A STUDY ON ´EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCHANDISE PRESENTATION STRATEGIES IN SUPER MARKET IN WOMEN ETHNIC WEARSµ

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EXECUTIVE SUMMERY

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EXECUTIVE SUMMERY
Visual merchandising Visual merchandising is the activity of promoting the sale of goods, especially by their presentation in retail outlets.(New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1999, Oxford University Press). This includes combining products, environments, and spaces into a stimulating and engaging display to encourage the sale of a product or service. It has become such an important element in retailing that a team effort involving the senior management, architects, merchandising managers, buyers, the visual merchandising director, designers, and staff is needed. Visual merchandising starts with the store building itself. The management then decides on the store design to reflect the products the store is going to sell and how to create a warm, friendly, and approachable atmosphere for its potential customers. Many elements can be used by visual merchandisers in creating displays, including colour, lighting, space, product information, sensory inputs such as smell, touch, and sound as well as technologies such as digital displays and interactive installations. Visual merchandising is not a science; there are no absolute rules. It is more like an art in the sense that there are implicit rules but that these also exist to be broken for striking effects. The main principle of visual merchandising is that it is intended to increase sales, which is not the case with a "real" art. Visual merchandising is one of the final stages in trying to set out a store in a way that customers will find attractive and appealing and it should follow and reflect the principles that underpin the store¶s image. Visual merchandising is the way one displays 'goods for sale' in the most attractive manner with the end purpose of making a sale. "If it does not sell, it is not visual merchandising." Especially in today¶s challenging economy, people may avoid designers/ visual merchandisers because they fear unmanageable costs. But in reality, visual merchandisers

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can help economise by avoiding costly mistakes. With guidance of a professional, retailer can eliminate errors, saving time and money. It is important to understand that the visual merchandiser is there, not to impose ideas, but to help clients articulate their own personal style. Visual merchandising is the art of implementing effective design ideas to increase store traffic and sales volume. VM is an art and science of displaying merchandise to enable maximum sale. VM is a tool to achieve sales and targets, a tool to enhance merchandise on the floor, and a mechanism to communicate to a customer and influence his decision to buy. VM uses season based displays to introduce new arrivals to customers, and thus increase conversions through a planned and systematic approach by displaying stocks available. Recently visual merchandising has gained in importance as a quick and cost effective way to revamp retail stores. Purpose Retail professionals display to make the shopping experience more comfortable, convenient and customer friendly by:
y y y y

Making it easier for the shopper to locate the desired category and merchandise. Making it easier for the shopper to self-select. Making it possible for the shopper to co-ordinate & accessorize. Informing about the latest fashion trends by highlighting them at strategic locations.

Merchandise presentation refers to most basic ways of presenting merchandise in an orderly, understandable, ¶easy to shop¶ and µfind the product¶ format. This easier format is especially implemented in fast fashion retailers

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VM helps in:
y

educating the customers about the product/service in an effective and creative way.

y

establishing a creative medium to present merchandise in 3D environment, thereby enabling long lasting impact and recall value.

y

setting the company apart in an exclusive position. establishing linkage between fashion, product design and marketing by keeping the product in prime focus.

y

y

combining the creative, technical and operational aspects of a product and the business.

drawing the attention of the customer to enable him to take purchase decision within shortest possible time, and thus augmenting the selling process. History Every shopkeeper and merchant's primary objective is to sell merchandise. When the giant nineteenth century dry goods establishments like Marshall Field & Co. shifted their business from wholesale to retail the visual display of goods became necessary to attract the retail customer. The store windows no longer simply allowed natural light to shine in the building or act as storage space for stock; they became important venues to attractively display the store's merchandise. Gradually, the design aesthetic used in window displays moved indoors and became part of the overall interior store design, eventually displacing the importance windows altogether in suburban malls. Museums and department stores in America have a shared history of displaying their products, both having come of age in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Like world's fairs, department stores and museums crowded everything together on shelves or in display cases. Today displays in museums are referred to as exhibitions, while displays

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in stores are referred to as "Visual Merchandising. Essentially, visual merchandising is the selling of a store's goods through visual means, incorporating advertising, and window displays, and interior sales floor design and display. Throughout the twentieth century, well-known artists such as Salvador Dalí and Andy Warhol created window displays, while other artists who are lesser known were commissioned to design unique objects specifically for visual merchandising purposes. 1. Sell by showing and promoting the product. 2. Create an emotional connect beween the viewer and the display. 3. Encourage the shopper to enter the store. 4. Get the customer to pause and ³shop´ the selling floor. 5. Establish, promote, and enhance the store¶s visual image. 6. Entertain customers and enhance their shopping experience. 7. Introduce and explain new products. Variances Planogram A Planogram allows planning of the arrangement of merchandise on a given fixture configuration to support sales through proper placement of merchandise by Style, Option, Size, Price points, etc. It also enables a chain of stores to have the same merchandise displayed in a coherent and similar manner across the chain. The main purpose is to support ease of applicability to the merchandiser while also increasing selection & enhancing the merchandise display in a neat and organized manner. Window Displays A retailer's window is the most controllable element in relation to image and must match their merchandise's target demographic. Windows may communicate style, content, and price point. They can be seductive, exciting or based on emotional stimulus through stimulation, or evocation of all five senses. Another direction taken by retailers who rely

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on volume sold is price-based selling. These clearly emphasize value for money with easy and obvious ticketing. The best store windows can generate great excitement and are a talking point. They contribute to the environment by entertaining pedestrians, while simultaneously communicating the products and services on offer. For a retailer willing to exploit the full potential that a window gives, the image-building process can be exciting and have enormous potential. A fashion retailer, for instance, will often change a window weekly to show the latest items on offer. A glance into a shop's window by a passerby establishes the time of the year and, very likely, a timely contemporary event. It might combine seasonal and festive points of the year such as Back-to-school, Spring, Summer, Easter, Christmas, New Year approaching, Diwali, Valentine's Day, Mother's Day etc. At other times the propping may be based on color schemes, materials or cultural themes.

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study aims to review of customers¶ responses on the visual merchandising of supermarkets. In addition, main objective of this study is to examine the influence emerged from visual merchandising on consumer¶s store choice behavior. The specific objectives of the study are, 1. To identify the influence made by the Lighting on consumer¶s store choice decisions 2. To examine the impact made by Design Layouts on consumer store preference 3. To find out the influence made by Product Display to encourage customer¶s buying decisions 4. To evaluate the relative importance of cleanliness of supermarket premises on customers store choice behavior.

