50

CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q9.
200 kN

C
B

3m
100 kN
D

3m
C is an internal hinge

A E

3m 4m

Q10.
4 kN/m

B C 4m

A D
4m 6m 4m