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RESEARCH PROBLEM

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RESEARCH PROBLEM
The interior design within store can maintain customer interest, encourage customers to lower their psychological defenses and easy to make purchasing decisions (Kotler, 1974; Walters and White, 1987; Bitner, 1992; Omar, 1999; Davies and Ward, 2002). Therefore, Marketers have recognized that point of visual merchandising in retailing makes significant effect on consumer buying decisions (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1996). Most of researches conducted in supermarket concept in western base countries are referring to different superstore system compared to INDIAN condition. Though they are labeled as supermarkets, these are only retail outlets providing self services. Kerfoot, Davis and Ward (2003) found that Visual merchandising is main element of store choice behavior. The study conducted by Sinha and Banergy (2004), found that in-store environment is not important on store choice decisions in evolving market. Shopping is a recreational activity and selecting a store is perceived to be high on ³entertainment´ value. (Woodside et al.,1992). As well as some researchers have argued that store choice behavior depends on supermarket location and its service level. According to Hartline (2000) the behaviors of frontline service employees are critical to customer evaluations of service encounter. Ugur yavas (2001) found that major criteria for store choice decisions are distance, travel time and size of an outlet. In INDIAN context, most of supermarkets use visual merchandising as point of sales promotions within their supermarket premises. And also the major supermarket chains are highly concerned about background music and in store fragrance. According to some INDIAN supermarket managers, all major supermarket chains spend more than 40% of their promotional budget on in store promotions. The major reason behind this is

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that many of the marketers today reasonably assume that a considerable influence can be made on buying decisions of consumers through visual merchandising. Though the situation is so, in certain cases, it seems that some customers select the stores based on outside promotional tools like car parking spaces, location and Children Park etc other than stimulation of visual merchandising. Hence, the problem centered in this study is to measure the extent to which visual merchandising of INDIAN supermarket affects the customers store choice decisions.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is considered as the nerve of the project. Without a proper well-organized research plan, it is impossible to complete the project and reach to any conclusion. The project was based on the survey plan. The main objective of survey was to collect appropriate data, which work as a base for drawing conclusion and getting result. Therefore, research methodology is the way to systematically solve the research problem. Research methodology not only talks of the methods but also logic behind the methods used in the context of a research study and it explains why a particular method has been used in the preference of the other methods Data Collection As a matter of fact, this study is almost an empirical one. So, as far as possible attempt was made to gather primary data. In that context, a detailed questionnaire was administrated. Meanwhile personal interviews and observations were also made. The primary research was carried out in 05 supermarkets located in Delhi, Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon and information were collected from customers who were purchasing products from the supermarket at the time of the survey. Additionally, secondary data for conceptualization and operationalization of the matters and other purposes were also utilized through textbooks, articles of journals and web sites etc. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews from 200 respondents selected from four areas of Delhi and suburbs. There was no any rejected questionnaire due to field investigators personally filled questionnaire with personal interviews. On the other hand, the researcher instructed them to select only the customers who purchase products from supermarkets. Most of the data pertaining to this study have been collected from

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customer sample drawn from Delhi and suburbs. The sample was distributed in Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida and Faridabad by selecting 50 respondents from each area. Data analysis Procedure Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in presenting and analyzing the data. Descriptive tools such as frequency counts, mean scores, percentages and standard deviation were calculated for the statements on the questionnaire in order to determine the impact of in store promotions on store choice decisions. In addition, correlation was used to determine the relationship between customer¶s attitudes regarding visual merchandizing variables and customers store choice behavior.

Data collection methods:
After the research problem, we have to identify and select which type of data is to research. At this stage; we have to organize a field survey to collect the data. One of the important tools for conducting market research is the availability of necessary and useful data.

Primary data: For primary data collection, we have to plan the following four
important aspects.  Sampling  Research Instrument  Secondary Data - The Company¶s profile, journals and various literature studies are important sources of secondary data.  Data analysis and interpretation 1. Questionnaires 2. Pie chart and Bar chart

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Questionnaires:
This is the most popular tool for the data collection. A questionnaire contains question that the researcher wishes to ask his respondents which is always guided by the objective of the survey.

Pie chart:
This is very useful diagram to represent data, which are divided into a number of categories. This diagram consists of a circle of divided into a number of sectors, which are proportional to the values they represent. The total value is represented by the full create. The diagram bar chart can make comparison among the various components or between a part and a whole of data.

Bar chart:
This is another way of representing data graphically. As the name implies, it consist of a number of whispered bar, which originate from a common base line and are equal widths. The lengths of the bards are proportional to the value they represent.

Preparation of report:
The report was based on the analysis and presented with the findings and suggestions. The sample of the questionnaires is attached with the report itself.

Sample size: The sample size is 100

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ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW

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INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANIES
VISHAL MEGA MART What started as a humble one store enterprise in 1986 in Kolkata (erstwhile, Calcutta) is today a conglomerate encompassing 180 showrooms in 100 cities / 24 states. India¶s first hyper-market has also been opened for the Indian consumer by Vishal. Situated in the national capital Delhi this store boasts of the singe largest collection of goods and commodities sold under one roof in India.The group had a turnover of Rs. 1463.12 million for fiscal 2005, under the dynamic leadership of Mr.Ram Chandra Agarwal . The group had a turnover of Rs 2884.43 million for fiscal 2006 and Rs. 6026.53 million for fiscal 2007. The group¶s prime focus is on retailing. The Vishal stores offer affordable family fashion at prices to suit every pocket. The group¶s philosophy is integration and towards this end has initiated backward integration in the field of high fashion by setting up a state of the art manufacturing facility to support its retail endeavors. Vishal is one of fastest growing retailing groups in India. Its outlets cater to almost all price ranges. The showrooms have over 70,000 products range which fulfills all your household needs, and can be catered to under one roof. It is covering about 29, 90, 146 sq. ft. in 24 states across India. Each store gives you international quality goods and prices hard to match. The cost benefits that is derived from the large central purchase of goods and services is passed on to the consumer. Vishal Retail Ltd. has a factory in Gurgaon, Haryana. This factory has more than 700 imported machines that have a capacity to manufacturer 150000 pieces a month. The factory occupies 80000 sq ft of covered space.The Vishal group indirectly gives employment to more than a 1000 people. These people work in ancillaries that supply finished goods to the company.

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- HOME FURNISHING Drawing Room Door Mat Carpet Curtains Kitchen Apron Kitchen Napkin Bedroom Bed Sheet Pillows Pillow Cover Bathroom Bath Mats Towel Gift Sets

--------------------------------------------------------------------- FOOD MART FOOD & BEVERAGES Snacks Drinks

----------------------------------------------------------------------- SPORTS & FITNESS INDOOR GAMES Basket Ball T.T. Bat Boxing Kit OUTDOOR GAMES Cricket Bat Football Lawn Tennis

Swimming Costumes Tennis Racket Water Ball Fitness Equip. Personal Gym -------------------------------------------------------------Tennis Ball

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------- FOOTWEAR BOYS Shoes Sandals LADIES Shoes Slippers GIRLS Slippers Sandals MENS Shoes Slippers

--------------------------------------------------------------------- TELEMART Communication Mobile Mobile Accessories Mobile Batteries Mobile Charger Mobile Dori

----------------------------------------------------------------------- MENS Upper Shirt Casual Shirt Formal Ethnic & Sports Night Suits T-Shirts Dupatta Sherwani Lower Jeans(MP) Cotton Trouser(MPC) Winter Wear Suit(WMC) Blazer(WMB) Windcheater(WMW) Jacket

--------------------------------------------------------------

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---------- LADIES ACCESSORIES Upper Kurta Skirt Top Ethnic Nighty Lancha Sharara Salwar Suit Lower Pants Jeans Capri Winter Wear Jackets Stawl Blazer Track Suit

----------------------------------------------------------------------- INFANTS Garments Hot Pant Frock Baba Suit Winter Wear Sweater Pull Over ----------------------------------------------------------------------- WOMEN Sarees Fancy(SRF) Synthetics Banarsi Jewellery Necklace Cosmetics LIp Gloss Personal Items Cap(LCA) Socks(Las) Accessories Bed Sheet Under Garments Socks

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Ring

Nail Polish

----------------------------------------------------------------------- KIDS BOYS Lower Jeans Bermudas Dungries Upper Shirt Formal T-Shirt Ethnic Kurta- Pyjama Sherwani Sets Night Suit Baba Suit Winter Wear Suit Blazer Jacket

----------------------------------------------------------------------- KIDS GIRLS Lower Hot Pant Skirt Dungries Upper Tops(GWT) Frock(GFK) Ethnic Sharara Lancha Sets Night Suit Capri Set Winter Wear Hipster Set Blazer Jacket

----------------------------------------------------------------------- TRAVEL ACCESSORIES Luggages Suitcase Portfolio Bags Shoulder Bags Executive Bag School Bags Pouch & Cases

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Waist Pouch Vanity Cases ----------------------------------------------------------------------- HOUSEHOLD Acrylic Ware Dinner Set Home Aids Floor Wiper Sanitary Brush General Goods Coffee Mug Bucket Glass Ware Cup Lemon Set Chopper Soup Set Copper Jug Steel Cake Server

Pressure Cooker Non Stick Cooker Pressure Pan Handi Dosa Tawa Bone China

PlasticElectrical App.

Microwave Oven Dessert Set Thermo Ware Tiffin Container Porcelain Cup & Saucer

----------------------------------------------------------------------- LIFESTYLE Time Zone Ladies Watch Mens Wrist Watch Mens Sun Glass Mens Accessories Electric Key Chain &Perfume/Deo Opticals Gifts & Novelties

WristLadies Sun Glass Flower Vase

Electronics Items Belts Wallets - TOYS & GAMES Battery(ABT) Spray

Calculator(EEC) Deo

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Soft Toys Musical Toys Non-Musical Board Games Wooden Blocks Puzzles more... - STATIONARY School Exam Board Clay Party Stuff Balloons Ribbons

Dolls Barbie Doll Other Dolls Infant Toys Teether Swing

Cycles & Scooters Cycles Scooters Video Games T.V. Video Game Hand Video Game

Office Office File

Paper Mart Diary

Punching Machine File

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SPANCER HYPERMART GURGAON pencer¶s Retail Limited is a multi-format retailer providing a wide range of quality products to discerning young customers - well-travelled citizens of the world, looking out for authentic flavors and experiences in a fun-filled shopping environment. Our brand positioning ± Taste the World ± embodies this approach, delighting shoppers with the best that the world has to offer in terms of interiors, ambience and merchandise. Part of the Rs 15,500 crore RPG Group, we run about 250 stores (including about 29 large format stores) across 50 cities in India, employing more than 6,000 people. As one of the earliest entrants in the retail space in India, we have been instrumental in introducing Indian consumers to the concept of organized retailing, becoming the country¶s first grocery chain back in 1920, and offering the joys of hypermarket shopping in 2001. A ³food first´ retailer we offer both fresh and packaged foods as well as groceries. We also have a wide selection of electronics and electrical equipment, home and office essentials, garments and fashion accessories, toys, and personal care. Since 1863, Spencer¶s has been a part of the Indian retail landscape. At one time, the Spencer¶s Empire stretched from Peshawar to Cochin, from Karachi to

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Chittagong, spanning the length and width of undivided India. Originally owned by a British gentleman ± yes, there was a Mr. Spencer (John William Spencer, to be precise) ± it acquired Indian ownership in the 1960s, and became part of the RPG Group in 1989. In 1995, RPG Enterprises, the flagship company of the RPG Group, launched Foodworld as a joint venture with Hong-Kong based Dairy Farm International. The joint venture, which operated supermarkets under thename ³Foodworld´ and hypermarkets under the name ³Giant´, was terminated in 2006. RPG retained 48 of the 93 stores it owned. These were re-furbished and their launch under the brand name, Spencer¶s, kicked off a new phase in both the history of the Spencer¶s brand, and the retailin India. Since inception Spencer¶s has been a consumer-centric brand, constantly innovating, pioneering formats, evolving over time but always keeping consumer needs and satisfaction center-stage. Back in 1920, we were the first grocery chain in India. In 1980, we became the first supermarket chain, and in 2001, we introduced India to the joys of hypermarket shopping. What has remained unchanged almost 150 years is the trust the Spencer¶s brand evokes. To the consumer, it carries the promise of innovation, quality, and service; the confidence that they will always be able to find a Spencer¶s at a convenient location; that it will have a pleasant ambience; and that it will offer a wide range of products at affordable prices. The spancer hypermart is situated at Spencers Hyper, MGF MEGACITY MALL 122002 BIG BAZAR (PANTALON) Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited, is India¶s leading retailer that operates multiple retail formats in both the value and lifestyle segment of the Indian consumer market. Headquartered in Mumbai (Bombay), the company operates over 10 million square feet of retail space, has over 1000 stores across 61 cities in India and employs over 30,000 people.

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The company¶s leading formats include Pantaloons, a chain of fashion outlets, Big Bazaar, a uniquely Indian hypermarket chain, Food Bazaar, a supermarket chain, blends the look, touch and feel of Indian bazaars with aspects of modern retail like choice, convenience and quality and Central, a chain of seamless destination malls. Some of its other formats include, Depot, Shoe Factory, Brand Factory, Blue Sky, Fashion Station, aLL, Top 10, mBazaar and Star and Sitara. The company also operates an online portal, futurebazaar.com. A subsidiary company, Home Solutions Retail (India) Limited,

operates Home Town, a large-format home solutions store, Collection i, selling home furniture products and E-Zone focused on catering to the consumer electronics segment. Pantaloon Retail was recently awarded the International Retailer of the Year 2007 by the US-based National Retail Federation (NRF) and the Emerging Market Retailer of the Year 2007 at the World Retail Congress held in Barcelona.

Pantaloon Retail is the flagship company of Future Group, a business group catering to the entire Indian consumption space. Pantaloon is not just an organization - it is an institution, a centre of learning & development. We believe that knowledge is the only weapon at our disposal and our quest for it is focused, systematic and unwavering. At Pantaloon, we take pride in challenging conventions and thinking out of the box, in travelling on the road less traveled. Our corporate doctrine µRewrite Rules, Retain Values¶ is derived from this spirit. Over the years, the company has accelerated growth through its ability to lead change. A number of its pioneering concepts have now emerged as industry standards. For instance, the company integrated backwards into garment manufacturing even as it expanded its retail presence at the front end, well before any other Indian retail company attempted this. It was the first to introduce the concept of the retail departmental store for the entire family through Pantaloons in 1997. The company was the first to launch a hypermarket in India with Big Bazaar, a large discount store that it commissioned in

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Kolkata in October 2001. And the company introduced the country to the Food Bazaar, a unique 'bazaar' within a hypermarket, which was launched in July 2002 in Mumbai. Embracing our leadership value, the company launched aLL in July 2005 in Mumbai, making us the first retailer in India to open a fashion store for plus size men and women. Today we are the fastest growing retail company in India. The number of stores is going to increase many folds year on year along with the new formats coming up. The way we work is distinctly "Pantaloon". Our courage to dream and to turn our dreams into reality ± that change people¶s lives, is our biggest advantage. Pantaloon is an invitation to join a place where there are no boundaries to what you can achieve. It means never having to stop asking questions; it means never having to stop raising the bar. It is an opportunity to take risks, and it is this passion that makes our dreams a reality.Come enter a world where we promise you good days and bad days, but never a dull moment! Based on the company¶s in-house consumer data and research, and in cognizance with observations on customer movements and the shopping convenience factor, Food Bazaar has initiated certain refurbishments and layout design across all stores. The intention is to continuously change with the times and demands of the evolving Indian consumer.

Food Bazaar also witnessed healthy expansion during the year 2006-07, making its presence felt in nearly 26 cities and adding 40 stores during the year under review. The total count of Food Bazaars as on 30th June 2007 stood at 86 stores. The year under review witnessed the company¶s private label programme gaining significant traction. The brands have been very competitive vis-à-vis the established brands in quality and price terms, and have in fact scored better than national or international players in certain categories. The share of private labels as a percentage of total Food Bazaar revenues has increased significantly and comprise nearly 50 merchandise categories.

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While Fresh & Pure brand entered categories like cheese slices, frozen peas, honey, packaged drinking water and packaged tea, the Tasty Treat brand received a very favorable response in new categories like namkeens and wafers. In the home care category, Caremate launched aluminum foil and baby diapers while Cleanmate launched detergent bars and scrubbers. A new format µBB Wholesale Club¶ was launched and 4 such stores have been opened so far. To be managed by Food Bazaar from the ensuing financial year, this format sells only multi-packs and bulk packs of a select range of fast moving categories and caters to price sensitive customers and smaller retailers. The company has also forged tie-ups with established companies like ITC, Adanis, DCM Group, USAID and other farm groups in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to source directly from them. These alliances are expected to drive efficiencies as well as bring better products to consumers. By the end of FY 07-08, the total number of Food Bazaar stores is expected to be 200.

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LITERATURE SURVEY

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THE IMPACT OF VISUAL MERCHANDISING ON CONSUMER STORE CHOICE DECISIONS IN INDIAN SUPERMARKETS

ABSTRACT The supermarket concept was initially started in INDIA at 1980¶s and the particular industry began to expand after the year 2000. The supermarket industry is at the growing stage of the Industry Life Cycle. The Visual Merchandising of supermarket outlets were focused in this study and major purpose was to examine the consumer reaction to the Visual Merchandising in supermarkets in INDIA. This study was based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from the sample survey that was conducted in the area of Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon and Faridabad. 200 respondents were selected for the sample. A questionnaire was designed to obtain customer¶s attitudes regarding major variables of Visual Merchandising in their store choice decisions. Visual Merchandising was grouped into four variables namely

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Lighting, Cleanliness.

Design

Layouts,

Product

Display

and

The secondary data were collected from published sources. The study revealed that the influence emerged from Product Display and Cleanliness on consumer store choice decisions is very significant. The Lighting and Design

Layouts moderately influenced their store choice behavior. The overall conclusion is that visual merchandising has significant impact on store choice decision of customers in INDIA.
INTRODUCTION Retailing as an industry has been growing by leaps and bounds, over the past decade. Different types of retailers such as supermarket chains, clothing and textile outlets/chains and food chains have emerged at present. There are several major supermarket chains operating in INDIA. The private supermarket chains in the country are on a rapid expansion driven to urban and rural areas. It was only about three years ago the supermarkets in INDIA widely expanded all over the areas outside the city limits. This was driven by the factors like the emergence of a new social circle of wealthy people in outstation areas, the newly acquainted life styles of people requiring them to seek such services. Due to the mass demand, a number of supermarkets have been established in addition to the existing areas.

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The supermarket concept was initiated in INDIA with the departmental stores namely Cargills and Millers, during the British Colonial period. The supermarkets were initially started in INDIA in 1980¶s. Whatever the situation, this particular industry began to expand after the year 2000. Today, the supermarket industry is at the growing stage of its Industry Life Cycle. As per data available, there are approximately 325 supermarket outlets offering FMCG products in major areas in the country. Two major company¶s supermarket chains such as Cargills Food City and Keels Supper dominate the industry. At present, these two major supermarket chains have 100 outlets all over the country. In addition to above major supermarket chains, there are 33 outlets operated by other small supermarket chains such as Sentra, Kings Supper, Arpico, Sun Up, Park,n,Shop, Cristal and Prince Supper etc. In addition to the major super market chains, there are also selfservice retailing outlets owned by individuals operating in all over the country. RESEARCH PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES The interior design within store can maintain customer interest, encourage customers to lower their psychological defenses and easy to make purchasing decisions (Kotler, 1974; Walters and White, 1987; Bitner, 1992; Omar, 1999; Davies and Ward, 2002). Therefore, Marketers have recognized that point of visual merchandising in retailing makes significant effect on consumer buying decisions (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1996). Most of researches conducted in supermarket concept in western base countries are referring to different superstore system compared to INDIAN condition. Though they are labeled as supermarkets, these are only retail outlets providing self services. Kerfoot, Davis and Ward (2003) found that Visual merchandising is main element of store choice behavior. The study conducted by Sinha and Banergy (2004), found that in-store

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environment is not important on store choice decisions in evolving market. Shopping is a recreational activity and selecting a store is perceived to be high on ³entertainment´ value. (Woodside et al.,1992). As well as some researchers have argued that store choice behavior depends on supermarket location and its service level. According to Hartline (2000) the behaviors of frontline service employees are critical to customer evaluations of service encounter. Ugur yavas (2001) found that major criteria for store choice decisions are distance, travel time and size of an outlet. In INDIAN context, most of supermarkets use visual merchandising as point of sales promotions within their supermarket premises. And also the major supermarket chains are highly concerned about background music and in store fragrance. According to some INDIAN supermarket managers, all major supermarket chains spend more than 40% of their promotional budget on in store promotions. The major reason behind this is that many of the marketers today reasonably assume that a considerable influence can be made on buying decisions of consumers through visual merchandising. Though the situation is so, in certain cases, it seems that some customers select the stores based on outside promotional tools like car parking spaces, location and Children Park etc other than stimulation of visual merchandising. Hence, the problem centered in this study is to measure the extent to which visual merchandising of INDIAN supermarket affects the customers store choice decisions. This study aims to review of customers¶ responses on the visual merchandising of supermarkets. In addition, main objective of this study is to examine the influence emerged from visual merchandising on consumer¶s store choice behavior. The specific objectives of the study are,

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5. To identify the influence made by the Lighting on consumer¶s store choice decisions 6. To examine the impact made by Design Layouts on consumer store preference 7. To find out the influence made by Product Display to encourage customer¶s buying decisions 8. To evaluate the relative importance of cleanliness of supermarket premises on customers store choice behavior. LITERATURE REVIEW Retailers are facing a keen competitive market place and as a consequence of that they find many difficulties to differentiate their stores on the basis of product, place, people, price and promotion. Retail store elements such as colour, lighting and visual merchandising have always been considered as having immediate effects on the buying decision making process. The emphasis has moved away from in-store product displays, towards elements that excite the senses of shoppers such as flat screen videos or graphics, music, smells, lighting and flooring that tend to capture the brand image or personality and help to create an unique environment and shopping experience (McGoldrick, 1990; Marsh, 1999). The physical in store environment has been examined in relation to various elements, for example: orienting factors (Davies and Ward, 2002); signage (Bitner, 1992); Spatial factors and ambient conditions (Davies and Ward, 2002), which Kotler termed ³atmospherics´. The work regarding physicality of in-store environment focuses on the ³communication´ of elements through cues and stimuli that the consumer digests through a number of sensory modalities (visual, aural, olfactory, haptic and taste).

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Therefore, all literature commonly recognized as in-store environment depends on visual merchandising and other in store promotions. Visual simulation and communication have long been considered important aspect of retailing by practitioners and academic alike (McGoldrick, 1990,2002). This interest in the visual has ± at one level within the retail context ± coalesced to from the practices of ³visual merchandising´. This is defined as the activity, which coordinates effective merchandising selection with effective merchandising display (Wolters and White, 1987, p.238). Visual merchandising is therefore concerned with both how the product and/ or brand are visually communicated to the customer and also whether this message is decoded ³appropriately´. In this context, it will be affecting to a positive psychological or behavioral outcome, ultimately leading to purchase. In a study of store choice behavior among audio equipment shoppers, Dash et al. (1976) found that the level of pre-purchase information regarding the brand determined the type of store chosen. Shoppers who had higher levels of pre-purchase information generally shopped at the specialty store, whereas shoppers with low pre-purchase information bought at departmental stores. This is mainly attributed to customers adopting a risk reduction policy with regard to their impending purchase. Kenhove et al. (1999) found that store choice is differentiated by the nature of the task. They studied the store choice decision across various tasks as described by the respondents, such as urgent purchase, large quantities, difficult job, regular purchase and get ideas. The chosen stores differed in their salience rating depending on the task the shopper intended to perform. The salience of the stores has also been found to be affected by situational factors.

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In a study conducted by Mattson (1982), was found that situational attributes, such as time pressure and gift-versus self-shopping, can influence store choice and attribute salience. It is also indicated that the situational influence needs to be evaluated for every visit and hence some shoppers may change their choice because of situation specific drivers. These situational influences may be classified as the competitive setting, the individual¶s situational set and the shopping occasion. The atmosphere of the shopping environment can influence customer attitudes and their perceptions in relation to the overall quality of the store in terms of the uniqueness of the product, service levels (Baker, Grewal and Parasraman, 1994), the purchase price (Areni and Kim, 1993) and purchase volume (Milliman, 1982). The role of ambience in store choice has also been found significant. Kotler (1974) has proposed atmospherics as an important part of retail marketing strategy. It is also found that the shoppers determine the value of the merchandise based on monetary as well as nonmonetary costs (Zeithaml, 1988). It was found that recreation (a non-monetary value) was the major driver for visiting a regional shopping centre (Treblanche, 1999). The shopping experience, as created by the store environment, has been found to play an important role in building store patronage. Along with the merchandise, it triggered affective reaction among shoppers (Baker et al., 1992). It also contributes to creating store patronage intentions (Baker et al., 2002). According to above research studies, some researchers have argued that in-store environment is critical component of store choice behavior and some other researchers have argued that other variables are most important than in-store environment. However, the previous research studies are providing evidence to store choice behavior is different

38

in different cultures. It leaves problem to us, ³Whether visual merchandising can significantly influence on customer¶s store choice behavior in INDIAN supermarkets´ CONCEPTUALIZATION In conceptualizing the study, researchers have attempted to build relationship between key variables i.e., visual merchandising (independent variable) and store choice behavior (dependent variables). According to the literature and pilot study in INDIAN supermarkets, researchers recognized that lighting, design layout, product display and cleanliness are the main variables of visual merchandizing. It is also necessary to examine the relationship between two key variables and other variables influenced on dependent variable. This would enable the researchers to interpret the findings in a more comprehensive manner. The conceptual model that has been developed indicating their relationship is given below
Lighting

Design Layout Product Display Cleanliness

Visual Merchandizing

Store Choice Behavior

Conceptual Model

39

ART AND SCIENCE BEHIND

For many years, businesses have tried to sell their products to buyers with limited merchandise options. It did not matter how the merchandise was displayed, how the store looked, or whether the sellers were polite. Just having merchandise available very often guaranteed a sale. Not any more though. Nowadays with an increase in the number of manufacturers and retailers, a buyer has many options available in terms of style, functionality and price points. In a market where buyers are now controlling the demand-supply chain, it has become an exercise for sellers to entice the audience via the art and science of Visual Merchandising (VM) and retail designing. It is the science and psychology of the retail and fashion world. VM involves the techniques to draw shoppers into a store and keep them there. It includes understanding buying habits and affects what you see ² and how you see it. Threedimensional displays, the use of colour and accessories and the placement of the season¶s merchandise for maximum impact fall under the domain of VM. VM starts with the merchandise itself and not with the decoration. The main issue is to make the merchandise extremely attractive, exciting and enticing, stimulating the buyer¶s appetite and finally resulting in the decision to buy. Effective visual merchandising can directly affect the bottom line of any retailer by: 1. Maximising walk-ins 2. Increasing sales conversion 3. Increasing average customer billing amount 4. Insuring higher recall value in the mind of the consumer and hence creating a loyal and ever expanding base of customers. Here are four display basics to be considered for designing a visual presentation: 1. Colour and texture 40

2. Line and composition 3. Lights and lighting 4. Types of display and display settings Colour Colour is the biggest motivation for shopping. People buy colour before they buy size, fit or price. People also react to the colours around the merchandise being considered. Colours are often selected for the amount of contrast they provide. The Colour Marketing Group (CMG) consists of colour specialists from most industries for which colour is a major factor in what is manufactured. The group serves as a guide, forecasts directions and indicated colour trends well enough in advance so that the information can be integrated into design and production schedules.

Lines Line is a direction. It is the second most important element after colour in creating a response to the merchandise in display. It is known that each line suggests something else and as letters are combined to form words, lines are arranged to make selling µpictures¶. A straight line can be direct and forceful or rigid and precise. Long, low, wide, spreading lines suggest an easy going, restful quality. The diagonal line is the line of action; it is forceful, strong, and dynamic. Light Effective lighting can grab instant attention and facilitate the creation of that favourable first impression of the merchandise and its surroundings. Just as colour creates the emotional connection with the customer, light reinforces this emotional connection by bringing the desired colours to life. When manipulated rightly, light creates the desired emotion like the feeling of warmth, of clarity, of curiosity, of wonder, mystery and even

41

amazement. Good lighting can guide the customers' eyes; reveal the colour and form of the merchandise. Types of display The primary purposes of displays are to present and promote. A display is at its best when it simply shows a colour, an item, a collection or just an idea. Displays can be of the following four types: One-item display: The showing and advancement of a single garment or any single item. It might be a gown designed by a top designer, a one of a kind ceramic or jewellery or a new automobile. Line-of-goods display: Shows only one type of merchandise e.g. all skirts, all pants, all chairs; although they maybe in a variety of designs or colours. Related merchandise display: Separates, accessories or other items that go together may be displayed as they are meant to be together because either they are the same colour or they share an idea or a theme. Variety or assortment display: It is a mix of anything and everything. It is a collection of unrelated items that happen to be sold in the same store. Display settings In the presentation of a display, there are some basic steps to set the scene for the merchandise or the concept to be sold. These display settings largely influence your perception and relation to the product and the brand displayed. They therefore directly influence the pricing and consequently the profitability of the product being sold. For example, similar products when displayed in large numbers diminish exclusivity and when displayed in lesser number increase the exclusivity and therefore the perceived value of the product. Hence, in the domain of display settings, less could mean more.

42

For a visual merchandiser the challenge is to make the retail space highly customer friendly so that a client can spend maximum time in the given retail space, likely making a wise buying decision. In order to achieve these standards, the visual merchandiser has to look very deeply into the psychology of the customers as well as the walkers-by. Research on how customers move through a store and what they see, shows that there are certain hot spots and locations in a shop that catch the customer¶s eye first. Putting up communications will help stimulate purchases, especially impulse sales. As I see, VM is perched on this fine line between art and science. It demands the rigors and method of science and the inspired imagination of art. Both of these combined and when in harmony, give it the power to change our lives by changing what we buy, where we buy and why we buy. Still in it is infancy in India; visual merchandising is set to grow with the rapidly changing retail scenario. As more and more brands come into the country, the fight for the consumer¶s mind-space is going to be like never before. Eventually, it is the visual merchandiser who is going to help win this battle for the consumer¶s wallet. As brands learn to add value through product differentiation and thrive to give customers the perfect shopping experience, VM in India too, shall have its due.

43

ATMOSFERIC AND RETAIL SPACE MANAGEMENT Atmosphere is referred to a store's physical attributes which is the key factor in order to draw customers. It is also important in creating a brand positioning for the outlet. The quality of the service experience for the customer , is a major factor in positioning the brand in the minds of the visitors of the store. As one of the customers of the local grocery store puts it when asked about the reason why he frequents the particular store he answered and I quote "A pleasant experience is the ultimate memory". These words above correctly depict the significance of the small scale retailers in the lives of the people. This relationship between the customer and the retailer is the USP of the small scale shop owners. And this is exactly what the organized players lack. But the organized retailer compensates the same by providing more facilities to the customer under one roof. For instance big retailers often have a large display area, thus creating an atmosphere where the customer is comfortable in selecting or evaluating the goods they wish to buy. Atmospherics and space management are effective tools in managing any retail business. It is now that Visual merchandising has come to the forefront. Surprisingly in India Raymond was the first retail fashion chain which took 'Atmospherics' seriously. And today many other retailers are following the path of Visual and Display creativity to differentiate themselves from their competition and this trend is here to stay for a long time. Importance of Atmospherics Enhances the image of the retail outlet and attract new customers Creates a definite Unique Selling Proposition (USP) Facilitates easy store movement and access to merchandise Ensures optimum utilization of retail space Reduces product search time for the customer Reinforces the marketing communication of the outlet and influence the service quality experience Physical Surroundings Fixtures, décor & signage Placing signs Uniforms or similar attires for employees Colour & Lighting Background music Impact of Retail Unit Environment

44

Pleasure ± Displeasure: this Affectual reaction of shopppers in the environment. This entails whether shoppers have perceived the environment as enjoyable or unenjoyable. Arousal: This assesses the extent to which the environment stimulates the shoppers in a particuler environment. Dominance: This concern whethr customer feel dominant or submissive in the service environment. Key Components of Retail atmospherics 1. External atmospherics Retail Store Entrance: this provides prospective customer access to the retail outlet. Store entrance has to fulfil two important criteria- functional and aesthetic. Display Windows: display windows are very common features among retailers dealing in garments and gift items. Marquee / Sign Boards: painted or neon light displaying the store name alone or mixed with trade mark and other informathion at the store front or entrance. Parking Facilities: parking facilities plays a important role in the success of retail firm. 2. Internal atmospherics Store interior: conventional retailers design their store in ways that produce specific emotional effect on shoppers, which in turn influence their shopping behaviour in favour of the retail store. Music: this also influence the customers. Lighting: lighting arrangement adds significant meaning to the entire retail store atmosphare. Signage: visual cues meet most of the communicationneeds of customer in the shopping centers and retail stores. 3. Store layout Grid

45

Free form

Racetrack

46

Storied 4. Visual merchandising Product Line Customer profile Level of competition Components of display Wall Displays Bulk Dump Displays Display Products Supplies & equipment Promotional items Lighting Fixtures Signage

47

FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS

48

FINDINGS Section1: Impulse buying 1. I go shopping to change my mood. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 20 12 10 35

Strongly disagree 23

35

23 20 12

10

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

49

2. I feel a sense of excitement when I make an impulse purchase. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 12 9 14 37

Strongly disagree 28

37

28

12 9

14

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

50

3. I have difficulty controlling my urge to buy when I see a good offer. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 22 12 23 18

Strongly disagree 25

25 22 23 18 12

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

51

4. When I see a good deal, I tend to buy more than that I intended to buy. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 16 18 13 34

Strongly disagree 19

34

16

18 13

19

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

52

Section2: Influence of window display 5. I tend to enter a store when I am attracted by an eyecatching window display. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 15 35 12 18

Strongly disagree 20

35

18 15 12

20

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

53

6. I feel compelled to enter the store when I see an interesting window display. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 16 30 18 22

Strongly disagree 14

30

22 18 16 14

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

54

7. I tend to choose which store to shop in depending on eye-catching window displays. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 24 12 8 30

Strongly disagree 26

30 26 24

12 8

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

55

Section3: Influence of in-store form/mannequin display 8. I get an idea of what I want to buy after looking through in-store form/mannequin displays. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 12 8 28 26

Strongly disagree 26
28 26 26

12 8

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

56

9. When I see clothing featuring a new style or design on display, I tend to buy it. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 24 18 12 24

Strongly disagree 22

24 18 12

24 22

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

57

10. When I see clothing that I like on in-store form/mannequin display, I tend to buy it. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 12 28 12 24

Strongly disagree 24
28 24 24

12

12

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

58

11. I tend to rely on store displays when I make a decision to purchase clothing. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 34 28 12 12

Strongly disagree 14

34 28

12

12

14

Strongly agree

Agree

Nutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

59

Section4: Influence of floor merchandising 12. When I see clothing that catches my eye I tend to try it on without looking through the whole section. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 24 12 8 30

Strongly disagree 26

Strongly disagree

26

Disagree

30

Nutral

8

Agree

12

Strongly agree

24

60

13. When I walk along the isle, I tend to look through the clothing close to me. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 24 18 12 24

Strongly disagree 22

Strongly disagree

22

Disagree

24

Nutral

12

Agree

18

Strongly agree

24

61

14. I tend to try on clothing that catches my eye when I pass by. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 20 12 10 35

Strongly disagree 23

Strongly disagree

23

Disagree

35

Nutral

10

Agree

12

Strongly agree

20

62

Section5: Influence of promotional signage 15. If I see an interesting promotional offer (reduced price, sales promotion, and etc.) on in-store signs, I tend to buy. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 18 12 34 12

Strongly disagree 26

Strongly disagree

26

Disagree

12

Nutral

34

Agree

12

Strongly agree

18

63

16. Sale/clearance signs entice me to look through the clothing. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 24 18 12 24

Strongly disagree 22

Strongly disagree

22

Disagree

24

Nutral

12

Agree

18

Strongly agree

24

64

17. When I see a special promotion sign, I go to look at that clothing. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 20 12 10 35

Strongly disagree 23

Strongly disagree

23

Disagree

35

Nutral

10

Agree

12

Strongly agree

20

65

18. I am more likely to make an unintended purchase if the clothing has a sale or clearance sign. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree 24 12 8 30

Strongly disagree 26

Strongly disagree

26

Disagree

30

Nutral

8

Agree

12

Strongly agree

24

66

Interpritation of data from dealer 1. Do you have a store layout plan
Yes No

30%

70%

67

2. How do you plan the store layout
Category/department Theme Item Supplier

10% 20%

40% 30%

68

3. What is the best way of marketing your business? ( Prioritise in order & frequency)
Group Customer Database External advertising Windows Instore Loyalty Program Front of store Centre activities

9% 9%

9% 19%

18% 18% 9% 9%

69

4. Do you follow any marketing strategy to atract customers
Yes No

40%

60%

70

5. Do you think that the customers are atracted towards display of new arivals
Yes No

30%

70%

71

6. How you plan for your shop layout and display
Self Consulting with experts Pre defined by franchiser

30% 50%

20%

72

CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION

73

CONCLUSION AND INTERPRITATION
Pearson correlation tests were conducted to see the correlations between the independent variable and dependent variables. In addition to the Pearson correlation test, a simple bivariate analysis, a multiple regression analysis was conducted for the hypotheses testing using impulse buying tendency as a dependent variable and each visual merchandising variable as predictors in order to see if there is relationships that were uncovered in a multiple context and to determine the relative importance of the various type of influences on college students¶ impulse buying behavior. Hypothesis 1 was designed to test whether or not there was a significant relationship between college students¶ impulse buying behavior and window display. Hypothesis 2 was constructed to determine whether or not there was a significant relationship between college students¶ impulse buying behavior and in-store form/mannequin display. Hypothesis 3 was prepared to test whether or not there was a significant relationship between college students¶ impulse buying behavior and floor merchandising. Hypothesis 4 was designed to determine whether or not there was a significant relationship between college students¶ impulse buying behavior and any type of in-store promotional signage. Impulse buying is a sudden and immediate purchase with no pre-shopping intentions either to buy the specific product or to fulfill a specific buying task (Rook, 1987). Researchers have attempted to determine if consumers¶ who frequently engage in impulse buying behavior have some common personality traits. This study further investigated some external factors that influence impulse buying behavior. In attempt to examine this relationship, this study primarily tried to explain the relationship between college students¶ impulse buying behavior and various types of visual merchandising. An important finding of this study was that visual merchandising practices certainly influence college students¶ impulse buying behavior. The results proved that there were significant relationships between college students¶ impulse buying behavior and in-store form/mannequin display and promotional signage. Even though the window display and floor merchandising did not appear to significantly lead to college students¶ impulse buying behavior, the results still suggested that these variables and consumers¶ impulse buying behavior are significantly correlated. It can be agreed that all four types of visual merchandising (i.e., window display, in-store

74

form/mannequin display, floor merchandising, and promotional signage) are significantly interrelated and that relationship generates the influences on consumers¶ impulse buying behavior. A significant contribution of the present study is its elucidation of the relationship between impulse buying and visual merchandising, which has been neglected in academic research (Buttle, 1988). Despite the utilization of visual merchandising to improve desirability of products and to encourage consumers¶ buying behavior, a dearth of research exists that investigates its influence on consumer buying behavior. The result of the present study proves that there is a pivotal relationship between college students¶ impulse buying behaviors and two type of visual merchandising practices: in-store form/mannequin display and promotional signage. When consumers are exposed to these visual stimuli, they more likely make purchase decisions on impulse. This suggests that these visual merchandising practices, serving as stimuli that provoke a desire that ultimately motivates a consumer to make an unplanned purchase decision upon entering the store, significantly influence consumers¶ impulse buying behaviors. In-store browsing appears to be positively affected by consumers¶ impulse buying tendency, and in turn, has a positive impact on consumers¶ positive feelings and impulse buying urges (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998). Despite the importance of this relationship, visual merchandising, which was relevant of browsing, has received minimal attention from researchers. This study showed usefulness of visual merchandising in understanding impulse buying.

75

RECOMMENDATION

76

RECOMMENDATION
Impulse buying occurs when a consumer experiences a sudden, often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately, and the impulse to buy is hedonically complex (Rook, 1987). Babin et al (1994) further asserted the hedonic value of shopping suggesting that it reflects shopping¶s potential entertainment and emotional worth. It has been suggested that browsing, or shopping without specific intent, may be more important than the actual acquisition of products and can provide a pleasurable shopping experience (Maclnnis & Price, 1987; Sherry, 1990). Therefore, in addition to exposing consumers to stimuli, such as retail settings, browsing tends to produce positive feelings for many shoppers. These positive feelings, produced by browsing, play a role as positive affects to encourage consumers¶ impulse buying behavior. Retail setting, such as visual merchandising, therefore, can influence consumers¶ impulse buying by providing information or reminding needs as well as producing positive feelings. At the stages of the impulse buying process, retailers can attempt to provoke consumers¶ desire for the products, and the awareness of the products, which can satisfy the desire, can be achieved by browsing and being exposed to the stimuli, such as visual merchandising. The way in which merchandise will eventually be displayed and promoted at the store level is an important consideration in the strategic marketing/merchandising plan. The findings of this study provided information concerning the influence of visual merchandising on consumers¶ impulse buying behavior. The result signified importance of visual merchandising influences on impulse buying behavior. Since in-store form/mannequin display and promotional signage significantly influence college students¶ impulse buying behavior, retailers should continuously reinforce usage of instore.

77

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

78

LIMITATIONS Every study has certain limitations. In my study, also there were certain limitations, which I could not able to solve. 1. The research was conducted in a very small area. 2. Time factor was also important for me. I had only 60 days to complete my research, for which a full-fledged report was insufficient for me. 3. The respondents filled the questionnaire mostly in careless manner, so it was difficult to make them hold for time. 4. The sample size is also very small which represent my research on behavior My study is not recognizable in whole INDIA as well as outside Delhi due to the above limitations and less area coverage.

79

REFERENCES

80

REFERENCES
Books

1. Marketing management: analysis, planning, implementation, and control
by Philip Kotler - Business & Economics - 1988

2. Marketing Management by Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller - Business &
Economics - 2008

3. Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners by Ranjit
Kumar - Social Science - 2005

4. Research methodology by Douglas K. Detterman - Psychology - 1985
Web sources

1. www.managementparadise.com

81

ANNEXURE

82

QUESTIONNAIRE For Customer Section1: Impulse buying 19. I go shopping to change my mood. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 20. I feel a sense of excitement when I make an impulse purchase. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 21. I have difficulty controlling my urge to buy when I see a good offer. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 22. When I see a good deal, I tend to buy more than that I intended to buy. Strongly agree Agree

83

Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree Section2: Influence of window display 23. I tend to enter a store when I am attracted by an eyecatching window display. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 24. I feel compelled to enter the store when I see an interesting window display. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 25. I tend to choose which store to shop in depending on eye-catching window displays. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree Section3: Influence of in-store form/mannequin display

84

26. I get an idea of what I want to buy after looking through in-store form/mannequin displays. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 27. When I see clothing featuring a new style or design on display, I tend to buy it. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 28. When I see clothing that I like on in-store form/mannequin display, I tend to buy it. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 29. I tend to rely on store displays when I make a decision to purchase clothing. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree

85

Strongly disagree Section4: Influence of floor merchandising 30. When I see clothing that catches my eye I tend to try it on without looking through the whole section. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 31. When I walk along the isle, I tend to look through the clothing close to me. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 32. I tend to try on clothing that catches my eye when I pass by. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree Section5: Influence of promotional signage 33. If I see an interesting promotional offer (reduced price, sales promotion, and etc.) on in-store signs, I tend to buy.

86

Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 34. Sale/clearance signs entice me to look through the clothing. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 35. When I see a special promotion sign, I go to look at that clothing. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree 36. I am more likely to make an unintended purchase if the clothing has a sale or clearance sign. Strongly agree Agree Nutral Disagree Strongly disagree

87

For dealers 1. Do you have a store layout plan y Yes y No 2. How do you plan the store layout ‡ Category/department ‡ Theme ‡ Item ‡ Supplier 3. What is the best way of marketing your business? ( Prioritise in order & frequency) ‡ Group ‡ Windows ‡ Front of store ‡ Customer Database ‡ Instore ‡ Centre activities ‡ External advertising ‡ Loyalty Program 4. Do you follow any marketing strategy to atract customers y Yes y No 5. Do you think that the customers are atracted towards display of new arivals y Yes y No 6. How you plan for your shop layout and display y Self y Consulting with experts y Pre defined by franchiser

88